Beysenbi, 7 Shilde 2022
Janalyqtar 3619 0 pikir 20 Aqpan, 2012 saghat 04:03

Internet-konferensiya: Dosay Kenjetayúly (Basy)

Internet-konferensiyamyzdyng qúrmetti qonaghy Dosay Kenjetayúlyna qoyylyp jatqan saualdardyng deni din taqyrybyn qúraydy. Ózi de osy mazmúndaghy saualdargha bilimi kemel ghalym oqyrman qauymnyng bilgisi keletin qanday mәselege bolsa da yjdaghatpen jauap berip otyr.

"Abay-aqparat"

- Assalaumaghaleykum, Doseke! Sizding "sopylar isi" kezinde Ismatulla Maqsúmdy qorghaugha qatysqanynyzdan habardarmyz. Tapsyryspen jasalghan jala ekeni aiqyn kórinip túrsa da búl isti birjaqty qarap, Qazaqstandaghy sopylyqty janghyrtushylardy 12-14 jylgha sottap ta jiberdi. Súrayyn degenim, Siz Qauipsizdik Kenesining mýshesi retinde osy jaydy Qauipsizdik Kenesining kýn tәrtibine shyghara alasyz ba?

Qúqyqtanushy.

 - Men qauipsizdik kenesining mýshesi emespin.  Onyng ýstine «sopylar isi» qazir tek Qazaqstanda emes, әlemge jariya qúbylys bolyp túr. Sottyng ýkimi negizsiz qiyanatqa toly ekendigi qoghamgha belgili boldy. Búl dinning sayasilanghanynyng kórinisi. Sot isine sarapshy retinde resmy shaqyrtu alghan kezimde osy jaghdaygha kuә boldym. Búl mәsele memleketting qauipsizdigine de últtyng bolashaghyna da alandatushylyq tughyzyp otyr. Sondyqtan búl qúbylys onsyzda «kýn tәrtibinde» túr dep oilaymyn.

Internet-konferensiyamyzdyng qúrmetti qonaghy Dosay Kenjetayúlyna qoyylyp jatqan saualdardyng deni din taqyrybyn qúraydy. Ózi de osy mazmúndaghy saualdargha bilimi kemel ghalym oqyrman qauymnyng bilgisi keletin qanday mәselege bolsa da yjdaghatpen jauap berip otyr.

"Abay-aqparat"

- Assalaumaghaleykum, Doseke! Sizding "sopylar isi" kezinde Ismatulla Maqsúmdy qorghaugha qatysqanynyzdan habardarmyz. Tapsyryspen jasalghan jala ekeni aiqyn kórinip túrsa da búl isti birjaqty qarap, Qazaqstandaghy sopylyqty janghyrtushylardy 12-14 jylgha sottap ta jiberdi. Súrayyn degenim, Siz Qauipsizdik Kenesining mýshesi retinde osy jaydy Qauipsizdik Kenesining kýn tәrtibine shyghara alasyz ba?

Qúqyqtanushy.

 - Men qauipsizdik kenesining mýshesi emespin.  Onyng ýstine «sopylar isi» qazir tek Qazaqstanda emes, әlemge jariya qúbylys bolyp túr. Sottyng ýkimi negizsiz qiyanatqa toly ekendigi qoghamgha belgili boldy. Búl dinning sayasilanghanynyng kórinisi. Sot isine sarapshy retinde resmy shaqyrtu alghan kezimde osy jaghdaygha kuә boldym. Búl mәsele memleketting qauipsizdigine de últtyng bolashaghyna da alandatushylyq tughyzyp otyr. Sondyqtan búl qúbylys onsyzda «kýn tәrtibinde» túr dep oilaymyn.

- "Sopylyqtyng nege mindetti týrde islammen baylanystyrylatyny týsiniksiz. Sopylyq búrynghy dәstýrli dýniyeden jetken kóne, qasiyetti ilim. Býginde keyin payda bolghan daghdylar men ghúryptar ózderin dәstýr qylyp kórsetkisi keledi. Biraq shyndyghynda olay emes. Eng songhy zertteulerge qaraghanda dәstýr osydan 11500 jyl búryn joyylghan. Dәstýrding (biz búl jerde әlmisaqtyq dәstýrdi aityp otyrmyz) keybir qaldyqtaryn Indiyada saqtalyp otyrghan kastalyq jýieden izdeuge bolady",- deydi sizding aldynyzda ghana osy konferensiyanyng qonaghy bolghan Talasbek Ásemqúlov. Al, siz ne deysiz?.

- Sopylyq fenomeni islam topyraghynda payda boldy. Onyng negizi Qúran men Sunna. Sopylyq filosofiyasy «әlmisaqtyq dәstýrdi» emes, Qúrandaghy «әl misaq» qúbylysyn ózine túghyr etip alghan, sonyng negizinde ózining ústanymy men iydeyasyn anyqtaghan. Bylaysha aitatyn bolsaq, Qúranda, Alla «ruhtardan senderding jaratushylaryng kim?» dep súraydy. Olar da «Jaratushymyz Sensin» dep jauap beredi. Osy Alla men ruhtar arasyndaghy dialogty,  anttasudy, misaq dep ataydy. Sondyqtan qazaqtargha «Qashannan beri músylmansyn», - dep súraghanda «әlmisaqtan beri músylmanmyn» dep jauap beretin bolghan.

Jogharydaghy avtordyng pikiri keshegi oriyentalisterding tújyrymdamasynyng kóshirmesi siyaqty kórinip túr. Qysqasy oriyentalisterding bir toby sopylyqtyng tegin Ýndi dinderi men diny filosofiyalarynan izdeydi. Mysaly, Vahdat-y vujud doktrinasy men "Veda" mektebi arasynda úqsastyqtar, Mәulana ólenderi men "Gita Govinda" arasynda, V.Djones Ibrahim bin Athamnyng ómirimen Buddanyng ómiri arasynda ortaqtyqtar tapqan Kremer men Rozan "Upanishatqa" sopylyq oilaudy jaqyndastyrghan Toluk pen Gorten sopylyqtaghy ýndilik "tabighatty" tapqandar keng maghynada ózderining jeke tújyrymyna sýienedi. Dәlirek aitqanda sopylyq oilau men ýndi iydeyalary arasynda jasaghan Biruniyding keybir enbekterindegi búrynghy analogiyagha negizdeledi. Ýndi oilau jýiesindegi patankaly jәne yoga-sutra sopylyqqa әser ete almaydy. Óitkeni, búl aghym sopylyqtan, tarihy túrghydan Hallaj ben Bayazid ómir sýrgen ghasyrlardan keyin payda bolghan. Tarihy túrghydan keyin payda bolghan aghym, ózinen búrynghy sopylyqqa qalay negiz bola alady?

