Senbi, 1 Qazan 2022
Talqy 4579 51 pikir 25 Shilde, 2022 saghat 12:44

Abylay turaly fantaziyalardyng anatomiyasy

(Resey imperiyasy bir maqalamen barlyq qazaqty qalaysha aqymaq qylghany turaly hikaya...)

Eshten de kesh jaqsy demekshi Jana Qazaqstan kýnderi bastaldy. Keshe ghana zannama konstitusiyamyzdy ózgertip shyn mәnindegi demokratiyaly elding ómirin bastaghaly jatyrmyz. Endi osy uaqytqa deyin býrkemelep kelgen tarihymyzdyng jalghan yaghny osal tústaryn kórsetuge jaghday tudy...

Qazaq tarihynyng asa kólenkeli jәne asa qopal tústarynyng biri Abylay turaly jazylghan fantaziyalar. Halqymyzdyng tarihyn búrmalau prosesi Resey tarapynan әli jalghasyp jatyr. Bizding ghalymdarymyzdyng az bóligi sol orys aghayyndardyng halqymyz turaly jalghan tarih jasaghan shyrmauynan әli shygha almay jýr.  Jaqsynyng aitqany kelmey jamannyng sandyraghy keletin zaman bolyp túr. Qazaqstan ýkimeti  tól tarihymyzdyng qate bolghanyn jәne býgingi úrpaghymyz aqiqat tarihymyzdy bimegenin qoldaytyn siyaqty.

Elbasy tarihymyzdy jóndeu ýshin milliardtaghan qarajat bóldi jәne kóptegen baghdarlamalar jasady. Solardyng eng songhysy Ruhany janghyru ekenin aitsaq biraz janalyqtar kirgeni ras. Al tarihymyzdyng asa qúndy kezeni bolghan Orys – qazaq qatynasy әli kýnge deyin taz qalpynda qalyp jatyr. Mysaly Respublika baspasózinde Abylay turaly shyndyq jazylghan yaghny onyng qazaq eli aldyndaghy qylmystary aitylghan maqalany jaryqqa shygharmaydy. Abylay turaly kez kelgen fantaziyany baspasóz betine jariyalau onay.

Sondyqtan Abylay turaly halyqtyng miyna arnayy sindirip jatqan fantaziyalar mazmúny mynanday: Abylay qazaqtyng halyq saylaghan hany, batyry, qolbasshysy jәne qazaq elin biriktirgen tarihy túlgha jәne s.s. shyndyqqa on qaynasa sorpasy qosylmaytyn fantaziyalar.

  1. Qazaq tarihynda handy halyq eshuaqytta saylaghan joq. Han saylaghan biyler yaghny rubasylar. Qazaqta 41 ru boldy...
  2. Abylay eshuaqytta qolbasy bolghan joq. Onyng sebebi qolbasy bolu ýshin әskeri bolu kerek. Onyng әskeri bolghan joq. Ol týgili basqa handarda da әsker bolghan joq... Áskerdi rubasylar beredi... Al Abylay qazaqtyng bir biyimen yaghny rubasymen dostyq qatynasta bolu týgili bir dastarqanda otyryp tabaqtas bolyp kórmegen adam. Demek óz zamanynda jeksúryn yaghny nәpaqasyn Resey basshylarynan tapqan adam.
  3. 1771 jyly Abylaydy Orta jýzge han dep jariyalaghan Resey ókimeti edi. Sondyqtan oghan Orta jýzding birde bir arghyny men qypshaghy baghynghan joq. Han bola salyp Reseyden әskery kómek súraghany osy oqighagha búltartpas dәlel. Onyng Orynbor gubernatory  I. A. Reynsdorpqa jazghan haty jәne basqa aighaqtar jetkilikti. Atalghan hat R.B.Suleymenov pen V.A. Moyseevting 1988 jyly shyqqan  «Iz istoriy Kazahstana HÝIII veka» atty kitaptyng 127-128 betterinde tolyq núsqasy berilgen....   Abylay ózining qamqorshysy Reseyden әsker súraghanda qazaq elin shet eldik jaulardan qorghau ýshin emes, kerisinshe ózin han dep moyyndamay otyrghan qazaqty qorqytyp baghyndyryp ústau ýshin súraghan...

Reseyding sayasaty boyynsha – Qazaqtar keleshekte ózining batyrlyq pen erlikke toly jerin, elin qorghaghan tarihyn bilmeuge tiyisti. Osy sayasatty Resey basshylary myqtap ústady. Shet elderge Qazaqstan Reseyge óz erkimen qosyldy dep habar sayasat taratty. Ózining qazaqqa jasaghan zúlymdyqtaryn jasyryp barlyq jau aldaqashan sýiegi qurap ketken jonghar -dep qazaqtyng basyn ainaldyryp qoydy

Tarihymyzdy Resey nege osynsha múqatty, ózgertkeni sonshalyq osy kýngi qazaqtar orystan basqanyng bәri jau jәne Abylaydan bas han, batyr әlde ghúlama bolghan joq dep týsinedi... Qazaqqqa óz tarihynyng shyndyghyn bildirmes ýshin neshe týrli qiytúrqy әreketter jasaldy. Biz tómende tek Abylaygha qatysty jalghan tarih jasaghan Resey әreketterine toqtalamyz.

Abylaydyng artynda Resey imperiyasy túrghany búrynnan belgili jaghday. Sol Abylaydy qazaq eline jaqsy jaghynan tanytyp, keleshekte qazaq elining naghyz patriottaryn basqasha etip kórsetuge Resey kóp kýsh saldy.  Resey qazaq tarihyn kompleksti týrde  búrmalaudy HIH –ghasyrdyng birinshi jartysynda bastaghan edi.  (Al odan bir ghasyr búryn 1731 jylghy Ábilhayyrdyng hatyn orysshagha audaryp bodandyq súraghan dep jalghan dokument jasalghan bolatyn.)

