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Alashorda 10989 25 pikir 18 Sәuir, 2019 saghat 13:05

«Diuany lúghat at Týrik» – orys iydeologiyasymen әzirlengen jalghan dýnie

Resey tarihshylary Mahmud Qashqariydi Qarahanid memleketin biylegen dinastiya ókili dep kórsetedi. «Diuany lúghat at Týrik» kitabynyng bir ghana núsqasy bar, ol 1916 nemese 1917 jyly Stambuldyng bazarynan tabylypty. Oghan deyin eshkimge belgisiz bolghan. Mahmud Qashqary óz enbegin músylmandar patshasy Halifke syy retinde tartu ýshin jazghanyn aitady. Sóite túra «Bәrinen joghary Alla taghdyrdyng shamshyraghyn týrik shoqjúldyzdaryna tartty. Jeti qat gharysh әlemin olardyng elin ainala qozghalugha búiyrdy. Olardy týrikter dep atap, qúdirettilik berdi. Olardy zamanalardyng әmirshisi etip, tandauly halyq qylyp, basqaru biyligin berdi. Basqa adamdardan joghary qoyyp, aqiqatqa baghyttady. Olargha baratyn eng jaqsy jol – qúlaqty arbaytyn jәne jýrekti terbeytin óz tilderinde (týrki tilderinde) sóileu» dep jazady.

Músylman ghalymynyng búlay jazuy esh mýmkin emes. Óitkeni, músylman halyqtarynyng birin ózgelerinen biyik etip maqtau ýlken kýnәgha batyratynyn músylman ghalymy jaqsy biluge tiyis. Onyng ýstine, búl joldar – asa tәkapparlyq pen ótirikke toly. Al jýreginde az ghana tәkapparlyghy bargha júmaq haram ekenin jәne ótirik sóileu kýnә ekenin músylman ghalymy Mahmud Qashqary qalay bilmeydi? Onyng osynday jazbasy ýshin ózge músylman ghalymdary arasynda abyroydan airylatynyn jәne Halif basyn alatynyn týsinbeui de aqylgha simaydy.

Mahmud Qashqary – HI ghasyrda ómir sýrgen, al týrki atauly halyq HI ghasyrgha deyin tarih sahynasynda eleusiz boldy. Olardyng jauyngerlik danqy sonau Týrki qaghanatynan bastap VIII ghasyrdaghy Týrgesh qaghanaty joyylghangha deyin oryn alghany ras. Alayda, VIII-HI ghasyrlar aralyghynda olar tolyq músylmandyq qabyldap, músylman halifatynyng derbes bir tynysh aimaghyna ainaldy. Olardyng músylmandyq qabyldamaghan bóligi HI ghasyrda qazirgi Mangholiya aumaghynda saqtalghanyn Ibn әl Asir jazady. Arab tarihshysynyng dereginshe, olardyng tarapynan músylman әlemine HII ghasyrgha deyin eshqanday jaugershilik joryqtar oryn almaghan.

Tek HII ghasyrdyng basynda Qúz han As-Shyng bastaghan sol músylman emes qazaqtar Orta Aziya men qazirgi qazaq dalasyna jol salghan. Oghan deyin HI ghasyrda Horezmshah әuleti biyligin tartyp alghan Týrki Seldjuk (Tórgi asyljik) dinastiyasy bastaghan týrki-guzy eli (týrki-qazaqtar) qazirgi Týrkiya aimaghyna bosyp baryp ornyghyp, onda óz Beylikterin ornatty. Odan keyin HIII ghasyrda týrki-qazaq Shynghyshan joryghy bastaldy. Osy oqighalar jauynger týrkilerding tarih sahynasynan jarq etip qayta kóringen danqty jyldaryn aighaqtaydy. Alayda, Mahmud Qashqary ómir sýrgen HI ghasyrgha  deyingi ýsh ghasyrda týrkilerding әskery danqyn sonsha asyra maqtaytynday eleuli oqighalar bolghan joq. Týrki Seldjukter Beylikteride músylman halifatynyng qúramdas bir bóligi bolyp tanyldy, Týrki Seldjuk biyleushileride Halif biyligin moyyndaghany mәlim. Halifat әmirshisi týrik emes arap, Mahmud Qashqariyding ózi osy enbegin sol Halifke syy retinde dayyndaghanyn aitady. Sonda Mahmud Qashqariyding  «Bәrinen joghary Alla taghdyrdyng shamshyraghyn týrik shoqjúldyzdaryna tartty. Jeti qat gharysh әlemin olardyng elin ainala qozghalugha búiyrdy. Olardy týrikter dep atap, qúdirettilik berdi. Olardy zamanalardyng әmirshisi etip, tandauly halyq qylyp, basqaru biyligin berdi. Basqa adamdardan joghary qoyyp, aqiqatqa baghyttady» dep jazuyna ne sebep? Múnday joldardy HII ghasyrda Orta Aziyany basyp alghan týrki Qúz han As-Shyng men Tatar hany joryqtarynan nemese HIII ghasyrdaghy Shyn-As han (Shynghyshan) joryghy men XV ghasyrdan bastap jarty әlemdi biylegen Osman halifatynan habary bar adam jazsa, týsinuge bolar edi. Sondyqtan búl jazba HI ghasyrdaghy Mahmud Qashqarigha emes, onyng atynan ótirik әzirlegen HIH ghasyrdyng sonyndaghy orys tarihshylaryna tiyesili deu oryndy.

Músylman halyqtar keyinge deyin últyn emes, dinin birinshi oryngha qoyyp keldi. Sondyqtan HI ghasyrda týrki tilderi dialektilerin zertteuge  qajettilik bolghany da senimsizdik tudyrady. Dialektologiya ghylymy tek XIX ghasyr basynda payda bolypty, Mahmud Qashqary jazbasyda sol ghasyrda Mәskeude dayyndalghan bolar.