Taghy bir top zertteushiler, Biruniyding "sufi" sózining grek tilindegi "sofos" sózinen shyghuy yqtimal" degen sózin negizge alyp, sopylyqtaghy negizgi oilau jýiesining pifagorshyldyq, platonshylyq jәne neoplatonshyldyq filosofiyasyndaghy úqsastyqtargha sýiene otyryp, sopylyqtyng tegin grek filosofiyasy arqyly týsindiruge tyrysqan. Mysaly, M.A.Ubisini, Gammer, E.Renan, Nikolison, Vensinsk jәne t.b. oriyentalisterdi osy topqa jatqyzugha bolady.

Negizinen sopylyqtyng shyghu tegin әrtýrli din jәne filosofiyalyq qalyptarmen anyqtaghysy kelgenderding pikirleri ózara qayshylyqqa toly. Nikolison sopylyqtyng tegin birde ýndi filosofiyasyna, birde hristian dinine aparyp tireydi. Renan da birde iran, birde grek filosofiyasyna negizdeydi. Ózderi ózderine qayshy kelip otyrady. Sonymen qatar búl toptaghylar birining iydeyasyn biri eshqashan qabyldamaydy. Kerisinshe birin biri joqqa shygharady.

Batys oriyentalisterining sopylyqty týsine almauyn tabighy qabyldauymyz kerek. Óitkeni sopylyq islamgha tәn qúbylys. Eger sopylyqtyng negizi men tegi jaghynan degdarlyq pen taqualyqtan, Qúran men payghambardyng diny tirshiliginen shyqqandyghyn qabyldaytyn bolsaq, onyng tegin nege basqa bir mәdeniyetterden, dinderden izdeuimiz kerek. Batys zertteushileri Margulio men A.Massigneon, Trimingem, Korbiyn, Kasper, Gardet jәne t.b. oriyentalister sopylyqtyng týp-tamyrynyng islamda ekendigin endi týsine bastady. Mysaly, kezinde sopylyqty hristiandyq arqyly týsindirgen Trimingem "Islamdaghy sopylyq tariqattar" atty enbeginde sopylyqty islamnyng ózeginen shyqqan tabighy damu qúbylysy retinde kórsetedi. Qúran Hz. Payghambardy paryz bolghan ghibadattan tys, týnde namaz oqugha, Allany eske alugha (zikr), Qúran oqugha shaqyrady [Ayattardy oqyp kóriniz: 17/7;52/48-49;76/26;]. Osy ayattar negizinde "tahajjud" namazy músylmandardy degdarlyq pen taqualyqqa iytermeledi, Payghambar da oraza paryzynan tys oraza ústaghan. Oraza ailarynyng ortasy, basy, sonynda "ghargha" kirgen. Hira tauyna, ýngirge baryp tereng oigha, zikirge týsetin bolghan. Payghambar jeke, әri qoghammen birge búl ghibadattar men ritualdardy oryndaghan. Biraq, tarihy ýderiste, sopylyq әr týrli uaqyt pen kenistikterde, keybir qajettilikterdi jauaptandyra otyryp, negizgi ózegine ziyan kelmeytindey damu joldarynan ótti.

Degenmen din qúbylysynyng tabighatyna say sopylyq ta uaqyt pen kenistikke qaray әrbir últtyq mәdeniyetterding izderin óz boyynda tasymaldauy yqtimal. Mysaly, Qoja Ahmet Iasauy tariqatynda dәstýrli týrkilik dýniyetanymdyq qabattardyng izderi bar. Sopylyqqa Farabi, Ibn Arabi, Suhrauardy siyaqty oishyldar arqyly neoplatondyq elementter de kirgen. Biraq, búl sopylyqtyng islam dininen shyqqandyghyna eshqanday da núqsan keltirmeydi.

- Doseke, Abay.kzny bireuler sopylardyng sayty desedi. Biraq, Abay.kz barlyq diny aghymdargha ashyq sayt siyaqty. Oghan sayttyng arhiyvindegi maqalalar men súhbattardy mysal ete alamyn. Sizdinshe, din talasyn kólenkede ústaghan dúrys pa, әlde, Abay.kz siyaqty ashyq talqygha salghan dúrys pa?

- Meninshe din talasy eki basqa din arasynda jýredi. Bizde mysaly missionerler ishimizden ózderine jaqtas tabu ýshin jan talasyp jatyr. Al qazaqtar birigip, osynday qiytúrqy diyversiyagha qarsy túrudyng ornyna, ózara BAQ-ta, diny tanymda tartysyp, potensiyalymyzdy sarp etip otyrmyz. Al sayttaghy pikirtalas turaly aitatyn bolsaq, barlyghy islam dini negizderining tanymdyq qyrlarynyng ókilderi ekendigin kórsetip jatyr. Búl tabighy qúbylys. Jas balanyng «mening anam eng súlu degeni siyaqty». Ashyq talqydaghy jastardyng bir birine qarsy jauaptarynda ghylymy uәj joq. Tek qana forma. Olar QMDB atynan, sopylar nemese salafiylik túghyrdan jaq jaq bolyp jatyr. Endi osylargha qarap qoghamdaghy diny tanymnyng qabattaryn tanugha bolady. Onyng ýstine diny psihologiyada kollektivshildik nemese jamaghattyq erekshelenu basym bolady. Búlar diny tәjiriybe fenomenining tabighatynda bar nәrse. Endi mening oiymsha osy qabattardyng birer ókilin ashyq kórsetip, adresin jazyp soghan tikeley súraqtar úiymdastyrsa, sonda olar da din ghylymynda izdenip terendey bastaydy. Ári mәdeniyet qalyptasady. Jalpy býgingi qoghamdaghy realdy bolyp jatqan mәselelerdi býrkep, jasyryp, ótirik aqpar berip sheshe almaymyz. Halyqtan nesin jasyramyz, ol ALHALIYQ-tyng kórinisi emes pe!

