Sәrsenbi, 4 Tamyz 2021
Ruhany janghyru 3688 2 pikir 29 Mamyr, 2018 saghat 08:38

Nәubet jyldaryndaghy bir әuletting tarihy

Qarsaqpay men Qaraózek. Biri – Qyr, ekinshisi – Syr. Noghaylyq kezenindegi naqyshpen aitsaq, biri – Qyrym, ekinshisi – Syrym. Ekeui de bizding әuletting tarihyna tikeley qatysy bar ólke. Áuletting qys qystauy – Qaraózek, jaz jaylauy – Qarsaqpay-Úlytau, shyqqan taypasy – Taraqty, onyng ishinde Jәshi tarmaghy.

Qaraózek – Syrdariya ózenining Qyzylorda shaharynan 20-25 shaqyrym shyqqannan keyingi tómengi aghysynda ong jaghalaudan qyrgha qaray bólinip shyghady da, 100-den asa shaqyrymday dariyamen japsarlasa aghyp baryp, Qarmaqshy kentine jaqyndaghan tústa qayta qosylatyn Syrdyng bir salasy. Halyq «ózek» dep atap ketken ózen men dariya ortasy ýlken qoltyq qúrap, tabighy túrghydan mal baghaugha ynghayly qonys retinde qazaqqa qadirli bolghan.

Mening atam Ábsadyqtyng әkesi Baraq túsynda әulet Qarsaqpay manyna túraqtap, Nayman júrtymen qonystas bolady. Onyng sebebi mynada eken: Baraq atamyz Nayman elindegi bir bay kisining jalghyz qyzyna ýilenedi. Qayyn atasy qyzynyng qonystan alystap ketuin qalamay, kýieu balasyna Qyrda birge kóship-qonyp jýrudi ótinedi. Atamyz Baraq qayyn atasynyng ótinishin jerge tastamay,  Qyrda-Qarsaqpayda qalady. Sóitip, Nayman júrtymen birge elding jaylauy etip Úlytaudy, qystauy etip Sarysu manyn jaylaydy. Erterekte Qarsaqpaydyng manynda «Baraq kóni» degen jer bar dep estiytinbiz. Qazir ony biletin adamdar Jezqazghan manynda qaldy ma, qalmady ma, beyhabarmyz. Al әuletting qolyndaghy malyn sauda-sattyqa salatyn, kerek-jaraghyn alatyn bazary – Esil boyyndaghy Atbasar.

Birinshi sheginis. Kókem Ábsadyq aitatyn: «Qarsaqpayda jaz jaylap, kýz bolar uaqytta Atbasardaghy bazargha mal aidap baryp, sauda-sattyq jasaytynbyz. Ýlkender jaghy iri maldy, jasóspirimder qoy-toqty aidaytyn edik. 15-16 jasar kezim. Bazargha mal aidaghan kisilerge qosyldym. Jazdyng sonyna qaray shyqqanbyz. Miday jazyq dalanyng ýstinde maldy jaya otyryp, Atbasardy betke alyp kete bardyq. Bir kýni aldymyzdan pәueske arba kórindi. Bizdi basqaryp kele jatqan kisi oqtay ozyp baryp pәueskege jolyqty. Sәlden keyin keyin qaytyp kelip: «Osy jerde kidiremiz. Myna pәueskede qazaqtyng qadirli azamaty Ahan-Ahmet Baytúrsynúly Orynborgha qaray jol tartyp barady eken. Sol kisige qonaghasy beremiz»,- dedi. Dereu toqtap, bir semiz toqtyny soyyp, qonaqasy dayyndadyq. As piskenshe Ahang biraz әngime aitty. Balamyz ghoy kóp nәrse este qalmapty. Bir esimde qalghany onyng qazaqtyng densaulyghyna qatysty aitylghan sózi. Ahannyn: «Taza auada, tabighat ayasynda jýrip mal baqqan qazaqtyng densaulyghy myqty bolugha tiyis. Onyng basty sebebi qazaq maldyng etin jeydi, mal dalada jayylyp sýigen shóbin jeydi. Al dýniyedegi dәri-dәrmekting barlyghy shópten jasalady»,- degen sózi qúlaghymda qalypty...