Osynau ýlken tapsyrmany yaghny tarihy missiyany 1825 jyldary A.IY.Levshinge (1797-1879) jýktegen bolatyn. Onyng zertteui men jaryqqa shygharghan kitabynyng negizgi mindeti 250 jyldan beri Reseyge qarsy túryp kele jatqan Kishi jýz halqyn óz erkimen Reseyge qosyldy – dep kórsetu. Reseyge qarsy kýresti 48 jyl boyy basqarghan Ábilhayyr syndy han, batyr, qolbasshyny óz halqyna keleshekte satqyn etip kórsetu... Sonday-aq Reseyge adal qyzmet etken Abylaydy maqtap dәriptep keleshekte qazaq elining batyryna ainaldyru bolghany anyq kórinedi...  Onyng әigili kitaby Peterburgte 1832 jyly jaryq kórdi...  Búl Reseyding qazaq tarihyn búrmalaudaghy jәne Abylaydy madaqtap dәripteumen qazaq tarihyn ózgertuge arnalghan birinshi әreketi yaghny birinshi kezeni edi.

Keyinirek Sh.Sh.Uәlihanov búl kitaptyng kóp qatesin tauyp Levshindi Qazaq tarihynyng Gerodoty dep qatty synady. 1731 jylghy Ábilhayyrdyng Reseyge jazghan hatynyng týpnúsqasyn Levshin jaqsy bildi. Sol hattyng týpnúsqasyn Resey basshylary Shoqangha әriyne kórsetken joq. Alayda sol hattyng oryssha jalghan audarmasyna talay zertteushiler sense de Shoqan senbegen edi... Qazaq ghalymy әigili sayahatshy 1860-61 jyldary Peterburgte túrghanda Levshin oghan yaghny Shoqangha kezdesuge kelmegen, tek syrttan baqylaghan....

Jalpy Levshin óz zamanynyng myqty tarihshysy, alayda ol negizgi ókimet tapsyrmasyn oryndap qazaq elining tarihyn búrmalap jazyp kez kelgen mýmkindikti paydalanyp Abylaydy maqtap jazghany kózge ottay basylady. Degenmen myqty zertteushi bolghandyqtan keybir tarihy mәlimetting shyndyghyn beruge mәjbýr bolghan. Mysaly Abylay Balhash ónirinde qashyp bara jatqan qalmaqtardy talqandaugha kelem dep kelmey qalghany t.b. tarihy mәlimetter bar. Sol shayqasta qalmaqtardy qazaq әskeri Eralynyn (Ábilhayyrdyng kishi balasy) basshylyghymen oisyrata jengeni turaly jazghany tarihy shyndyq edi. Biz әriyne sol ýshin Levshinge alghys aitamyz. Sol oqighadan az kýn búryn Batys Qazaqstan jerinde qalmaqtardy Núraly han talqandap edi. Ol Ábilhayyrdyng ýlken balasy....  Abylay kerisinshe qalmaqtargha kómektesip janashyrlyq jasaghan. Onyng songhy tórt әieli qalmaq qyzdary edi, biraq balalary bolmaghan...

Abylaydy maqtap qazaq elin tól tarihynan adastyru ýshin Resey basshylary ekinshi kompleksti әreketti yaghny ekinshi kezenin 1860 jyly bastady. Sonday-aq osy ýlken talpynysqa taghy da Levshindi paydalandy. Maqalany Levshinge jazdyryp Ablay – dep taqyryp qoyyp, onyng artyna Ch.V. –dep avtordyng atyn qoyyp, keleshekte qazaqtyng ózi jazghan maqala dep qabyldasyn jәne kez kelgen adam emes, qazaqtyng әigili ghalymy Shoqan Uәlihanov jazghan maqalany qazaqtar jaqsy qabyldaydy – dep alystan túzaq qúrghan edi... Búl maqalany kez kelgen gazet әlde jurnal emes fundamental basylym alghashqy Resey ensiklopediyasyna basyp shygharghan (1861). Sol ensiklopediyada belgili tarihy túlghalardyng ózine berilgen teksting kólemi bir –eki abzastan aspaydy. Al Abylaygha bergen tekst 4 betti qúraydy... jәne aqylgha simaytyn neshe týrli fantaziyalardan qúralghan. Keyinirek osy maqaladaghy fantaziyalar arqyly qazaqtardyng ózi neshe týrli anyzdar oilap shyghardy. Sibirskiy sarevich, jekpe jekte Jonghar hanynyng balasy Charyshty óltirgen batyr, eshkimge baghynbaghan sheksiz biylikti han tek Abylay boldy, 1774 jyl ýisin aqsaqaldarynyng ótinishimen balasy Ádildi han etip otyrghyzghan. Oghan Talas boyynan qala salyp berip enbekqor qaraqalpaqtardy qonystandyrghan. –degen siyaqty fantaziyalardy alghash jazyp Shoqannyng atymen jariyalaghan...  Sonday-aq 1723 jylghy Aqtaban shúbyryndy kezinde Orta jýz qazaqtary Samarqandqa, Kishi jýz qazaqtary Hiua men Búharagha  baryp tyghyldy – dep jazylghan fantaziyalar osy uaqytqa deyin talay tarihshylar men zertteushilerdi shatystyrdy...

Tarihtyng shyndyghyn aitatyn bolsaq Kishi jýz halqy Aqtaban shúbyryndy oqighasyna úshyraghan joq. Osy katastrofanyng avtory jonghar emes I Petr Resey patshasy edi. Batystan qaptap kele jatqan orys әskeri men qalmaq әskerlerin Ábilhayyr toqtatyp qana qoyghan joq. Edilden asyryp qudy. Reseydin oqatar zenbirikterin aparyp jongharlardy ýiretken I.Unkovskiydin basshylyghymen qaqaghan qysta shabuyl jasaghan jongharlar I Petrding josparyn oryndap Týrkstangha deyingi jerdi basyp aldy... Batystaghy jaulary orystar men qalmaqtardy oisyrata jengen Ábilhayyr  kóp úzamay Qazaqstannyng ontýstigin jongharlardan tazartqany tarihy shyndyq....

