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Aytylmaytyn taqyryp: Qazaqstandaghy qauipti anklavtar

Jarkent manyndaghy Penjim auylyndaghy oqigha kezekti mәrte Qazaqstandaghy últaralyq qatynas mәselesin qayta qaraugha sebepker boldy. «Qazaqstanda anklav bar ma» degen súraq kýn tәrtibine qayta shyqty. Sebebi biylik resmy týrde etnikalyq qaqtyghystar men kiykiljinderding baryn moyyndamasa da, últaralyq qatynas ushyqqan oshaqtyng basym bóligi etnos ókilderi tútas ornalasqan aimaqta boluda. Mysal da jetkilikti.

2006 jyldyng 18-19 qarashasynda Almaty oblysynyn, Shelek auylynda etnikalyq janjal oryn aldy. Qazaq jәne úighyr últynyng ókilderi arasynda tóbeles bolyp, arty ýlken qaqtyghysqa úlasty. «Eski qamal» kafesindegi tóbelesting últaralyq qaqtyghysqa úlasyp keterin eshkim bilmegendey edi. Shelek auylynyng túrghyndarynyng basym bóligi úighyr últynan ekenin eskersek, atalmysh oqighany beyresmy anklavta boldy deuge tolyq negiz bar.

2007 jyly Enbekshiqazaq audanyndaghy Malovodnoe auylynda qazaqtar men sheshender arasynda etnikalyq qaqtyghys búrq ete qaldy. «Botagóz» biliyard ortalyghyndaghy tóbeleste últy qazaq jigit jaraqat alady. Onyng sony qazaq-sheshen qaqtyghysyna úlasyp, oqigha qayghyly negizge kóshedi. Qaqtyghysta 9 adam qaza tapqan, onyng jeteui sheshen, ekeui qazaq últynan bolatyn. Oqigha tipti, Qazaqstan shenberinen shyghyp, Mәskeudegi qazaq-sheshen studentterining arasyndaghy tóbeleske deyin úlasqan edi. Malovodnoe auylyna Jambyl oblysynan kómekke barmaq bolghan bir top sheshen jastaryn arnayy jasaq jolda toqtatyp, tútqyndaydy. Búl da toptasyp túratyn týrli últ ókilderining qaqtyghys bolu mýmkindigin arttyratyn mysal edi.

2007 jyldyng qazan-qarasha ailarynda Ontýstik Qazaqstan oblysy, Tóleby audanyndaghy Mayatas auylynda qazaqtar men kýrdter arasynda qaqtyghys boldy. Qaqtyghysqa 16 jastaghy kýrdting 4 jasar qazaq balasyna zorlyq kórsetkeni turaly aqparat sebep bolghan. Atalmysh aqparat jergilikti qazaqtardyng ashuyn tudyryp, arty janjalgha úlasty. Mayatastyng ózinde qaqtyghystan kýrdterding 4 ýii órtenip ketken. Negizinen auyl túrghyndarynyng 90%-gha juyghy kýrd últynan bolatyn. Kýrdterge qarsy sheruler Ontýstik Qazaqstan oblysynyng Sayram jәne Bәidibek audandarynda da ótti. Qaqtyghystyng aldyn alu ýshin polisiya, prokuratura jәne QR Últtyq qauipsizdik komiytetinen 500-ge juyq adam júmyldyrylghan edi. Qaqtyghys bir auylgha toptasyp alghan ózge últ ókilderining anklavy baryn anyq kórsetti.

2015 jyly Týrkistan oblysy, Saryaghash audanynyn, Bostandyq auylynda qazaq pen tәjik últtarynyng arasynda qaqtyghys boldy. Auylda basym bóligi tәjik últynyng ókilderi túratyn. Búl qaqtyghystyng boluyna birden-bir sebepker bola bildi.

Qazaqstan tarihyndaghy eng iri etnikalyq qaqtyghys 2020 jyldyng aqpan aiynda Jambyl oblysy, Qorday audanynda boldy. Qazaqtar men dýngender arasyndaghy qaqtyghysqa sebepker bolghan jayt últy qazaq qariyanyng soqqygha jyghyluy men polisiya ókilderine kórsetilgen qarsylyq bolatyn. Qaqtyghys saldarynan 11 adam qaza tapty, 185 adam medisinalyq kómekke jýgindi, 23 mynnan astam túrghyn kórshi Qyrghyzstan aumaghyna ótip ketuge tyrysty. Resmy derekterge sәikes, qaqtyghys saldarynan 39 túrghyn ýi, 20 kommersiyalyq nysan jәne 47 kólik órtengen. Materialdyq shyghyn 1,7 mlrd tengeni qúrady. Sot prosessteri 50-den astam adamdy kinәli dep tauyp, úzaq jylgha bas bostandyghynan aiyrdy.

Atalmysh oqighalardyng barlyghy derlik ózge últ ókilderining bir aimaqqa, auylgha toptasyp, anklavtyq jýiede ómir sýruine baylanysty boldy. Zertteuler beyresmy anklavtardyng tym qauipti ekenin kórsetip otyr. Alysqa barmay-aq, 2021 jyldyng kóktemindegi qyrghyz-tәjik qaqtyghysynyng ózi eki taraptan da últtyq anklavtyng boluyna baylynysty búrq ete qalghanyn dәleldep berdi.

Qazaqstanda jabyq taqyryp sanalatyn búl taqyrypty ashyq aitu manyzdy әri bolashaqta qaqtyghystar bolmauyna ong әserin tiygizedi. KSRO biyligi búrynghy odaqtastaryna ýlken mәseleler tastap ketti. Ol sheshilmegen aumaqtyq daular, rettelmegen shekaralar men anklavtar jәne beyresmy últtyq anklavtar. Qazaqstangha 30-jyldardyng ortasynan bastap kóptegen ózge últ ókilderin kýshtep qonystandyrghan Mәskeu olardyng bir auyl, aimaqta tyghyz qonystanuyna mýmkindik berip, beyresmy anklavtardyng boluyna mýmkindik jasady. KSRO joq, biraq, ol jasaghan mәseleler qalyp qoydy.

Anklavtyq jýiening baryn preziydent Toqaev ta moyyndaghanday: «Key aimaqtarda etnikalyq toptardyng qazaqstandyq shynayylyqtan alshaqtap, ishki emigrasiyagha kóshui bayqaluda. Múnday tendensiya etnostardyq qazaqstandyq qoghamgha integrasiyalanuyna keri әserin tiygizedi. Búl turaly shyndyqty jasyryp qalugha bolmaydy, onyng saldary auyr boluy mýmkin. Jәne bizge mәselening qanshalyqty ekenin baghamday aluy qiyngha soqpaq», - degen edi Preziydent.

Qaqtyghys oshaqtary bolghan aimaqtardyng tәjiriybesin qarasaq, etnosaralyq qatynasty damytugha qatysty beyimdelu kórinisteri az ekeni anyqtaluda. Mysaly Penjim auylyndaghy qaqtyghysta qazaqstandyq qoghamgha sinisu, shynayylyqty qabyldaudyng joqtyghy naqty kórinude. Óz últynyng taksiyine ghana otyru, óz últynyng qyzmetin ghana qoldanu, tek óz últyna ghana júmys beru syndy alalaushylyq faktileri anyqtaldy. Búl Masanshy auylynda bolghan qaqtyghysta da naqty anyqtalghan edi. Sondyqtan anklavtardy joq dep aitugha kelmeydi, onyng kórinisteri bar. «Auruyn jasyrghan óledi» degendey, múnday mәselelerdi ashyq aityp, naqty talqylau ghana qaqtyghystyng aldyn alady.

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