Jeksenbi, 29 Qantar 2023
Birtuar 7021 34 pikir 18 Qarasha, 2022 saghat 13:57

Aqsaraghat

«Mening aghalarym» siklynan

Akademik Salyq Zimanov turaly qalam tartqandardyng basym kópshiligi ana tilining әdemi ýndestigimen ýilesip túrghan «Zanghar Zimanov» degen tirkesti jii qoldanady.

Biyiktikti ensegey boyly erlerining túlghasymen ólshegen halyqtyng úghymynda búl «asqar tau», «kók aspan» degen maghynany beredi jәne ol Zimanovtay nar túlghanyng bolmys-bitimine jarasyp-aq túr. Akademikting zangharlyghy asqar taudyng ózin asqaqtatyp túratyn qúz jartas siyaqty. Sen jaqyndaghan sayyn ol aspanday týsedi.

«Zanghardyn» mazmúnynan maghmúrlanatyn taghy bir mәnis bar, ol – biyik parasat pen kemel aqyl.

Sәtbaevtay danalardyng serigi bolghan Salyq agha bir qaraghanda tәkәpparlau bolyp kóringenimen, pernesin tap basqan jaghdayda han men qarashanyng qolynda birdey kýmbirlep qoya beretin qonyr dombyraday qarapayymdyghy basym. Ádilet-shapqat jolyndaghy kýresterde qatulanyp, qaharlanyp ketetin kezderi de bar. Múndayda kók semserdey ótkir: soyyp salady, tilip alady.

Salyq aghamyzben býkil ómirime jeterlik mol ruhany azyq syilaghan Qazaq ensiklopediyasynda qyzmet istegen berekeli beleste jaqynyraq aralastym.

Ótken ghasyrdyng sekseninshi jyldarynda Qazaq ensiklopediyasy qazaq jәne orys tilderinde tórt tomdyq qysqasha ensiklopediyagha qyzu dayyndyq qamyna kiristi. Men ol kezde filosofiya, pravo jәne sosiologiya redaksiyasynyng mengerushisi retinde atalghan ghylym salalary boyynsha dayarlanghan maqalalargha jauapty edim. Osy tomgha arnalghan akademikting «Zang ghylymy» degen jәne onyng jeke ózi turaly men jazghan esimnamalyq maqala óndiriske dayar bolghan kezde aghamyzben habarlasyp, solardyng songhy núsqasymen tanysyp shyghudy ótindim. Áriyne, mýiizi qaraghayday akademikke uaqyt belgilegen jaghdayda ózim keletinimdi sypayylap jetkizudi de úmytqan joqpyn.

– Múhtar, ainalayyn, ensiklopediya qazaq ghylymynyng qara shanyraqtarynyng biri ghoy. Shanyraqqa sәlem berip túru kerek. Sen esh qysylmay-aq qoy, týsten keyin ózim kelemin. Adresin aitpasang da tabamyn. Óitkeni mening Almatygha alghash kelgendegi qyzmetim dәl qazir sender otyrghan ghimaratta bastalghan. Súraqtaryndy aldyn ala әzirlep qoyarsyn, – dedi baysaldy dauyspen.

IYә, búl últtyq zang ghylymynyng qaynar bastauynda túrghan, ataghy sol kezding ózinde anyzgha ainalyp ýlgergen akademikting qarapayymdyq sabaqtarynyng bir kórinisi edi.

Salyq aghamyz ensiklopediyagha arnap jazghan maqalasynda: «Qazaqstannyng imperiya sayasaty sferasyna tartyluyna baylanysty 19 gh.-dyng 80-90 jyldarynan bastap qazaq dalasynda Peterburg, Moskva jәne Qazan uniyversiytetterining zang fakulitetterin bitirgen qazaq jastary shygha bastady. Olardyng sany osy ghasyrdyng basynda 20-25 adamgha jetti. Búlardyng arasynda ekeui Peterburg, Qazan uniyversiytetterin bitirip, pravo magistri dәrejesine ie boldy», – degen derekter bar bolatyn. Akademikpen kezdesude osyny tilge tiyek etip, atalghan túnghysh zangerlerding esim-soyyn kórsetsek qaytedi degen pikirdi algha tarttym.

– Niyeting dúrys eken, shyraghym. On eki tomdyq ensiklopediyanyng 4-tomyndaghy zang ghylymyna arnalghan maqalany da kezinde men jazghan edim. Sol kezde olardyng aty-jónin bylay qoyghanda, osynday isharat arqyly berilgen maghlúmattardyng ózin ensiklopediyadan alyp tastaytyn. Myna maqalada revolusiyagha deyingi Reseyding asa iri ghylymy ortalyqtarynda bilim alghan kәsiby zangerlerding 25-ke jetkendigi anyq kórsetilgen. Sóz astaryn angharatyn jandar olardyng kim ekenin osydan-aq sezedi. Súraq qongynyzgha qaraghanda óziniz biletin siyaqtysyz, – dedi ózine tәn sabyrmen salmaqtay sóilep.