Qysqasyn aitqanda Levshinning Shoqan atymen jariyalaghan maqalasy qazaq elin shyn mәninde aqymaq qylyp talay úrpaghyn aldap kele jatyr. Imperiyanyng sayasaty keremet... Bir maqalamen býkil qazaqtyng tarihyn 180 gradusqa búryp qoyghan....

Orystardyng Abylaydy madaqtaghan ýshinshi әreketi HH – ghasyrdyng basynda bastaldy. Reseyding búl әreketi bәrinen de jemisti boldy.1904 jyly Orys Geografiyalyq qoghamy Peterburgte  jaryqqa shygharghan Sh.Sh.Uәlihanovtyng bir tomdyq Shygharmalar jinaghyna jogharyda aitylghan Ablay atty maqalany birinshi etip kirgizdi. Atalghan maqala Qazaq intelliygensiyasy arasyna iritki týsirdi... Býkil Týrki halyqtary qozghalysynyng kóshbasshysy Qyrymdyq Gaspirinskiy (HIH –ghasyr aqyry) bolghany belgili. Alayda Býkil týrki qozghalysynyng gegemondyghy Qazaq intelliygensiyasyna ótti. Solardyng juan ortasynda Bókeyhanov, Baytúrsynov, Mústapa Shoqay. Maghjan Júmabaev j.b. boldy. M.Shoqaydy  vojd vseh turkskih narodov dep ataghan bolsa, Maghjandy kirgizskiy  Pushkiyn dep baghalaghan Resey intelliygensiyasy...

Mine osy asa bedeldi Qazaq intelliygensiyasy aldynda әlgi Ablay atty maqala Sh.Sh.Uәlihanovtyng bedelin myqtap týsirdi... Sebebi aldynghy qatarly qazaq intelliygensiyasy Abylay tarihyn jaqsy biletin edi. Al, keybireuleri myna maqalany Shoqannyng ózi jazghan dep oilap qaldy... Mysaly S.Seyfulliyn sol maqalanyng negizinde ózining Kókshetau poemasynda halyq anyzdaryn Abylay atymen bergen edi...

Resey odan song Sovet ókimeti 1946 jylgha deyin sýiikti qúly Abylaygha kónil bóle almady.   Birinshi dýniyejýzilik soghys, revolusiya jәne Ekinshi dýniyejýzilik soghys saldarynan Qazaq tarihyna kónil bóle almady. Kerisinshe Úly Otan soghysy kezinde keybir qazaqtyng tarihy túlghalaryn baspasóz betinde fashisterge qarsy soghysqan jauyngerlerge  ruh beru ýshin paydalandy. Al soghys bitken song qazaq batyrlaryn madaqtaugha tiym salyndy. Altyn Orda basshylarynyng biri qazaq bii Edigeni mәngige jauyp tastady. Sol jabylghan qazaq batyrlary ishinde sýigen qúly Abylay da ketip qalmasyn dep tez arada shúghyl shara qoldandy... Osylay Abylaygha jasalghan qamqorlyqtyng tórtinshi әreketi yaghny tórtinshi kezeni bastaldy.

1946 jyldyng basynda Almatyda H.G.Aydarovanyn  «Chokan Valihanov» degen 196 bettik kitaby jaryq kórdi. Mine osy kisige Moskva basshylary Shoqannyng birneshe maqalasymen Ablay atty maqalasyn tez arada kitap etip shygharu tapsyryldy. 1947 jyly Almatyda Sh.Sh.Uәlihanovtyng «Statiy y perepiskiy» degen atpen 160 bet kólemde kishkentay kitaby jaryq kórdi. Osy kitapqa birinshi bolyp Ablay jәne Shoqan zertteulerining shyny yaghny asa qúndy zertteuleri bolghan ýsh maqalasy (O sudebnoy reforme, Ocherky Djungariy jәne Shamanizm turaly) jәne birneshe hattary kirgizildi...

Qazaqtargha Abylaydy keng kólemde reklama jasau ýshin osy kitapty tez arada qazaq tiline audartyp (Audarghan Qosanov Dihanbay) 1949 jyly 10 myng tirajben jaryqqa shyghardy... (Ghylymy kitapqa eshuaqytta osynsha kóp tiraj berilmeytin edi)....

Qaranyz ainalayyn alashtyng azamattary. Ne degen súrqiyalyq. Reseyge qazaq ghalymy Shoqannyng keregi joq, Abylay kerek. Sebebi sol arqyly qazaqty aqymaq etuge bolady. Eng bolmasa  Shoqannyng enbekterin Revolusiyadan búrynghyday 500 bet etip shygharsa bolmas pa edi... Osynyng ózi Reseyding Abylaydy qyzghyshtay qorghaytynyn anyq kórsetpey me???

Kóp úzamay qazaqtyng belgili tarihshy ghalymy E.Bekmahanov naqaqtan aiyptalyp  onyng asa irgeli jәne qúndy zertteui Kenesary turaly enbekteri jabylyp qaldy. Al onyng atasy Abylaygha Resey basshylary qamqorlyghyn ayaghan joq.  Abylay Reseyge qyzmet etken adam, al onyng nemeresi Reseyge qarsy kýresken adam. Osylay besinshi kezen bastaldy.

Besinshi kezen Ablay atty maqalany Sh.Sh.Uәlihanovtyng bes tomdyq jinaghynyng 1-tomyna (1961) kirgizdi. Myna súrqiyalyqty qaranyz: Qazaq ghalymynyng Edige by turaly asa qúndy eki zertteuin 5 tomdyq jinaqqa da basqa eshqanday basylymgha da kirgizbedi. Osy atalghan ýsh maqala 1904 jylghy Veselovskiy shygharghan Shoqannyng bir tomdyq kólemdi kitabyna kirgen edi. Al elding kýnning amanynda ghylymgha jany ashityn elde osynda beybastaqtyq bola ma...