- Qúrmetti Doseke!  Sizden súrayyn degenim, búl kýnge qalay ghana tap boldyq?

Sonau 90-jyldardyng qaterli ótkelining ózinde últtyq mәdeniyetimizding ózegi - sopylyq pen salt-dәstýrimizge qúrmetimiz kirshiksiz edi. Elbasymyzdyng barlyq kitaptarynda derlik osy jol dәriptelip keldi. Endi kelip Azattyghymyzdyng jiyrma jyldyghy belesinde búl qúndylyqtarymyz adasushylyqqa, ony nasihattau qylmysqa ainaldy. Maman ghalym retinde osy sufizmofobiya men dindi bir tekti ólshemge toghytu senining artynda ishimizde ne syrtta bolsyn, qanday «oyynshylardyn» beynesi qyltiyatynyn tap basyp aita alasyz ba?

Abzal Almatydan.

- Ras keshegi kenestik ateistik jýie kezinde últtyq bolmysymyzdyng eskertkishteri siyaqty kóringen, solay qabyldanghan Iasauy kesenesi men ruhaniyaty ghana kónilge medeu siyaqty bolatyn. Biraq sol kezende de sopylyqqa kenes biyligi qyryn qaraytyn. Sebebi sopylyqta óz ishinde qamtylghan últtyq bolmystyq mәn saqtauly bolatyn. Ony damytu, sovet adamyna, sayasatyna qauipti boldy. Sóitip jýrgende Iasauy men Marks ilimderining formalyq úqsastyqtaryn nasihattaytyn ghylymy ateizm mamandary shyqty. Ateistik qoghamnyng sekulyarlyq ústanymynyng tysynda sopylyqqa degen kózqarasy osylay boldy. Al jalpy Batys pen Shyghys arasyndaghy jarystan qalyp qoydyng negizinde sufizm jatyr degen iydeyagha da eki ghasyrdan asty. Búghan oriyentalistika, evropasenrtistik tendensiya, sonymen qatar islamdaghy zahiry din ókilderining de qatysy boldy. Sonymen ózara tanymdyq teke tiresten tuyndaghan syzat aqyry sufizmofobiyany alyp keldi. Búl Abaydyng kezinde de boldy.  Búl bitke ókpelep tondy otqa jaghumen teng qúbylys edi. Al Islamnyng mәni toqyrap kete bardy. Barlyghy diny bilimning tayazdyghy, tarihy sabaqtastyqtyng joqtyghy men syrtqy sayasattyng da yqpalynan tuyndap jatty. Onyng ýstine qazir jahandyq ýderisting maqsaty oryndalyp jatyr. Onda sening qúndylyq dep qaraghanyng qúnsyzdanyp shyghu kerek, sonyng arqasynda ózining shablonyn qabyldauyng kerek. Osy orayda onyng shablony -- «iyeginde kóldey saqaly bar, qolynda kalashnikov avtomaty bar músylman tiypi». Mine osy mәseleler Batystyng «sosialinaya injiyneriya» teoriyasy arqyly jýrip jatqanyna qarnym ashady. Kórip, bilip otyryp toqtata almaymyz. Dәrmen joq. Nege?  Sebebi osy teoriyagha yaghni, baltagha sap bolyp otyrghandar óz ishimizde. Olar ózderining kimning tapsyrmasyn oryndap jatqanynan da beyhabar. Sonyng nәtiyjesinde «Myltyqtyng basuyna kiyikting qasynuy» say keledi emes pe. Sopylar turaly kelensiz aqparat jinaldy. Iasauy atyn atau qazir absurd hәlge keldi. Oghan býgingi ózin osy jolda jýrmiz degenderding de ýlesi bar.

- Dosay Kenjetaydyng azamattyq pozisiyasy jolynda tabandylyq kórsetip, jazyqsyz sopy azamattardy jaladan arashalau jolyndaghy shyn ghalymgha tәn qadamdaryna yrzalyghymdy bildiremin. Ghylymnyng asqarynan kórinip, Tynyshbaev, Sәtbaev, Bekmahanov, Mashanov siyaqty halyq ardaqtaytyn ghalymdar qatarynan oryn alynyz.

Bektúr

- Rahmet! Mening arasha bolyp jýrgenim din men memleket arasyndaghy zayyrlylyq ústanymynyng basshylyqqa alynbaghandyghyna narazylyq edi. Búl din men memleket qatynasyndaghy eng basty sayasy qatelik bolatyn. Elbasy N.Á. Nazarbaev «Syndarly on jyl» enbegindegi qogham jәne dindi retteuding mehanizmderin ashyq kórsetken bolatyn. Biraq amal qansha ony eskergen sotty kórmedim...Ghalym retinde osyny kórip, bilip otyryp ýnsiz qalugha bolmady. Al sopylardyng da ózindik qateleri joq emes, biraq sottalatynday jazyghy da, qylmysy da joq ekendigine kózim jetti.

- Assalaumaghaleykým, Dosay agha! Mening mynanday súraqtarym bar edi: Sizding Iassauy joly turaly dissertasiyanyzdy oqyp shyqtym. Únady. Biraq men Iassauy jolynyng tarihyn bilgim keledi. Zikiriya Jandarbekting Iassauy tarihaty turaly monografiyasy kónilimnen shyqpady. Iassauy jolynyng tarihy turaly qysqasha maghlúmat bere alasyz ba?

- Iasauiya tarihy turaly Z.Jandarbekting enbegi óte qúndy enbek. Degenmen sizge qysqasha maghlúmat bere keteyin. Qoja Ahmet Iasauiyding ómir sýrgen kenistigi men uaqyty týrikterding tórt ghasyr boyy islammen tanysyp, key tústarda qauym-qauym bolyp islam dinine kire bastaghan kezeng ekendigi tarihtan mәlim. Iasauiyge deyingi tórt ghasyrdyng nәtiyjesi retinde alghashqyda Abbasy halifaty biyligine qarasty Túlyn (868-905), Saj (890-929), Ihshidiyler (935-969) siyaqty jartylay tәuelsiz týrik sayasy biylikterining artynan Edil-Búlghar handyghy (922j. islam dinine kirgen), Qarahan (Islamdy 944/945 j. qabyldaghan) (840-1212) biyligi, Ghaznauy (963-1186), Seljúqtar (1038-1194) jәne Horezmshah (1092-1221) memleketteri alghashqy jәne óte manyzdy týrik-islam memleketterining payda bolulymen birge tamyry tarihtyng tereninen kele jatqan dәstýrli týrkilik dýniyetanymdyq mәdeniyet qúndylyqtarynyng islamdyq mәdeniyet jәne órkeniyet qabattarymen tanysuy nәtiyjesinde jana týrik-islam mәdeniyeti men órkeniyeti qalyptasa bastaghan bolatyn.