Ábsadyqtyng kindiginen taraghan on balanyng birining esimi – Ahmet. Biz, osy estelikting avtory, Ábsadyq balasy Ahmetten taraymyz. Qazirgi kýni atamyz búl esimdi balasyna sol Ahannyng qúrmetine qoysa kerek dep boljaymyz. Biraq ol turaly ózi eshqashan aitqan emes. Bәlkim, aitugha qoryqqan shyghar. Sebebi «halyq jauy» atanghan Ahannyng atyn atau kenes dәuirinde kim-kimge bolsa da onay bolmaghany belgili. Onyng ýstine ózining kәmpeskege ilingeni, kolhozgha kirmey sayaq jýrgeni bar. Qahary qatty ýkimetten shyn mәninde qaymyqsa kerek.

Álqissa, Baraq momyn, biraq sharuagha pysyq, músylmanshyldyqqa berik kisi bolghan. Arghy atamyzdyng qatty ashulanghanda aitatyn eng zildi dauysy «Jau alghyrlar-ay!» degen sóz eken. Ózining kindiginen taraghan bes balany manyna ýiirip, enshi bermey, janynda ústaghan. Sol kisiden taraghan dәstýrdi әulet kýni keshege deyin ústanyp keldi. Baraqtan Ábnazar, Ábsadyq, Shahmardan (Shәkman), Meshitbay, Qonysbay degen bes úl jәne birneshe qyz dýniyege keledi. Sol bes úl, әkeleri sekildi, aldy Qyrda jýrgende, sony Syrgha kelgende naghashy júrty Nayman qyz alyp, qósip-ónedi. Al bes úldan tughan úrpaqtar Syr boyyn qonystaghan Kishi jýzding rularynan, Arghyn, Qypshaqtardan qyz alady. Qúdanyng qúdireti, Nayman júrtymen sýiek janghyrtu Ábsadyqtyng shóberesi túsynda boldy. 2017 jyly bizding balamyz Abay týp naghashylarymyz Nayman júrtynan qyz alyp, bayaghy ata-babalarymyz bastaghan bastauymyzgha qayta oraldyq. Búghan әulet ýlkenderi shýkirshilik aityp, jaqsylyqtyng nyshany dep qabyldady.

Baraq әuletining Syrgha kelui - bizding atamyz Ábsadyqtyng jigit shaghy túsynda, «ýlken dýrbelen» bastalghan 1917 jyldardan keyin, shamamen 1921-22 jyldary bolghan oqigha. 1917 jylghy qazan tónkerisinen keyin Qarsaqpaydaghy mys kenderine bolishevikter biyligi ornap, aghylshyndar qojayyndyq etetin mys keni tәrkilenip, ýkimetke ótedi. Endigi kezek jekening qolyndaghy mal-mýlikke keledi degen sóz keuley bastaydy. El arasyna bay-kedey degen jik týsip, baydyng malyn kedeyge alyp beredi degen sybys shyghady. Bay-quatty kisilerding boyyn ýrey jaylaydy. Bizding atamyz Ábsadyq aghayyndarymen aqyldasa kele qoldaryndaghy biraz maldy saqtau ýshin «Syr boyynda malgha tiyisu degen joq eken» degen «úzynqúlaqqa» senip, ataqonys Qaraózekkke kóshudi úigharady. Onyng ýstine әkeleri nauqastanyp, tósek tartyp jatyp qalady. Nauqas Baraqty týiege tendep alyp, bes aghayyn mal-mýlikterimen Syrgha qaray bet alady. Aryp-arshyp Syrdyng etegine jetken kezde Baraq dýniyeden ótedi. Ony arulap sol mandaghy bir tóbening basyna jerleydi. Osylaysha, qara kýzding suyghynda kósh ataqonys-Qaraózekke qúlaydy.