Abylaydy madaqtap qazaqtardy aqymaq qylatyn altynshy kezen Iliyas Esenberlinge kitap jazdyrumen bastaldy. Abylaydy qazaq tilinde madaqtap jazyp elge keng kólemde tanystyryp milarynda myqtap qalyptastyru ýshin aldymen Kenesary turaly kitap jazdyryp jaryqqa shyghardy. Kenesaryny zerttegeni ýshin Bekmahanov sottalghan joqpa edi. Alayda onyng zertteui naqty ghylymy bolghandyqtan býgin bolmasa erteng qalqyp shyghatyny belgili. Kenesary turaly kitap qazaqtardy qatty qyzyqtyrady, odan song Abylay turaly kitap shyqsa núr ýstine núr bolady... Qazaq eli Kenesaryny da Abylaydy da jaqsy qabyldaytyny belgili. Sonymen Abylay da, Kenesary da, onyng avtory I.Esenberlinning kóp tirajben shyqqan kitaby arqasynda qazaq eline tanymal boldy.

Jetinshi kezendi Sovet ókimetining basshylary 1980 jyldary bastaghan eken. Biz ony 1985 jylgha deyin bilgen joqpyz... 1983 jyldan bastap biz yaghny Sh.Sh.Uәlihanov atyndaghy Tariyh, arheologiya jәne etnografiya institutining kollektiyvi úly ghalym Shoqannyng 150 jyldyq mereytoyyn YuNESKO kóleminde toylaugha kyzu kiristik. Osy ýlken dýrbelendi Sovet ókimet basshylary da óz sayasatyna paydalanu ýshin qyzu qimyldap qalypty. 1985 jyly yaghny Shoqannyng 150 jyldyq mereytoyy qarsanynda Abylay atty kitapty dәl sol jyldyng Ghylym baspasy templanyna kirgizgen eken. Onyng avtory V.A.Moyseev Mәskeuding ózi dayyndap ghylym kandidaty etip bizding institutke jibergen kadry edi. Biz tang qalghanymyz sonsha. Mәskeu ýshin qazaq ghalymy Shoqangha qaraghanda Abylay asa qadirli ekenin kórdik....

Onyng ýstine ýsh jyl búryn (1982)  Qazaqstannyng Reseyge qosylghanynyng 250 jyldyq mereytoyy kezinde Ábilhayyrgha tiyisti tolyq qúrmet kórsetpegenin óz kózimizben kórgen edik. Qazaq elin Reseyge qosudy bastaghan Ábilhayyr  osy mereytoyda negizgi tarihy túlgha bolu kerek edi. Sonday-aq sol ýlken mereytoy qarsanynda әlde saltanatty jiylystan song Ábilhayyrgha arnap jinaq kitap úiymdastyrar dep kýtken edik. Biz sonda qazaqtyng batyr qolbasshysy, Kishi jýz hany (1709-1748 jj.) Ábilhayyr turaly maqala berip mәz bolamyz degen josparymyz eskerusiz qaldy...   Alayda onday eshtene bolmaghan song Mәskeuding atam zamannan beri Ábilhayyrdy atargha oghy joq ekeni belgili boldy. Ábilhayyrdyn  Reseymen eshqashan dos bolmaghany jәne eshqashan bodandyq súramaghany sol kezde bizge aidan anyq týsinikti bolghan edi....

Al myna jaghday - Abylay turaly kitaptyng Qazaq SSR Ghylym Akademiyasy baspasynyng templanynda túrghany bizdi tang qaldyrdy. Onyng avtory biz kýnde kórip jýrgen Moyseev. Men oghan jolyqqanda – ol әli bitire almay jatqanyn aitty. Qanshama ghalymdar dayyn túrghan kitabyn Ghylym baspasynyng templanyna kirgizu ýshin kóptegen talqylaular men Ghylymy sovetten ótip birneshe jyldar jýredi...  Al myna Abylay turaly kitaptyng Mәskeu núsqauymen eshqanday talqylausyz jәne jazylmay jatyp templangha kirui  Mәskeuding qanshalyqty janashyr ekenin kórsetedi... Sol kezde Institutke janadan diyrektor bolghan R.B.Sýleymenov maghan jeke ózime Moyseevke kómektesuimdi ótindi. Men quana kelistim. Moyseevke keregi qazaq aqyndarynyng Abylay turaly qalay jyrlaghandary jәne halyq anyzdary eken. Ol tek Abylaydy maqtaghan jyrlardy alghysy keletinin bayqadym. Redkiy fondtan Mәshhýr Jýsip múralaryn da kóterdik...

Abylay turaly sol kitapqa soavtor etip R.B. Sýleymenovti qoyghan sebepti kitap 2-3 jyl keshigip shyqty. Sebebi Institut diyrektory, ómir boyy kompartiya tarihymen ainalysqan Ramazan Sýleymenov soavtor bolugha yaghny onay oljagha quanyshpen kiristi. Alayda búryn Sovet ókimeti qazaq handaryna sol kózben qaraytyn bolghandyqtan qorqyp (әldeqalay jaghday bolyp kete me dep) kitaptyng taqyrybyn Iz istoriy Kazahstana HÝIII veka dep qoyyp 1988 jyly jaryqqa shyghardy... Resenzent etip bizding bólimning Shoqantanushy jigitterin almay H.Arghynbaevty әdeyi alghan. Osynyng ózi ol kitaptyng qúndylyghyna ýlken kýdik tughyzady. Sonyng aldynda  Óner baspasynda «Shoqan jәne óner» degen kitap shyqqan edi (1985 jyl. Avtory Seysen Múqtarúly). Atalghan kitaptyng qoljazbasyn kórip Marghúlan shygharugha bolmaytyn aitqan edi. Birazdan song maghan bergen edi. Men ony biraz óndemey shygharugha bolmaytynyn aitqanmyn. Mine sol kitap shyqqanda kórdik, resenzenti H.Arghynbaev eken. Sol kitap kóptegen janjal tughyzdy. Halel Arghynbaev ghylym doktory - ómir boyy Marghúlannyng etnografiya bóliminde enbek etkenmen Shoqantanushylar tobynda bolmaghan adam. Demek ol Shoqan múralarynan habarsyz etnograf ghalym....