Iasauy ilimining qalyptasu kezenining alghashqy tarihi, dini, sayasy negizderi XI ghasyrlargha deyingi týrikterding músylman kenistigi ishindegi әr týrli aghymdardyng payda boluymen qatar jýrip jatqan Islam Abbasy halifatynan tәuelsiz jekelegen sayasy biylikterding (handyqtardyn) qalyptasu dәuirine say keledi.

Iasauy ilimi uaqyt túrghysynan HII-shi ghasyrdyng jartysynda Maverannahr, Týrkistan, Ferghana yaghni, býgingi Qazaqstan, Ózbekstan, Qyrghyzstan jәne Týrkmenstan men Tәjikstan territoriyalaryna taraldy. Týrkilik mәdeniyet negizinde qúrylghan barlyq tariqattar osy Iasauy ilimi - joly negizinde qalyptasty. Múny Naqshbandiyya (Múhammed Bahauiddin Naqshbandy (1389 j.q.b.) men Kubrauiyya (Najmaddin Kubra-1221 j.q.b.) silsilasyndaghy Ahmet Iasauy shәkirtterining oryn aluynan-aq kóruge bolady. Iasauy mәdeniyetining Ýndistandaghy múragerleri Haydariyya tariqaty bolatyn. Búl turaly derekter HIÝ-shi ghasyrda Ibn Battuta Sayahatnamasynda, keyinnen Simon Digbu, Terry Zarkone siyaqty Batystyq oriyentalisterding enbekterinde kezdesedi. Onda Iasauy dәruishterining HÝI-shy ghasyrgha deyin Sind, Pendjab aimaqtarynda ózi ilimderin taratqandyghy turaly mәlimet bar. Kishi Aziya-Anadolyda Iasauy ilimi HIII-shi ghasyrdyng birinshi jartysynan bastap Haydariylik tariqaty arqyly ene bastady. Qútb-ud-din Haydar (HIII gh.) keyinnen HÝI-shy ghasyrdyng basynda qúrylghan Bektashiyya tariqaty da Iasauy ilimining jalghasy retinde tirshiligin jalghastyryp keledi. Altyn Orda dәuirinde Ózbek Han (1313-1341) kezeninde islamnyng resmy din retinde tanyluy nәtiyjesinde sufiylik Edil boyyna 13-14 gh. endi. Sufiylikti búlgharlargha әkelgen Iasauiya tariqatynyng ókilderi boldy. Osy sufiylerding arqasynda islam qalalyqtardyn, saudagerlerding dini sipatynan arylyp, dala, kóshpelilerge, әsirese auyldyq eldi mekenderge terendep jayylady.

Búl kenistikte Iasauy ilimi islamnyng ózi jәne ózegi retinde qabyldanyp, HII-HIÝ ghasyrlar arasynda Orta Aziya, Tayau Shyghys, Ýndistan jerlerindegi sayasy oqighalar, mәdeniyet kóshi negizinde Horezm, Horasan, Azerbayjan arqyly Kishi Aziya-Anadoly topyraqtaryna, odan Balqan, Edil-Oralgha deyingi aimaqqa jayyldy. Biraq, Iasauiya tariqatynyng yqpaly keyingi dәuirlerde qazaq-qyrghyz arasynda shektelip qaldy. Iasauy joly HÝI-shi ghasyrgha deyin Ferghana, Osh, Ózbekstan jerinde ózining jandylyghymen tanylsa, HIH-ghasyrdan HH-ghasyrdyng 70-shi jyldaryna deyin yaghni, Kenestik dәuirde de aty atalghan aimaqtarda tirshiligin saqtap keldi. Iasauiyya tariqatynyng HIH- ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda Qyrghyzstanda  "Lahshylar" (Allahchi) atymen Sәnuar (1870) shayhtyng basshylyghymen qayta janghyryp, keyinnen búl tariqat sovettik rejimge qarsy "ghazauat-jihad" kóterilisterine múryndyq bolghan. 1920-jyly osy "Lahshylar" tariqatynyng jalghasy retinde Ábutәlip Satybaldyúly degen shayhtyng basshylyghynda "Shashty ishandar" tariqaty shyghyp, sovettik ateizm ýgit-nasihatyna qarsy astyrtyn is-sharalar jýrgizgen. 1955-jyly da Ózbekstanda da Madariyfúly Túrsynbay Ishan basshylyghynda kenestik jýiege qarsy ashyq jihad jariyalaghan. 1961-jyly búl әreket әshkerelenip, Kenes Ókimeti olargha qarsy Orta Aziya Din Isteri Basqarmasy arqyly kýres jýrgizgen. Nәtiyjede sufiyler jeke jeke tútqyndalyp, Sibirge jer audarylghan. Búl turaly derekterdi qyrghyzstandyq Mambetaliyev Satybaldynyng 1969 jyly jariyalanghan "Kirgiziyadaghy keybir músylman aghymdarynyng qaldyqtary jәne olardyng tarihy" atty enbeginen, sonymen qatar Kenes dәuirinde de Iasauy ilimining saqtaluy men qoghamdaghy orny turaly fransuz zertteushisi Aleksandr Bennigsonnyng "Sufy jәne Komissar: Reseyde Islam tariqattary" atty kitabynan tabugha bolady.

Iasauy ilimining dýniyetanymymyzdaghy, mәdeniyetimizdegi manyzyna onyng múrasyn kórsetetin risalalar, traktattar arqyly da kóz jetkizuge bolady. Aldymen Iasauy mәdeniyetining ainasy retinde tanylatyn Diuany Hikmet, Faqrnama jәne Mirat-ul Qulub (Kónilding ainasy) risalasyn atap ótumiz kerek.