Qaraózekke birtalay jylqy, týie syndy iri maldarymen kelgen kósh bir-eki jylda mal basy tez kóbeyip, qora-qora qoyy, ýiir-ýiir jylqysy, týieleri bar bay-dәuletti kisiler qataryna qosylady. Biraq búl kýn úzaqqa sozylmaydy. 1928 jyl jetip, újymdastyru nauqany men bay-qúlaqtardyng malyn kәmpeskeleu bastalady. Tyqyrdyng tayanghanyn sezgen Baraq balalary «aqyry kýshpen tartyp alady» dep qoldaghy maldy soya bastaydy. Búl turaly atamyz Ábsadyq bylay deytin: «Kýnde iri maldy soyamyz. Jana soyylyp jatqan maldyng etinen әielder dereu quyrdyq jasaydy, keshkilik kól-kósir et asylady. Bir qauym bolyp otyryp jeymiz. Sonda bir bayqaghanym: qansha et asylsa da, dastarhan basyndaghy astau tyqyrlap tausylyp qalatyn. «Astaudan as artylmaytyny nesi eken? Kýnde mal soyyp, kýnde et asyp jatyrmyz ghoy. Nege toymaymyz?» dep oilanatynmyn. Sóitsem, ol asharshylyqtyng belgisi eken. Kóp úzamay qatty asharshylyqqa úshyradyq».

Ekinshi sheginis. Ábsadyq atam týski nemese keshki as dastarhan basyndaghylargha tolyq jetip, auqat artylyp qalyp jatsa quanatyn. Al tabaq tyqyrlap tausylyp qalsa, «Asty nege molynan istmedinder» dep keyip otyratyn. Sóitsek, asharshylyqtyng aldynda bolghan sol qúbylys qatty esinde qalyp, as jetinkiremey qalghandy jaman yrymgha balaydy eken ghoy. Búghan qosa ol kisi dastarhan basynda otyryp tamaq ishuge as qatty mәn beretin: syrtta әlde bir sharualarymen jýrgen otbasynyng mýsheleri bolmasa, ýy ishindegi kisiler (ýlkender, bala-shaghalar) tolyq jinalmay, as-su ishu bastalmaydy jәne as ishilip jatqanda erte túryp ketuge bolmaydy. Búl shamasy, atamyzdyng  «Óle jeseng de, bóle je», «Astyng berekesi - birlese jegende degen tәmsilge beriktigi bolsa kerek.

Álqissa, enshisi bólinbegen Baraq balalaryna konfiskasiya qúryghy qatty tiyip, mal-mýlikter ýkimet tarapynan tәrkilenedi. Negizgi kýnkórisi mal sharuashylyghy bolghan júrt ә degennen abdyrap qalady. Isher as, kýnkóris uayym bolady. Aqyry onyng arty 1931-32 jyldardaghy asharshylyqqa úlasady. Qoldaghy birer-jarym mal tausylghan son, Baraq balalary Qaraózek manyndaghy kólderden qys kýnderi kelip oiyq oiyp, balyq aulaytyn orystardyng qosynyna jaldanady. Qazaqtardyng qolynan balyq aulau tek qys aiynda ghana mýmkin bolghan. Basqa mezgilde balyq aulau ýshin qúral-saymannyng joqtyghy - qol baylau. Qaraózek manyndaghy kólderden sýimenning kýshimen balyq aulau әrkimning qolynan kele bermegen. Sebebi ash-jalanash adamda qanday kýsh-quat bolsyn?

Bizding atalarymyz qiyn-qystau shaqta aghayynshyldyqtan aiyrylmay, sol auyr júmysqa shydap, kól basyna qos tigip, sýimenin sýiretip balyq aulaydy. Aulanghan balyqtar arbagha, shanagha jýktelip, Qaraózek stansiyasynan vagongha tiyeledi. Onyng qay jaqqa ketip jatqany belgisiz. Atam Ábsadyq sol bir kýnderdi eske alyp: "Qaraózek manyndaghy kólderinde balyqtar kóp әri semiz. Kólding basyna qos tigip, sýimenmen oiyq oiyp, aulanghan balyqtardy tóbe-tóbe etip ýie beremiz. Odan ony arba nemese shanagha tiyep, stansiyagha aparamyz. Jeytinimiz – balyq. Balyq mayynyng quaty kýshti bolady eken. Tonbaymyz. Syrty qalyng әri tyghyz qamyspen qaptalghan qos ishinde týneymiz. Týnde balyq mayy denemizdi qyzdyryp, kórpeden ayaghymyzdy shygharyp jatatyn edik",- dep otyratyn.