Sonymen 1988 jaryq kórgen Moyseevtin  Iz istoriy Kazahstana HÝIII veka atty kitapty oqyp kórip búrynghydan beter tang qaldyq. Shoqannyng atymen shyqqan Ablay atty maqalanyng ishindegi shyndyqqa on qaynasa sorpasy qosylmaytyn fantaziyalardy odan beter etip jazypty. Oghan kosa qazaq aqyndarynyng tek Abylaydy maqtaghan jyrlardy orysshalap bergen. Abylaygha qarsy aitylghan jyrlardy almapty... Qúday salmasyn osynsha qopaldyq pen súrqiyalyqty tek qazaq eli ghana moynyna kóteredi eken. Sebebi bizding halyqty aldap arbau Resey ýshin HH ghasyrda tym onay boldy.

Abylaydy keremet memleket qayratkeri, diplomat sayasatker retinde qanshama fantaziyalar jazghan. Bәrin aitugha maqalanyng kólemi kótermeydi, sondyqtan keybir shekten shyqqan jerlerin kórseteyik... «...Ego sila byla v predpriimchivosti, dalinovidnosti, otvage. Porajaet diplomaticheskoe iskusstvo, s kotorym on vel peregovory s izoshrennymy diplomatamy Kitaya, predviydenie neizbejnogo dalineyshego sbliyjeniya Rossiy y Kazahstana. Vot vesima, na nash vzglyad, harakternyy priymer taktiky Ablaya vo vzaimootnosheniyah s sarskimy vlastyami. Ablay dobivaetsya voennoy pomoshy ot Rossiy y piyshet pisimo orenburgskomu gubernatoru I. A. Reynsdorpu ...»  - dep jazyp Abylaydy tóbesin kókke jetizip jazyp odan ary qaray onyng Reseyden әsker súraghan hatyn beripti... (127-bet)

Qazaqtardan ózin qorghau ýshin әsker súraghan Abylaydyng dәrmensizdigi men sharasyzdyghyn bylay  dep juyp shayypty: Takim obrazom, Ablay, dobivayasi prisylky sarskih voysk dlya raspravy s nepokornymy kipchakamiy, stremitsya predstaviti delo tak, budto ot etogo zavisit sostoyanie russko-kazahskih otnosheniy, davaya pry etom ponyati, chto v protivnom sluchae on poluchit  etu pomoshi ot Sinskoy imperiiy.(128-bet) – dep taghy bir fantaziyany oilap tauypty... Jalghyz Reseyden emes Abylay Qytaydan  talay kómek súraghan... Sonyng ishinde әsker súraghany tarihy shyndyq... Alayda oghan Qytay da, Resey de әsker bergen joq. Sebebi Abylay biyligi qazaq arasynda eshqashan jýrgen joq. Resey qansha kómektesse de, han etip Orta jýzge otyrghyzsa da onyng qazaq arasyndaghy bedeli bolghan joq... Ol әsker súraghanda qazaqtardan qorghanu ýshin súraghan. Aqyr sonynda Reysendorp – Qauipti bolsa Orynbargha kelip kazarmada túr- dep әsker bere almaytyndyghyn aitqan.

Aqyry Abylay qazaqtar týbine jetetin bolghandyqtan Orta jýzdi tastap qashyp, ontýstikke ketuge mәjbýr boldy. Áytpese ony arghyndar óltiretin edi. 1779 jyly kóktemde Abylay óz tólengitterimen Týrkstangha qaray asygha kóshti... Ontýstikten Reysendorpke jazghan hatynda (13 avgusti 1779 jyl) Abylay: «...Endi mening biyligimde Úly jýz ben Kishi jýz...»(Kazahsko-russkie otnosheniya v HÝIII-HIH vekah. A. 1964. 100-bet) dep aitypty. Búl әriyne Abylaydyng kóp ótirigining biri. Basqany aldasang da orysty aldau mýmkin emes. Sol kezdegi Qazaqstannyng jaghdayyn orystar Abylaydan әldeneshe ret artyq biledi. Áriyne onyng ontýstikke kelgenin jalghyz qazaq emes sarttar jәne qyrghyzdar nayzanyng úshymen qarsy alghany tarihy shyndyq. .. Áriyne osy tarihy shyndyqtar Moyseev kitabynda aitylmaydy...

Jergilikti halyqtardy qorqytu ýshin orystyng bir soldatyn kórsetip Abylay:- Arqadan orys әskeri, shyghystan qytay әskeri maghan kómekke kele jatyr – dep jariya qylghan. Álgi Abylaydyng janynda bolghan orys soldaty turaly Moyseev te jazghan edi(132-bet). «...Ablay...  priybeg k zapugivanii kirgizov podderjkoy ego deystviy so storony Rossiy y Sinskoy imperii. Tak, v 1778 g. iz Petropavlovskoy kreposty v kocheviya Ablaya bejal russkiy soldat Yakov, prinyavshiy uchastie v etom pohode. «Y kogda Ablay po nekotorom srajeniy posylal ot sebya k kirgizam dlya uveshevaniya svoih telengutov, to s nimy otpravlen byl y oznachennyy begloy sol dat, odetoy v ammunisii, s takim ustrashivaniyem, yakoby on, Ablay, iymeet u sebya na pomoshi nemalochislennoe y silinoe rossiyskoe voysko s orujiyem y dokazyval tem samym soldatom». Nakones, ukazyvaya kirgizskim voenachalinikam na raspolojennyy na kitayskoy graniyse sinskiy otryad v 500 chelovek «dlya obyknovennoy po graniyse straji» Ablay uveryal ih «budto y to kitayskoe voysko, takje v pomoshi emu, Ablay, tut prislano, otchego kirgizy y prishly v nemaluy robosti...»(A VP R. F. Kirgiyz-kaysaskie dela. Op. 122/1. 1779— 1780. D. 1. . L. 245 ob.)