Imam Husameddin Hýsayn bin Aly Syghnaqidyng (1311 j. q.) "Risala-y Husameddiyn-y Syghnaqy nemese "Manakiyb-y Ahmed-y Iasaui" atty enbegi bar. Búl enbek Ahmet Iasauy jәne Iasauiyya tariqaty turaly keyinnen jazylghan enbekterge derek kózi bolghan. Mysaly Alim Shayh "Lamahat" jәne Múhammed Sharif ózining "Hujjat-ul Zakiriyn" atty enbekterinde osy risaladan paydalanghan. Búl risalada Iasauiyding angha salar qúsy-býrkiti men tazylary bolghandyghy turaly mәlimettermen qosa súhbatynan dәris alghan esepsiz shәkirtteri jóninde aitylady.

Onyng salyp ketken arnalary negizinde týrkilik múhittyng týkpir týkpirinde kóptegen túlghalar ósip jetildi. Mysaly Abdul Faraj әl-Uasifiyding "Tiriak-ul Muhibbiyn" atty (1275-1343) enbeginde Qajy Bektash Áuliyening (1352-1430) Ahmet Iasauy jolynyng múrageri retinde onyng ruhany silsilasyn (shynjyr-shejire) da keltirgen.

Iasauiyya tariqatynyng ókili Súltan Ahmet bin Mahmut Haziny al-Hisary (1593-4), "Manba ul-Abhar fy riyaz-iyl-Abrar (Áuliyelerding baqshalaryndaghy tenizding qaynar (búlaq)lary" atty enbegin 1586 jyly jazghan. Búl enbekte, kemel adamdardyng ómiri, isteri, ahlaqiy-ruhany fazyldary, "syr tenizderi", әdilet, beriktikteri, ghayyp syrlary, tariqat, haqiqattan mәlimet berilgen. Iasauiyding ómiri, ilimining mәni, sopylyq oilarynan mәlimet bar. Iasauiyding "ólmes búryn ólu" konsepsiyasy men "faqr" filosofiyasy keninen týsindirilgen.

Buharalyq Azizuddin Nasafidyng (ól.j.1281-1282) "Insan-y Kamiyl" atty enbegi HIII. ghasyrda (1262-1281) parsy tilinde jazylghan. Maverannahr jәne Týrkistan aimaghyndaghy sopylyq dýniyetanymdyq múhittyng kategoriyalyq jәne ústyndyq jaghynan týbi bir. Búl kitapta kemel adam mәselesi sopylyq-filosofiyalyq túrghydan týsindirilgen.

"Sharaiyt-ul-Iman" (Imannyng sharttary-Qazan-1901 j.b.) atty kitaptyng sonynda "Kimning silsilasynansyn? (Kimning jolyndasyn)" degen súraqqa "Qoja Ahmet Iasauy jolyndamyn" dep jauap berilgen. Búl mәlimet Iasauy dýniyetanymynyng sol dәuirde últtyng bolmysyn anyqtaytyn kriyteriy retinde qalyptasqandyghynyng dәleli.

Búlghar tarihy turaly risalada "Risala-iy-Tauariyh-y Bulghariya"(1588 jazylghan. Qazanda 1902 j. qayta basylghan)-Iasauiyding sol aimaqtaghy shәkirtteri turaly mәlimet bar. Molla Jamiyding "Nafahat-ul Uns" atty kitabyn shaghatay tiline audaryp, oghan Týrkistannyng mәshhýr әuliyelerin qosyp jazyp, tarihy qúndy mәlimet qaldyrghan Áli Sher Nauay ózining "Nasaiym-ul Mahabbat.." atty kitabynda Iasauy turaly "Týrkistan júrtynyng qúbylasy" dep bagha bergen.

Jalpy, HIH ghasyrgha deyingi medreselerde "Álipbiy", "Iman shart" "Kauaiyiyd-ul Islam" "Sharai'it ul-Islam", 'Ilm-ul-Hәl" "Áptiyek" (Haft-ayaq Qúrannyng jetiden bir bóligi); "Qúran", "Sirat-ul anbiya" jәne t.b. arab, parsy, týrki tilindegi kitaptar Iasauy ilimining negizinde jazylghan bolatyn.

Iasauiyding alghashqy halifasy (shәkirti) ataqty Arystan Babanyng úly Mansúr Ata (1197), ekinshi halifasy-Sayid Ata Horezmy (1218); ýshinshi halifasy-Sýleymen Ata Baqyrghany (1186). Iasauiyding eng mәshhýr halifasy Sýleymen Baqyrghany (Hakim Ata) ekendigi jayynda Kashifidyng "Rashahat-ul ain-il hayat" atty kitabynan kóruge bolady. Onyng múralaryndaghy negizgi taqyryptar, sopylyq-dәruishtik hәlder, hikmetti sózder kategoriyasy onyng Iasauy dәstýrining mirasshysy ekendigin kórsetedi. Onyng múralarynda Diuany Hikmetting ruhy jandanyp, jalghasyn tapqandyqtan, Fuat Kóprulu Sýleymen Atany "Iasauiyding hikmet dәstýrin jalghastyrushysy әri janghyrtushysy" retinde baghalaydy.

Taghy bir mәshhýr halifalarynyng biri Iasauiyding "Mirat-ul Qulub" atty mirasyn hatqa týsirip, amanat qylyp qaldyrghan Sufy Múhammed Danyshmendy (shamamen m.1220 q.b.) bolyp tabylady.

Iasauiyding tariqaty Zengi babamen jalghasady. Sadyr Ata, Badr Ata, Qajy Bektash Áuliye, Sary Saltúq, Shayh Lúqpan Perende siyaqty túlghalar da onyng shәkirtteri sanalady. Aleksandr Bennigson Iasauiyding Shopan Ata jәne Qara Baba atty shәkirtterining bolghandyghyn aitady. Iasauiyding shәkirtteri jóninde Fuat Kóprulu: "Mutasauuftardyng (sufilardyn) biografiyasy jayly enbekterde Iraq, Horasan jәne Maverannahr sufiylerinen basqa týrik shayhtary dep jýrgen sufiylerding barlyghyn derlik Iasauiya tariqatynyng shayhtary edi", - deydi.