Ýshinshi sheginis. Atam Ábsadyq 1978 jylgha deyin Qyzylorda gidrouzelining salynuyna baylanysty payda bolghan Tasbóget qystaghynan 7 shaqyrymday jerdegi Tasaryq degen mekende jeke mal sharuashylyghymen ainalysyp keldi. Asharshylyqtan keyin de atamyzgha mal bitken. Biraq ony soghys jyldary, voenkomnyng aituymen, maydangha samolet jasau ýshin ýkimetke ótkizgen (ekinshi kәmpeske dep eseptey beriniz). Ótkizgen maldarynyng ornyna ýkimet zaem bergen. Tasaryqta jaz jaylau etip Syrdariya ózenining bir alqabyn jaylap, qystauy retinde sol jaylaudan 1,5-2  shaqyrymdaghy qyr ýstindegi qam kesekten salynghan ýi-jaydy, qora-qopsyny qystau etip otyrdy. Qazaqta «Asharshylyqta jegen qúiqanyng dәmi ketpes» degen sóz bar emes pe? Biraq atamyz ózin asharshylyqtan alyp qalghan balyqqa asa jaqyn bolmady. Irgedegi Syrdariyanyng balyghyna selsoqtyq tanytty. Dariya-kólden ústap alyp kelgen balyqty da onsha jemeytin. Bәlkim, sol bir asharshylyq kezinde birynghay balyq jegennen «shyghyp ketse» kerek.

Álqissa, kóktem shyqqan song janaghy orystar qúrghan qosyn tarap, búlardy asharshylyq taghy «qyspaqqa alady». Endi Baraq balalary Qyzylorda shaharynda ashylghan kirpish zauytqa otyn aparsa, aqysyna tamaq, azyq-týlik beredi degendi estip, Qaraózekten 20-25 shaqyrym jerdegi qalagha qaray jyljidy. Qalanyng irgesindegi sekseuili, jynghyly qalyng jerge kelip, qos tigip, kirpish zauytqa otyn dayyndaydy. Aghayyndylardyng qara júmysqa shydamdylary–Ábsadyq, Shәkman, Meshitbay birynghay otyn dayyndap, densaulyghynda dimkәstyq bar Ábnazar men kýshi az, jas Qonysbay ony zauytqa tasyp túrady. Zauyt otyngha alghashqyda qolma-qol azyq-týlik, keyin, tipti, aqsha da bere bastaydy. Osylaysha, bes aghayyndy bauyrlardyng tize qosyp, jantalasa tirlik etuining arqasynda әuletting bas kóterer bar azamattary qazaqty qynaday qyrghan ashtyqtan aman qalady.

«Altyn shyqqan jerdi belden qaz» degendey, atalarymyz asharshylyqtan aman alyp qalghan Qyzylorda shaharynyng manayyn meken etip qalady. Osy jerde ósip-ónedi. Qazirgi tanda sol bes shaldan taraghan 100 asa úrpaqtyng deni Qyzylorda manynda túrady. II-shi  german-orys soghysyna (Ábsadyq atamyz osylay ataytyn) bes aghayyndynyng ýsheui-Shәkman, Meshitbay, Qonysbay attanady. Qonysbay Baraqúly habar-osharsyz ketip, Shәkman men Meshitbay jaralanyp, elge oralady. Soghys jyldary men onyng keyingi әulet tarihy ol bir bólek, kórgenderding kózi bar, deregi mol әngime...

Ábsadyq Almasbek Ahmetúly, Qostanay qalasy

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