Jalpy Ablay ómir boyy Qytay men Reseyden әsker súrap jalynyp ótken. Onyng búl qylyghyn eshqanday tarihshy jasyra almady. Qazybek biyding tuysqany Botaqandy óltirgeni ýshin arghyndardan qashyp, ontýstýstikke bara jatyp, Reseyden Týrkstangha ornyghu ýshin әsker súraydy. Dәl osy oqighany Moyseev: «...Osnovnym voprosom v ego vzaimootnosheniyah s sarskimy vlastyamy vploti do otiezda v 1779 g. v Turkestan byl o prisylke emu orujiya y voysk y o priyezde ego polucheniya znakov hanskogo dostoynstva v odnu iz sibirskih krepostey. Nastaivaya na prisylke emu voennogo otryada, Ablay garantiroval soldatam sohranenie jizny y imushestva, vozmesheniya vseh ponesennyh ubytkov y t.d. No vse eto naprasno. Togda pribyvshemu k nemu kapitanu G.Lilingreynu Ablay otkrovenno zayaviyl, chto on poehal by v Orenburg ily drugoy gorod pry usloviy «est ly by dany byly prosimyya im voyska....

...Ablay nastoychivo dobivalsya ot sarskoy administrasiy y sinskogo praviytelistva voennoy pomoshi, tak kak voyna s kirgizamy byla nepopulyarna v kazahskom narode. Bolishinstvo sultanov, biyev y batyrov ne podderjaly voinstvennye plany Ablaya...» (129-bet, Kórsetilgen shygh.)

Abylaydyng jergilikti halyqty aldap qorqytuy úzaqqa barghan joq. Sarttarmen qaqtyghysta jaraly bolyp kóp úzamay qaytys bolghany turaly Mirjaqyp Dulatov jazghan naqty derek bar (Abylay han. A.Jazushy baspasy.1993.385-bet). Alayda Abylaydy maqtaushylar onyng  abyroysyz ólimi turaly eshtene jazbaydy...

1780 jyly 16 –iinide Reseyden barghan Bekchuriyn Tashkent aimaghyndaghy qonystanghan jerine baryp Abylaydy songhy ret kórgen edi. Mendiyar Bekchurinnin  jazghanyna qaraghanda onyng jaghdayy mәz emes.

«...raspolojilsya v shestidnevnoy ezde ot goroda Tashkeniiy...

Ablay nyne prebyvanie iymeet v pokazannom  je urochiyshe,  pry koem nahoditsya y voyska ne bolee dvu sot chelovek, da y to bolishey chastiu iz plennyh truhmensov, kalmyk y protchih plennyh narodov y na tom meste proizvodit hlebopashestvo...» (AVPR.  Tam je;  .Kazahsko-russkie otnosheniya v HÝIII-HIH vekah. A. 1964. 102-bet) .

Osy sitatany paydalana otyryp Moyseev Abylay búl jerde kyrghyzdardy baghyndyru ýshin cúrap  otyr- dep jazypty (... dlya pokoreniya pod svoe vladenie dikih kirgizov, v gorah kochuishiyh...132-bet). Ne degen masqara.... Abylay ol jerde oryssha aitqanda na ptichiy pravah jýrip jatsa da ony Moyseev maqtap madaqtay beredi. Taghy bir tarihshy Núrlan Atyghaev kórsetilgen sitadaghy na tom meste proizvodit hlebopashestvo... degen sóilemdi paydalanyp Abylay qazaqtargha eginshilikti ýiretip  jatyr dep Respublikalyq gazetting birinde jariyalady...  Osynday soraqylyqtar tek bizding elde ghana bolady.

Abylaydy jaqtaushylar onyng ólimi turaly eshtene jazbaytynyn jogharyda aitqanbyz. Sondyqtan Moyseev: «...Oseniu 1780 g. Ablay tyajelo zabolel y vskore skonchalsya. Tochnuy datu smerty Ablaya ustanoviti poka ne udalosi. Skonchalsya on oseniu 1780 g. pod Tashkentom.» - dep jazypty.

Áriyne osynsha maqtap memleket qayratkeri dәrejesine kóterip otyrghan adamnyng abyroysyz ólimi turaly shyndyqty jazu ynghaysyz... Eger Orta jýz halqy han dep moyyndasa múnday jaghday bolmas edi. Jaraydy ol Orta jýzden ketip qaldy. Abylaydyng tiytimdey abyroyy bolsa Úly jýz qazaqtary sarttardan kek alar edi... Onday bolghan joq.   Mysaly Ábilhayyrdy 1748 jyly Baraq súltan men Syrymbet batyr óltirgende onyng balalary olardyng ózin óltirip qana qoymay barlyq túqymy men qosyp qyryp jiberdi. Osyny istegen  Ábilhayyrdyng balalaryn halyq qoldady. Eger halyq qoldamasa olar eshtene jasay almas edi. Sebebi Ábilhayyr halyqtyng sýiiktisi boldy. Ony han etip saylaghan rubasylar edi (1709).

Abylaydy han etip bekitken Resey ókimeti, halyq saylaghan joq. Halyq aldynda onyng jeksúryn bolghany sonshalyq onyng ólimin joqtap sarttardan kek alatyn  bir adam bolmady.

Osy jerde taghy bir ashy shyndyqty aita keteyik. Orta jýz halqy Abylaydy it qosyp quyp jiberse de onyng balasy  Uәliydi han etip saylady. Resey basshylary Ábilmәmbetting balasy Ábilfeyizdi han etip saylau ýshin kóp enbek sinirgen edi, odan eshtene shyqpady. Uәly qazaq halqynyng qúrmetti adamy boldy . Sondyqtan Abylaygha baghynbaghan Orta jýz halqy Uәliydi 38 jyl han etip ústady. Ne degen keremet jaghday. Sondyqtan Resey ókimeti Uәly han turaly birdene jazsa jamandap qana jazdy. Sebebi ol әkesi Abylay siyaqty Reseydi emes óz halqyn jaqtaghan patriot adam edi. Abylay turaly myndaghan adam jazghan bolsa, Uәly turaly eki adam (Marghúlan men Óteniyazov) ghana jazypty.

Bizding tarih ghylymynyng shermendeligi, dәrmensizdigi yaghny bisharalyghy osy emespe....

