Beysenbi, 7 Shilde 2022
Tarih 7449 8 pikir 12 Mamyr, 2021 saghat 22:38

Altyn Ordanyng jeri Qazaqstangha miras

Altyn Orda kópúltty memleket boldy. Onyng jerining basym bóligi qazirgi Qazaqstan aumaghyna mirasqa qaldy.

Joshy Úlysy Euraziyadaghy kóptegen halyqtardyng memlekettiligining besigi bolyp tabylghan. Onyng manyzdylyghy barlyq Euraziya halyqtary ýshin ortaq tarihy ótkenge negizdelip qoymay, sonymen birge qazirgi uaqytta bayqalatyn integrasiyalyq tendensiyalargha da baylanysty. Onyng qúramynda әleumettik-ekonomikalyq damu dengeyinde erekshelenetin, ózindik mәdeniyeti men әdet-ghúryptary bar kóptegen taypalar men últtar boldy. Deshti-Qypshaq dalasyndaghy kóshpelilerding negizgi bóligi retinde týrki taypalary – qypshaqtar, qanlylar, qarlúqtar, naymandar jәne qúrghan. Otyryqshy audandarynda bolgarlar, mordvalyqtar, orystar, grekter, horezmdikter jәne basqalary ómir sýrdi. Tarihshylar әli kýnge deyin Altyn Ordanyng tarihtaghy rólin baghalauda jәne tipti onyng atauyn anyqtauda әr týrli oi-pikirler bildiredi. Songhy uaqytqa deyin otandyq tarihnamada Altyn Ordagha, onyng tarihtaghy róline degen teris kózqaras bolghan. Ártýrli zertteushiler mongholdar jaulap alularyna qaraghanda Shyghys Europadan Qytaygha deyingi býkil Euraziyadaghy sayasy túraqtylyqtyng payda boluyn atap ótti. Jaulap alynghan halyqtardyng konfessiyalaryna tózimdilik tanytqan biyleushi Altyn Orda elitasy turaly diny izdenister belgili. Altyn Orda handary islam dinin qabyldaghannan keyin de diny tózimdilikti kórsetti. Altyn Orda músylman shyghysynan kóp nәrse alyp, ózgerissiz qalmady. Mysaly: qolóner, sәulet óneri, monsha, sәndik dekor, parsy poeziyasy, arab geometriyasy; degenmen qarapayym kóshpendilerge qaraghanda әdet-ghúryp pen mәnerleri tym kýrdeli jәne alghyr. Saray-Altyn Ordanyng astanasy jәne onyng basqa qalalarynda kóptegen halyqtardyng ókilderi mekendegen. Múnda әrtýrli dinder men mәdeniyetter qaqtyghysyp, altynordalyq saray janynda әrtýrli diny senimderding missionerleri, belsendi qatysushylary – Múhammed, Hristos jәne Buddanyng jaqtaushylary arasynda dau-damay tuyndaghan. Shynghyshan imperiyasynyn, atap aitqanda Altyn Ordanyng múrasy, XVI–XVIII ghasyrlardaghy Qazaq handyghynda, sonymen qatar osy kezendegi Orta Aziya, Sibir, Edil aimaghy, Soltýstik Kavkaz, Qyrymnyng týrki memleketterinde kórinis tapty. Naqtylap aitqanda, ol qazaq qoghamynyng әleumettik-sayasy qúrylymynda kórinis tapqan. Yaghni, onda súltannyng eng jogharghy taby, han taghyna monopoliyalyq qúqyghy bar Shynghyshannyng úrpaqtary – aqsýiekter (tóreler) qúrghan. Sonymen qatar, aqsýiekter búl qúqyghynyng qoldanylu ayasy qoldanystaghy etnikalyq jәne memlekettik shekaralargha tәueldi bolmady: Shynghys hannyng әr úrpaghy Shynghys han imperiyasynyng dәstýri belgili bir dәrejede saqtalghan kez-kelgen jerde han ataghyn talap ete alatyn mýmkindigi bolatyn. Sondyqtan Shynghyshan úrpaqtary qaraqalpaqtar men qyrghyzdardyng padishahy nemese Búhara men Hiua handary rólinde boldy. Shynghyshan úrpaqtarynyng sayasy mazmúny men sipaty tek «genealogiyalyq zangha» negizdelgen, últtyq manyzy joq sekildi boldy.