Sonymen qatar Mahmud Qashqariyding ómirge degen kózqarasy ony músylmannan góri hristiangha jaqyn etip kórsetedi. Onyn: «Zattary men dýniyesi adamnyng jauy, ...barlyq erkekter dýniyesi sebepti búzylghan, ...Qúdaydy, balalaryn, tuystaryn oilamay dýniyege qúnyghudan erkekter barlyghyn túnshyqtyrugha úmtylady» degen sózderi sonyng aighaghy. Islam dini baylyqty kýnә nemese músylmannyng jauy dep tanymaydy, kerisinshe músylmannyng kedey bolghannan góri bay bolghany ortasyna paydaly ekeni aitylady. Dýniye-mýlikti jau kórip, odan bezinip, monah bolugha shaqyratyn – hristian dini. Mahmud Qashqary músylman esten shygharmauy tiyistiler qataryna Qúdaymen qatar, balalar men tuystardy qoyady, әielderdi aitpaydy. Múnday kózqaras hristiyangha jaqyn. Islam dininde Allagha degen qúlshylyq erkek pen әielge ortaq mindet, olardyng ekeuide eng әueli Allany esten shygharmauy tiyis, al bala-shagha men dýniye-mýlikting qamy Allany esten shygharugha sebep boluy mýmkin ekeni eskertiledi. Islam dininde er men әielding әrqaysyna layyq óz oryndary bar, «erkekterding eng jaqsylary әielderine meyirimdi bolghandary» delinedi. Al HIH ghasyrgha deyin «Áyel – adam ba?» dep daulasumen kelgen hristiandar uaghyzynda әielder jayy úmyt qaluy zandylyq. Árbir músylman ghalym Alla jayly, din jayly sóz qozghaghanda Múhammed Payghambardyng (s.gh.s.) hadisterin qoldanatyny belgili. Al Mahmud Qashqariyding osy kórsetilgen sózderinde onday dәstýrding izide joq. Jazbadaghy osy joldar Mahmud Qashqary degen músylman ghalymy ómirde bolmaghanyn, atalghan enbekti evrey-hristiandyq kózqarastaghy adamdar dayyndaghanyn anyq bayqatady.

Mahmud Qashqari: «Alla Taghalanyng «Mening shyghysta týrkiler degen әskerim bar, qaharyma úshyraghan halyqty solardyng shabuylyna úshyratamyn» dep aitqany Múhammed Payghambardyng (s.gh.s) hadiysinde bar» dep jazghan eken. Onday sahih (dostovernyi) hadis nemese hasan (horoshiy) hadis joghy ghalymdargha mәlim. Sonymen qatar Payghambarymyzdyng (s.gh.s) «Kimde-kim men aitpaghan sózdi aitty dese, onda ol ózin tozaq otyna dayynday bersin» degen maghynadaghy hadiysi bary barsha músylmangha belgili. Sondyqtan Mahmud Qashqary degen músylman ghalymnyng Payghambarymyz (s.gh.s) aitpaghan sózdi aitty deui esh aqylgha syimaydy. Búl fakti de «Diuany lúghat at Týrik» jazbasyn dayyndaghandar músylman dýniyesin tereng týsinbeytin ózge din ókilderi ekenin aighaqtaydy.  

Europalyq ghalymdar Mahmud Qashqariyding enbekterin zertteuge túratyn dýnie dep qaramaghan. Kerisinshe bolsa, europalyq ghalymdar tarapynan audarylyp, zerttelgenin jәne tiyisti baghasyn alghanyn kóretin edik. Ony sonsha maqtap jarnamalaytyndar – Resey ghalymdary men solardyng yqpalynan shygha almaytyn týrki tildi últtar oqymystylary.

Mahmud Qashqari: «Qyrghyz, úighyr, qypshaq, yagma, chigiyl, oghyz, tuhsi, ugrak, jaruk últtarynda týrkilik til dialektileri bar» dep jazady. Sondyqtan ol qyrghyz ben úighyrgha únaytyny týsinikti. Al olardyng qatarynda qazaq tili joq. Óitkeni, orys ghalymdary jazghan tarih solay degizgen. Búl derekter Mahmud Qashqary jazbasynyng kýmәndi ekenin rastaydy. Ony reseylik iyezuidter dayyndatqan, sodan song Týrkiya arqyly jaryqqa shyghartqan desek, әste qatelespeymiz. Orystar jalghan jazbalary Irannan jәne Orta Aziyadan tabyla berui kýdik tudyratyndyqtan, olardyng qataryna Týrkiyany da qosqan. Ol enbekti týrkitildi últtardyng eng sany moly – qazaqtar pen ózbekter H ghasyrda bolmaghanyn dәleldeu ýshin әzirlegen, osy mindetin әli de atqaryp keledi.

Ataqty parsy oqymystysy Ferdausy H ghasyrda qazaq halqynyng jer betinde bolghanyn jazghan. Osy derekti Mahmud Qashqari, Ibn Fadlan, Ál Istahry jazbalary arqyly joq qylugha tyrysqan reseylik iyezuidterding ailakerliginde sóz joq. Alayda, olar ózgerte almaghan Ál Masudi, Ibn әl Asiyr, Ibn Batuta, Babur name, Kodeks Kumanikus jazbalary qazaqtyng erteden bar ekenin anyq dәleldeydi. Sondyqtan reseylik tarihshylar atalghan jazbalardy resmy tarihy tizilimge engizbegen, elemeuge, nazargha almaugha әli tyrysyp keledi.

Bekjan Ádenúly

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