Abylay turaly jazbalardyng Resey tarapynan bolghan Jetinshi kezenine osylay óte qysqasha sholu jasadyq... Atalghan Moyseevting kitabynda eki tarihy shyndyqty bergen jeri bar. Biz oghan sol ýshin alghys aytqanbyz... Birinshisi Qalmaq hany Seban Raptannyng Charysh esimdi batyr balasy bolmaghany. Levshiyn-Shoqannyng atymen dayyndaghan maqalada Abylay ony jekpe jekte óltirdi – degen bolatyn. Qazaqtar sony ilip alyp neshe týrli anyz shyghardy. Abylay boyy alasa, әljuaz adam bolghan, yaghny onyng jekpe jekke shyghatyn mýmkindigi әlde batyrlyghy boluy mýmkin emes. Búghan Shoqannyn  jazghandary dәlel.

Ekinshisi Abylaydyng Orta jýz hany bola túryp Reseyden qazaqtardy jazalau ýshin әsker súrap jazghan haty... Jalpy Moyseev(1948-2007) talantty ghalym, tarihshy. Biz onymen bir institutte biraz jyl birge istedik. Átteng ol Abylay turaly zertteuinde ókimetting qúryghynan shygha almady. Ol Jonghar tarihynyng belgili mamany. Onyng – Jongharlardan qazaq eline qazirgi oilaghanday ýlken qauip tóngen joq – dep bir maqalasynda jazdy. Áriyne barlyq qauip pen qastandyq Resey tarapynan boldy... Men ony sol ýshin  erekshe syiladym. 1993 jyly ol Barnaulgha ketip qaldy jәne sonda qaytys boldy...

Sherhan aghanyng renishi...

Kóp úzamay Sovet ókimeti ydyrady. Abylaygha janyshyrlyqty endi Qazaqstan basshylary bastady. 1993 jyly Abylay han degen jinaqty Sәrsenbi Dәuitov qúrastyrdy da jaryqqa  30 myng tirajben shyghardy. Biz  osy jinaqqa Abylaydyng 1745 jylghy Úly jýzdi Resey qúramyna kirgizu kerek dep  jazghan hatymen 1771-jyly Orta jýzge han bola salyp әsker súrap jazghan hatyn aparyp bergen edik. Ony kirgizbepti...

Atalghan jinaqta biz erekshe kónil bólgen maqala Mirjaqyp Dulatovtiki boldy. Ol alghash ret 1912 jyly Ayqap jurnalynyng 6-sanynda Azamat Alashúlynyn atymen basylghan eken.   Alashtyng birtuar azamaty maqalasynyng basynda Abylaydy maqtaghan Arystan aqynnyng bir shumaq óleninen son: «Búl kýnge deyin qazaq júrtynda Abylaydyng anyq ata jónin bilushi kem...» (381-bet)- dep ary qaray esitkenderin jazypty. Jalpy bizding aitatynymyz  osy uaqytqa deyin aitylyp jýrgen Abylay- Qazaq memleketin qúrghan Jәnibek hannyng úrpaghy emes. Ózining aituy boyynsha ol Uәly súltannyn  balasy. Áriyne búl derekting shyndyghy ekitalay. Dәl solay bolghan kýnning ózinde Uәly súltan Jәnibek hannyng úrpaghy bolmasa da Shynghys hannyng úrpaghy ekeni ras.(MIKH, Materialy po istoriy Kazahskogo Hanstva,1969 ).

Mirjaqyp atamyz Tәuekel hannyng Búhara, Samarqandqa jasaghan joryghyn Abylaymen shatastyrypty.Tashkent ónirinde sarttar Abylaydy tólengitterimen qosyp jazalaghanda: «...-Qayran Orta jýzben Kishi jýzding batyrlary qasymda bolsa búl qorlyqty kórmes edim»- dep barmaghyn shaynaghan eken.»  Odan ary qaray sol kýni Abylaydyng qaytys bolghanyn aitypty.. Bizding búl jerde bayqaghanymyz – Qazaq intelliygensiyasynyng ishinde Abylay turaly jaqsy jazyp qaldyrghan jalghyz osy Mirjaqyp atamyz ghana. Jalpy qazaq intelliygensiyasynyng ýlken bóligi 1904 jyly Shoqannyng atymen Ablay degen maqaladan song qazaqtyng әigili ghalymy Sh.ShUәlihanovqa  suyq qaray bastaghan. Ony sol maqalasy ýshin ghalym emes, kóp shonjardyng biri eken dep oilap qalghan. Átteng olar Shoqannyng basqa zertteulerinde  Abylay turaly basqasha jazghanyn bilmey ketti.

Atalghan jinaq shyqqan jyly Egemendi Qazaqstan gazetine Tarih institutining diyrektory M.Q.Qozybaevtyng Abylay degen maqalasy jaryq kórdi. Ol kisige tapsyrysty jogharydan,әriyne Reseyden emes, Qazaqstan basshylarynan berilgen siyaqty. Áytpese ol ómir boyy kompartiya tarihymen ainalysqan adam ózdiginen kirispes edi. Áriyne búl maqala Abylay turaly fantaziyalardy qaytalaghan edi. Ol kezde gazetting bas redaktory Sherhan aghagha basqa bir júmyspen baryp qalghanymda maghan: - Abylay turaly maqalandy endi berseng nomerge kelesi aptada salamyz - dedi. Biraz otyryp әngimelestik... -Qazir maqalany bermey túra túrayyn. Qozybaev mening diyrektorym, mening maqalam oghan óte auyr tiii mýmkin ...Búryn infark alghan adam edi... -  dedim. Sheragha qatty renjip maghan kóp sózder aitty.. ... Kóp úzamay Elbasynyng kitabynda Abylay turaly – Qazaq elin ajaldan qútqarghan jәne qazaq elin biriktirgen Abylay – degen siyaqty úrandatqan lebizder jazyldy...

Qazaqstan últtyq ensiklopediyasyna Abylay turaly neshe týrli fantaziyalar jazylghan maqalalar basyldy. ...90 biydi bastap baryp Tóle by Abylaydy Jonghar tútqynynan bosatty... Abylaydyng 40 úly 30 qyzy bar t.b. ensiklopediya týgili gazet – jurnalgha basugha bolmaytyn fantaziyalar jazylyp kólemdi maqalalar basylyp shyqty. Bir  qyzyghy solardyng birining avtory dep  Janúzaq Qasymbaevtyn aty qoyylypty. Áriyne onday kelensiz maqalany ol aghamyz berui mýmkin emes.