Qazaq memlekettiligi, sózsiz, óz negizinde damydy jәne ejelgi týrki memlekettiligining qayta janghyrghan dәstýrlerining jemisi boldy. Altyn Orda – osynyng aiqyn dәleli. Altyn Ordanyng tarih barysyna, birinshi kezekte Qazaqstan men Resey tarihyna, orda yqpalynyng uaqyt ishindegi aluan týrliligine, qarama-qayshylyghy men úzaqtyghyna әser etuining ekiúshtylyghy turaly aitugha bolady, búl óz kezeginde Altyn Orda kezenining osy elderding tarihy ýshin manyzy turaly otandyq jәne әlemdik tarihnamada dau tudyrdy.

Syrtqy jәne sheteldik kózqaras jóninde aita ketsek, mysaly, Týrkiyanyng kóptegen ghalymdary Altyn Ordagha (Joshy Úlysyna) baylanysty enbekter jazghan. Mysaly, osy taqyryptyng tarihnamalyq qyrlaryna týrik tarihshysy Týten Ózkaya nazar audarghan. Ol «Kenes Odaghyndaghy Altyn Ordagha baylanysty jana zertteuler» («Sovyetler Birliği’nde Altın Ordu İle İlgili Yeni Araştırmalar») atty maqalasynda Altyn Ordanyng tarihy men mәdeniyetin zertteuge nege manyzdy ekendigine toqtalghan. Onyng aituynsha, Altyn Orda Kenes Odaghynyng bir bóliginde ornalasqan memleket bolghan. Altyn Ordanyng tarihyna zertteushilerding kim qaysysy ýles qosqanyna toqtalyp, IY.N. Berezinning (XIX ghasyrdyng 50–60-shy jyldarynda) enbekterine taldau jasady. Týten Ózkayagha qaraghanda IY.N. Berezin kóbinese XIV – XVI ghasyrlargha jatatyn han jarlyqtaryna (mysaly, Temir, Qútlyq, Toqtamys, Menli Kerey jәne t.b. biyleushiler) sipattama jasay otyryp, osy memleketting әleumettik, ekonomikalyq, sonymen qatar memlekettik basqaru mәselelerine kónil audarghan. Búl rette zertteushi Altyn Ordany Joshy úlysy dep ataghany kóshpeli dәstýrlerge sәikes keletinin belgilegen. Osy baghytta týrik tarihshysy Altyn Ordanyng tarihy taghdyryna ózindik sipattamasyn berdi. Búl manyzdy maqaladan bólek taghy bir enbekke nazar audarugha bolady: A.Melek Ózetgin men Iliyas Kemaloghlynyng «Altyn orda handyghyna tiyesili resmy hat almasuy» («Altın Orda hanlığına ait resmi yazışmalar») atty kitaby. Búl enbekting hronologiyalyq kezeni: HIII – HVI ghasyrlar aralyghy. Yaghni, Altyn Orda 1240 jylda qúrylghanynan bastap 1502 jyldar aralyghyndaghy syrtqy imperatorlyqtardyng knyazidiktermen baylanys qarym qatynasy turaly jazylghan búiryqtar, sonymen qatar eki el arasyndaghy kelisimsharttar turaly mәlimetter berilgen.

Altyn Orda men Qazaq handyghynyng tikeley múragerlik tarihy men baylanysyn ghylymy túrghydan týsindiru maqsatynda 2020 jyly Úlyq Úlystyng (Altyn Orda) 750-jyldyghyna oray Institutta birneshe is-sharalar ótkizildi: 28 mamyrda R.B. Sýleymenov at. Shyghystanu institutymen birlesip «Úly Dalanyng tarihiy-mәdeny kenistigindegi Joshy Úlysynyng (Altyn Ordanyn) manyzdylyghy men róli» atty Halyqaralyq ghylymiy-teoriyalyq onlayn-konferensiya; 24 qyrkýiekte QR Mәdeniyet jәne sport ministrligi men Qaraghandy oblysynyng әkimdigining qoldauymen «Altyn Ordadan Qazaq handyghyna deyin: memlekettilik dәstýr sabaqtastyghy mәseleleri» atty Respublikalyq ghylymiy-praktikalyq onlayn-konferensiya. Búl is-sharalar barysynda keyingi otandyq jәne dýniyejýzi tarihynyng orta ghasyrlar kezenindegi «aqtandaqtardy» qalpyna keltirude irgeli sipat alatyn manyzdy teoriyalyq jәne praktikalyq mәseleler talqylandy.

Sh.Sh. Uәlihanov at. Tarih jәne etnologiya
institutynyng ghylymy qyzmetkeri M. Moryakova

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