Týrkiyalyq Iasauitanushy-әdebiyetshi ghalym Kemal Eraslan Iasauiyding hikmet dәstýrin jalghastyrushylar retinde Qúl Sýleymen, Azim Qoja, Meshreb, Qoja Hamiyd, Qúl Ubaydi, Huvayda, Qúl Sherifi, Naubati, Qani, Gharibi, Dәruish Ály t.b. sufiy-dәruishterdi ataydy. Nauayi, Fuzuli, Maqtúmqúly, Yunus Ámire, Mevlaqúly múralaryn oqy otyryp, Iasauy dýniyetanymyn, dәstýrin, tili men dilin, jalpy dәstýrli týrkilik sopylyq ruhty kóruge bolady. Óitkeni, Iasauy mәdeniyetin, ilimin taratushylarda iydeya-múrat, termiyn, týsindiru әdisteri ortaq. Iasauy jolynyng múragerleri Azerbayjanda Nasimi, Hasanoghlu, Omar Raushany bolsa, Týrikmenstanda mәshhýr Maqtúmqúly Iasauiydi "Ey dýniyening iyesi-tiregi, Ahmet Iasaui, Mening "Sahiyb- Jamalymdy"(Mening Tәnirimdi) kórding be?, Hyrka kiygen Qoja Ahmet Sayramdadýr, Sayramda", - dep tanytady. Qap tauy jaghynda da Qopyz Abdulla, Ummy Kemal, Abdurahman әl-Qaqashora Daghystany syndy Iasauy ilimining múragerleri bar.

Iasauy ilimining qazaq jerindegi múrager-sýleyleri retinde Qarasaqal Erimbet, Dýr Onghar, Búdabay Qabylúly, Eshniyaz sal, Kete Jýsip, Shorayaqtyng Omary, Túrmaghambet Iztileuúly, Qúlan Aldabergenúly, Danmúryn Kenjebekúly, Rahmet Mәzqojaúly, Núrtughan Kenjeghúlúly, Quanysh Baymaghambetúly t.b., aqyn-jyraulardy sonymen qatar Asanqayghy, Búqar jyrau, Aqan seri, Abay, Shәkәrim, Mәshhýr Jýsip t.b. ataugha bolady.

- Shakәrim qajy "Qalqaman-Mamyr" poemasy arqyly 7 atadan qyz alyspau saltyn synaghan ba, jaqtaghan ba, týsine almadym. Ontýstiktegi mening auylymda osyghan úqsas jaghday bolyp, u-shu kóterilgen. Sol kezde mening atalarym 5-shi atadan qosylatyn, biraq bir birine ýilengisi kelgen eki jastyng basyn shauyp tastay jazdapty. Áyteuir, eki jas rayynan qaytqan song mening atalarymda ashuyn basypty. Osynday jagha ústatatyn jayttargha Siz ne aitasyz?

- «Qalqaman Mamyr» poemasynda, eki jastyng ózara mahabbaty bolghanmen, otbasyn qúra almaytyndyghy aitylady. El eki jasqa qarsy shyghady. Búl sujet «Enlik Kebekte» de bar. Sondaghy Kengirbay siyaqty bolghym kelip túr, oghan rúqsat beretin bolsa, búl qúbylys el arasynda jappay etek jayyp ketui mýmkin, sondyqtan tuystar arasynda nekege jol joq. Ol bizding babalarymyzdyng salty. Ol qúndylyq. Al qúndylyq synalmaydy. Ol dәripteledi, nasihattalady. Qyz alysu men qyz berisu qazaqy músylmandyqta ózindik ereksheligi bar qúbylys. Sharighat boyynsha bir anadan sýt embese, nemere tuysymen de nekelesuge rúqsat. Mysaly ózbek jәne t.b. halyqtardaghyday. Sharighat jeti atagha deyin ýilenbeuge de rúqsatpen qaraydy. Múny qazaqtyng artyqshylyghy dep baghalar edim. Medisina da dәleldep otyr. Jalpy myna jahandyq ýderis kezinde dәstýrimiz ben saltymyzgha meylinshe berik bolghanymyz abzal. Últtyq erekshelik sonda saqtalady.

- Naqyshbandiya tariqatynyng qazaq tarihyndaghy róline qanday bagha beresiz? Olardyng shyn aty Nahshilar deydi, "bandi" degendi jalghaghan bolishevikter desedi, osy ras pa?

- Bahauddin Naqbandiya joly da Iasauy joly negizine qúrylghan. Qazaq músylmandyq tarihynda olardyng da ýlesi men ózindik orny bar. Ol - Hanafy mazhaby men Maturudy aqidasy negizindegi sunny tariqat. Keshegi orys otarlauyna qarsy, odan keyingi kenestik iydeologiyagha qarsy soghysqan babalarymyzdy orystardyng «banditter» deuining artynda osy sopylyqtyng tarihy orny bolghanyn kóruge bolady. Biraq, Naqshibanditter degen sózding ekinshi bóligindegi banditter degen sózdi ghana alyp solardy «banditter» degen. Yaghni, sopylar degeni edi. Bizding últ azattyq soghystyng bel ortasynda adam ruhynyng injenerleri osy sopylar bolghanyn tarih kórsetip otyr.

- Búhar Jyrau men Mәshhýr Jýsipti bir jurnalist naqyshband qylyp jiberipti. Úmytpasam «Jas Alash» gazetindegi Saylau Baybosyn bolsa kerek. Men búghan kelise almadym. Siz she?

- Ras, Shәkәrim, Mәshhýr, Qaljan ahun siyaqty babalarymyz naqshbandiya tariqatynyng ókilderi, «biradary» bolghan. Jalpy naqshbandiya tariqat retinde qazaq ruhaniyaty tarihynda 18-19 ghasyrlarda keninen oryn alghan. Ásirese jonghargha qarsy soghysta naqshbandiyler belsendi boldy. Sonyng arqasynda qazaq, ózbek, qyrghyz әskerleri qosylyp jonghargha qarsy túra bildi. Ol da qazaqqa jat tariqat emes.

- Men naqyshbandtar jii maqtanysh qylatyn pirlerining tizbegin kórip shyqtym. Payghambarymyz Múhammed gh.s-nan bastapty. Hamadaniyge deyingilerdi tanydym. Ary qaray birde bireuin qabylday almadym. Óitkeni ishterinde qazaq joq. Mónke by qayda, Tóle, Qazybek, Áyteke biyler qayda? Qazaq saharasynda qanshama әuliye, bekter ótken. Solardyng birde bireuin tappadym tizimderinen. Qazaqtyng iyisi joq. Qazaqtyng iyisi joq búl pirsymaqtardyng jolyn qazaqqa tyqpalay beruding ne qajeti bar?