Osylay Abylay turaly fantaziya jazyp qazaq elin aqiqat tarihtan alastatudyng bastalghanyna 30 jylgha jaqyndap qaldy... Búryn onyng artynda Resey bolsa, egemendik alghaly Qazaqstan basshylary qamqorlyq jasap otyr. Respublikanyng baspasózi Abylaydy maqtap jazghan maqala bolsa irikpey basady. Al shyndyq jazylghan maqala bolsa jolatpaydy...

Demek Qazaqstan basshylary әli kýnge deyin Sh.Sh.Uәlihanov múralaryna  ong kózben qaraytyny - adam sengisiz jaghday. Alayda shyndyq osylay...

Shoqan shyndyghy jәne shoqantanushy ghalymdar nege shettetildi?

2010 jyly 6 tom bolyp  Sh.Sh.Uәlihanovtyng enbekteri qazaq tilinde basylyp shyqty. Osy basylymgha búrynghy shoqantanushy mamandardyng eshqaysysy qatystyrylghan joq. Sondyqtan kemshiligi asyp jetiledi. Ókimet búl basylymgha kóp qarjy bóldi, aqsha jýrgen jerde adaldyq pen patriottyq bola bermeytini búrynnan belgili. Jogharyda aitylghan Abylay turaly maqalagha jazylghan týsiniktemede: Qoljazba tolyghymen saqtalghan. UShJ mәtinderi boyynsha basylyp otyr, t.I, 1961, 426-430-b. (4.443-bet). Onyng qoljazbasy bolmaghanyn biz jaqsy bilemiz...

Sonda olar qoljazbany tapqan bolyp akademikter Marghúlan jәne Kómekovter basqarghan shoqantanushylardan asyp ketip oza shauyp otyr.

Qoljazba tolyghymen saqtalghan dep kóptegen shoqantanushy ghalymdardy ótirikshi etip kórsetip otyr. Onyng qoljazbasy eshuaqytta bolghan joq. Boluy mýmkin emes, әriyne Shoqan jazghan bolsa saqtalghan bolar edi.

Osydan birneshe jyl búryn Shyghystanu institutinde 8 tom bolyp Sh.Sh.Uәlihanovtyng enbekteri óte az tirajben jaryq kórdi. Barlyghy 4-5 dana... Basqarghan Meruert Abuseitova. Áriyne búghan Qazaqstan basshylary kóp qarajat bóldi. Sondyqtan osy basylymgha da shoqantanushy mamandar qatystyrylmady... Aqsha jýrgen jerde osylay bolatyny belgili. Onyng kemshilikterine basqa maqalamyzda toqtalghanbyz....

Sol Ablay atty Shoqannyng atymen orystar jariyalaghan maqala 1947 jyldan bastap әldeneshe ret jaryq kórip qazaqtardy әbden shatastyrdy. Eki ret qazaq tilinde (1949 jәne 2010 jyldary)  ýsh ret orys tilinde jaryq kórdi. 1947 jyly jәne 1961 Sh.Sh.Uәlihanovtyng 1-tomynda (426-430 better), 1985 jyly mereytoygha arnalghan 5 tomdyqtyng 4-tomynda (111-116 better).

Resey basshylary bir maqalamen barlyq qazaqty op-onay aqymaq qylyp qoyyp mәz bolyp jýr. Sonday-aq Ábilhayyrdyng 1731 jylghy hatynyng oryssha audarmasymen ghasyrlar boyy tek qazaq emes barlyq týrki halyqtaryn aqymaq etip qoydy. 1999 jyl Ábilhayyrdyng tarihy haty dúry audarylyp onyng ishinde bodandyq súraghan bir sóz bolmay shyghyp talay jazghyshtardyng saghyn syndyrdy. Alayda osy kýnge deyin mektep jәne uniyversiytetterding oqulyqtary búrynghyday Ábilhayyrdy satqyn keypinde kórip jýr... Búl qanday úghym beretini týsinikti. Qazaqstan basshylary da halqymyzdyng tól tarihyn bilmey orysqa jaltaqtauyn toqtatpasyn dep kókseytinin bildiredi.

Jalpy Qazaqstannyng Tarih ghylymynda Shoqan enbekterin dúrys paydalanyp jatqan joq. Tipti onyng keybir asa qúndy maqalalary paydalanbaq týgili ayaq asty bolyp jatyrghanyna bir dәlel aita keteyik.  Bayaghy 1995-98 jyldarda Reseyding Bank Imperialy Qazaqstan tele kanaldarynda Temirlan turaly bir tarihy epizodty 4 jyl boyy kórsetip túrdy. Sol reklamadaghy oqigha Temirlandiki emes Qazaq hany Esimdiki edi. Ony Shoqan tasqa basqanday etip jazyp ketken... Osyny kórsetip sol kezdegi Tarih instituti diyrektory akademik M.Qozybaevke jalynyp – Mәskeuge qarsy replika jazynyz – dep ótindik... Bizge uәde bergenmen ol kisi Mәskeuge eshtene jazbady...  Múnday Shoqan jazyp ketken materialdardyng talay qúndylary Qazaqstanda ayaq asty bolyp jatqany ashy shyndyq...

Qoldan jasalghan batyrgha aldanyp bizding beyshara halyq qansha jýretini belgisiz. Jogharyda qysqasha sholu jasaghanymyzday orystar bir maqalamen barlyq qazaqty aqymaq etip otyr. Sonda bizding egemendigimizden ne payda. Aqiqat tarihymyzdy óz úrpaghymyzdan jasyryp Reseyding ekspansiyalyq sayasatyna qyzmet etip talay ghalymsymaqtarymyz olardyng Spesslujbasynan nәpaqa kórip jýrgen súrqiyalar da az emes...

Samat Óteniyazov,

Madrid jәne Ál Faraby atyndaghy QazÚU professory, t.gh.k.

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