- Naqshbandiya tariqatynyng shayhtary kóbine tәjik, ózbek arasynan shyghyp otyrghandyghy mәlim. Tariqat nәsiline emes, adamnyng diline qatysty mәsele. Al silsiladaghy tizimderde  sol joldyng shayhtarynyng ghana aty atalady. Iasauy men Naqshbandiya arasyndaghy silsilada bastau retinde Iasauiya Hz.Aliyden bastalsa, Naqshibandiylerde Hz.ÁbuBakrden bastalady. Barlyq tariqattar Iasauy silsilasyn «silsilat ul zahab» retinde moyyndap, qúrmetteydi. Al siz aitqan Mónke, Qazybek, Tóle, Áyteke biyler olar shayh bolmaghan, ekenshiden silsilada «hojagan әuleti ghana» oryn alady. Búl mәsele osylay. Sosyn «olardyng joly» «bizding jol» degen bolmaydy barlyghy islamdaghy ardy týzeuge baghyttalghan ortaq ruhani, moralidyq kemeldenu joldary. Eki joldyng aiyrmashylyghy metodtarynda ghan. Ústanymy men iydeyasy bir. Býgingi ózderin «Iasauy jolyndamyz» dep jýrgenderding "Iasauy tariqaty - qazaqtardiki, naqshbandy tariqaty - ózbekterdiki" degen ústanymy týbirimen qate. Eshqanday ghylymgha, tariyhqa, mәdeniyetke de, diny tanymgha da say kelmeytin tújyrym. Sonda Qúnanbay, Shәkәrim men Mәshhýr Jýsip qazaq bolmaghany ma? Abay da Shәkәrim de Mәshhýr de naqshbandy tariqatynan susyndaghan. Jalpy tariqattardy qarama-qarsy qoi, sopylyqtyng mәnin bilmeushilikten tuyndaydy.

- Iassauy silsilasy ýzilgen degen úshqary pikirlerge janym qynjylady. Búl pikirdi ortalyq meshittegi moldalarymyzda aitady. Iassauy joly - Qúdaydyng joly. Qúdaydyng joly ne ýshin ýzilui kerek? Iassauy joly Karl Marksting kommunistik iydeyasy emes ghoy ýzilip qalatyn?

- Kezinde Klara Tәjikova Iasauy men K. Marks ilimderi arasynda úqsastyq pen paralleldikter izdep kitap jazghan, sony oqyp kóriniz. Dúrys aitasyz, Iasauy ilimi K. Marks iydeologiyasymen ýndespeydi. Biraq býgin Qazaqstanda Iasauy jolyndamyz degender - týrmede, al Marks jolyndamyz degender - Parlamentte otyr. Kommunistik iydeologiyanyng ýzilgeni qayda qaldy? Al Iasauy jolynyng bayandylyghy qayda qaldy? Kórdiniz be, qoghamda sayasy túrghydan logikagha syimaytyn osynday mәseleler kezdese beredi eken.

Iasauy ilimi - sopylyq dýniyetanymgha negizdelgen. Basty ústanymy - ghashyqtyq, múraty - Alla. Búl ilim diny terminologiyada "hәl ilimi" dep atalady. Abay aitqan "tereng oi" osy Iasauy ilimining negizgi ústyny bolyp tabylatyn "ishki kózding ashyluyna negizdelgen. Búl ilim boyynsha mәnning mәni - Alla. Sondyqtan әlemnen forma emes, mәn izdeledi. Búl tolyghymen diny tanymdyq tendensiya. Ýilesimdilik basty shart: Alla men adam, әlem men Qúran arasyndaghy ýndestik aiqyn. Iasauy ilimi - Qúran men Hadiske sýiengen - ar týzeytin ilim. "Mening hikmetterimning mәni Qúran" - degen Iasauy Allagha da, sózine de, payghambaryna da mahabbatpen ýndesken.

Iasauy ilimi býgingi qazaq músylmandyghynyng negizi. Sondyqtan biz Iasauy jolyndaghy qazaq músylmandarymyz. Iasauy joly fikhtyq jaghynan Imam aghzam Ábu Hanifanyn, aqaidtyq (doktrinalyq) jaghynan imam Maturudiyding ilimine negizdelgen, týrki halyqtary arasynda keng taraghan naghyz týrkilik mәdeniyetpen somdalghan dәstýrli músylmandyq týsinigimizding ainasy.

Keshegi jetpis jyldyq qyspaqta, bodandyqta bolghan kezimizde, bizding tarihymyzdy zerttegen orys oriyentalisteri, ruhaniyatymyzdyng negizinde osy Iasauy ilimi men mәdeniyeti jatqandyghyn dóp basqan. Sóitip búlardyng arasyna iritki salu nemese tariqattar arasynda jik salu maqsatynda sufiylerdi olardyng zikirlerine qarap, "Lahchiyler, Alahushylar, Aqúdayshyldar" dep bólgen. Lahchiyler - Qyrghyzstandaghy, Allahushylar - Ózbekstandaghy, Aqúdayshylar - Qazaqstandaghy Iasauy jolyndaghylar.

Keshegi dinsizdendiru jәne qúdaysyzdandyru sayasatynan, súmdyq apattan últtyghymyzdy aman saqtap qalghan Iasauiyding ruhy, ilimi, mәdeniyeti, joly, kesenesi jәne izbasarlarynyng shygharmalary negizindegi abaytanu, әuezovtanu, týrkitanu, iasauitanu siyaqty ghylym salalarynyng jandy tútyluy bolatyn. Iasauitanu salasy boyynsha Iasauy múrasy negizinen ýsh saladan túrady. Birinshisi, Iasauy joly, yaghny tariqaty. Ekinshisi, Iasauy ilimi. Ýshinshisi, Iasauy mәdeniyeti.

Iasauy tariqaty - sopylyq psihotehnikalyq tәlim-tәrbiyelik jýiesi bar, ústaz ben shәkirt arasyndaghy shynjyr (silsila), dәstýrli sabaqtastyghy bar jol. Búl joldyng bastauy Hz.Múhammed payghambarymyzdan Hz.Aliyge odan Hz.Múhammed-Hanafiyamen jalghasyp, Iasauy jәne onyng jolyn qughan shәkirtterimen shynjyr, ruhany jeli arqyly sozylyp jatyr. Iasauy silsilasy - týrki tarihynda "altyn shynjyr" nemese "úly tariqat" degen atpen belgili. Iasauy joly - tariqat degen sóz. Al silsila, ústaz ben shәkirt arasyndaghy tarihy sabaqtastyqtyng jalghasyn bildirdi. Iasauiya tariqatynyng songhy shayhy - ústazy búdan bir ghasyr búryn dýniyeden ótkendikten silsilasy toqtaghan tariqat deymiz. Biraq, búl silsila toqtaghanymen onyng ilimi men mәdeniyeti tirshiligin toqtatqan emes.

Býgingi Iasauy tariqatynyng ústazy - Ismatulla Torbayúly. Últy qazaq, ózi qadiriya tariqatynan shәkirt tәrbiyeleu ýshin beriletin rúqsat (hatt-y irshat) alghan. Silsilasy boyynsha qadiriya jahriya tariqattarynda bolghanmen, býginde Iasaui, Shәkәrim, Mәshhýr enbekteri negizinde jana Iasauy mәdeniyeti men ilimin nasihattauda. Negizinen sopylyq tarihynda búl qúbylys kóp kezdesedi. Basqa tariqat shayhy kelesi bir tariqattyng basynda irshatta, yaghny ruhany ústaz bola beredi. Mysaly bir tariqat shayhy kýtpegen jerden qaytys bolyp ornyn basatyn kemeldikke jetken shәkirtteri bolmay qaluy mýmkin. Sonday jaghdayda basqa tariqat shayhynyng ruhany tәrbiyesi men rúqsatyn alyp qaytadan óz tariqatyn әri qaray jalghastyra beredi. Negizgi ilimi - sopylyq, әdisteri zikir, súhbat úiymdasuy qoghamdyq negizde Qazaqstannyng basty ortalyqtarynda ókilderi bar. Jogharyda aitylghanday búqaralyq aqparat qúraldarynda jetkilikti dәrejede syngha úshyrady, jazyqsyz sottalyp ta ketti.

Tarihtaghy Iasauy mәdeniyeti men býgingi Iasauy mәdeniyeti arasynda aiyrmashylyq bolatyny siyaqty, «býgingi Iasauiyshilder» men tarihtaghy Iasauy tariqaty bir emes. Áriyne, uaqyt pen kenistik, adam faktory, tarihy sabaqtastyqtyng ýziluinen tuyndaghan aiyrmashylyqtyng boluy tabighy qúbylys. Búl toptyng Iasauy turaly teoriyalyq ghylymy jәne agiografiyalyq zertteuler, diny sopylyq filosofiya, sopylyqtyng teoriyalyq jәne praktikalyq ústyndary ruhymen, qoghammen, uaqytpen ýndestigi, ýilesimdiligi jaghynan kemshin tartyp jatqan tústary da joq emes. Degenmen qoghamda ózderin qabyldata alatyn әleumettik qabattary bar. Mine, Iasauy ilimi men mәdeniyeti býgingi tanda Qazaqstanda qayta jandanyp otyr. Biraq jandanu men damu bir emes.

- Tarihta iasauiyshilder men naqyshbandtar qyrqyspasada qyrghy qabaqta ómir sýrgen desedi. Olardyng tarihtaghy ara-qatynastary turaly bilgim keledi.

Janarbekten.

- Tarihy túrghydan eki tariqat arasynda qalypty ruhani, tarihi, mәdeny baylanystar bar, bolghan. Naqshbandiya tariqaty Qazaq eline bir qolyna Iasauy hikmetterin ústap kelmegende bәlkim, qabyldanbas pa edi. Eki tariqattyng ústanymy da ghashyqtyqqa negizdelgen, iydeyalary bir - Ol Allanyng jamaly. Ekeui de Maturudy aqidasy, Hanafy fiyqhyna negizdelgen. Biraq, psihotehnikalyq jәne metodologiyalyq aiyrmashylyqtary bar. Zikirleri eki týrli hafi, jahry bolghanmen, mazmúny bir. Alghashqy kezderi eki tariqat shayhtary óte tózimdi, tolerantty, bir-birin syilaytyn, súhbattarynda núr shashylyp, zikirlerinde әri hafi, әri jahry zikir sala beretin. Keyinnen Qazaq handyghy óz aldyna bólinip shyqqannan song aq eki tariqat arasynda sayasy bәseke bastaldy da ketti. Búl jarys jaqtas jinau, sayasy bedel jarysy, baylyq pen mansapqa úlasyp ketti. Jalpy tanymdyq, teologiyalyq jaghynan ekeuining arasynda aiyrmashylyq joq. Tәuelsizdikten keyin «Iasauy tariqaty qazaqtardyki, naqshbandy Ózbekterdiki» degen V.Bartolityng ýstirt tújyrymdary Qazaqstandaghy sopylardy eki lagerge bólip tastady. Shyndyghynda Naqshbandiya tariqaty ózbektiki de emes, qazaqtyki de emes, tariqat fenomeni kenistik jәne mәdeniyet jaghynan uniyversaldy tabighatqa iye. Ony Evropadaghy (Kipr ortalyghy), Angliya, Fransiya, Amerika, Mysyr, Pakistan, Turkiyadaghy Naqshbandiya ortalyqtarynan kóruge bolady. Qazaqstandaghy Sulaymanshylar da sol tariqat ókilderi. Jaqynymyzdaghy Ózbekstannyng Ferghana jazyghy, Qyrghyzstan men Tәjikstanda da búl tariqat belsendi. Kezinde Kenes dәuirinde Naqshbandiya tariqatynyng ortalyghy Týrkistandaghy Qúshata eldimekeni bolatyn.  (Jalghasy bar)

«Abay-aqparat»

0 pikir

Ýzdik materialdar

Aqmyltyq

«Qiyalshyldar kluby»

Ámirjan Qosan 2310
Anyq-qanyghy

Kimning kim ekenin bile jýrsin dep...

Auyt Múqiybek 1778