Shynymen-aq, kenes zamanyndaghy ghylymy әdebiyetterde Sankt-Peterburg uniyversiytetining zang fakulitetin bitirgen túnghysh qazaq zangeri, sóilegen sózi Leninning ózin tan-tamasha qaldyryp, kósemge dәieksóz alghyzghan Baqytjan Qarataevtyng esimi ara-túra bolsa da atalyp qalatyn. Al dәl osy fakulitetti tәmamdaghan Jaqyp Aqbaev pen Mústafa Shoqaydyng aty-jónin ataugha mýldem tiym salynghan edi. Atala qalghan kýnning ózinde olar jaghymsyz maghynada kórsetiletin. Ásirese Shoqaygha qisynsyz, kelensiz, tipti óte auyr aiyptar taghylatyn.

Al imperatorlyq Qazan uniyversiytetining zang fakulitetin bitirgen әigili alashordashylar Ahmet Birimjanov, Sydyq Amanjolov, Rayymjan Mәrsekov pen Uәlithan Tanashevtardyng esimderi ol kezde qalyng kópshilikke beymәlimdeu edi.

– Janaghy aitqan 4-tomdaghy «Zang ghylymy» degen maqalada: «Qazaqstanda zang salasynda 18 ghylym doktory bar, onyng 10-y qazaq» degen eshqanday sayasy astary joq derekting ózine shýiligip, últshyldyq kórinisin izdegender bolghan. Sondyqtan, osynyng ózin jariyalay alsandar da jaman bolmas edi, – degendi qosyp qoydy sózin sabaqtay týsip. – Uaqyty kelgende búl azamattardyng bәrining atyn atap, týsin týsteytin bolamyz. Oghan myna ózing siyaqty azamattar atsalysuy kerek.

Aghamyzdyng aitqany keldi. Maqalanyng akademik atap kórsetken túsyndaghy maghlúmattardy qyrqyp tastaugha tyrysushylar bolghanymen, biz sol kezde kýnde aitylatyn jariyalylyqty algha tartyp, ózgerissiz jariyalap jiberdik.

Aghamyzdyng maghan qarata aitqan lepesi de týp-týgelimen rasqa shyghyp, 1999 jyly akademik Salyq Zimanovtyng jetekshiligimen «Jaqyp Aqbaev jәne Alash qayratkerleri sayasiy-qúqyqtyq kózqarastarynyng evolusiyasy» degen taqyrypta zang ghylymynan doktorlyq dissertasiya qorghadym. Biraq búl bólek әngime...

Ashtyq jalmaghan balalyq

Salyq Zimanovtyng balalyq shaghy el damuynyng eng qamyryqty kezenimen túspa-tús keldi. Onyng әkesi Ziman Jarylqasynov (azan shaqyryp qoyghan esimi – Zighali) Qazan tónkerisining qarsanynda – 1917 jyldyng 24 tamyzynda sol kezdegi Guriev qalalyq 4 synyptyq erler gimnaziyasyn tәmәmdaydy. Búl kezde onyng jasy artyq-kemi joq túp-tura jiyrmada eken.

Búghan tang qaludyng qajeti joq. Sebebi ol kezde 2 jәne 4 synyptyq erler gimnaziyasyna bilim alugha qúshtar eresek balalar qabyldana beretin.

Ziman atamyzdyng bilimi turaly qújatyna kóz jýgirter bolsaq, ol bitirgen gimnaziyanyng baghdarlamasy bastauyshtan góri jalpygha bilim beretin orta mektepke jaqyn ekendigin angharamyz. Onda joghary synyptarda oqytylatyn «algebra», «geometriya», «fizika», «geografiya» siyaqty kýrdeli pәndermen qatar orys, nemis, latyn, fransuz tilderining de  bolghanyn bayqaymyz. Osyghan qarap-aq Ziman atanyng óz zamanyna say bilim alghan jәne birneshe shetel tilderinen habary bar oqyghan azamat bolghandyghyn angharu qiyn emes.

Salyq aghanyng әkesi Ziman Jarylghasynov – Oral gimnaziyasynyng oqushysy (ong jaqta)

Ol gimnaziyany týgesken jyly qym-quyt oqighalar bastalyp, sony aq pen qyzyldyng bir-birine qandy qyrghyn ashqan Azamat soghysyna úlasty. Búlghaq zamanda Ziman atamyz auyr jaraqat alyp, birtindep beybit tirlikke auysady. Týrli sharuashylyq qyzmetine aralasyp, bolys basqarushysyna deyin ósipti. Ómirining sonyna qaray ónirdegi eng ýlken әri qauqarly mekeme «Embimúnayda» buhgalter qyzmetin atqarypty.

Halqymyzgha osy kýnge deyin orny tolmas qisapsyz mol qasiret әkelgen asharshylyq jyldarynda Ziman ata men Bolghan әjemizding otbasynda shýpirlegen 6 bala bolypty jәne onyng es qatqan eng ýlkeni Salyq edi.

Aghamyz tek kýiik pen qayghygha toly jýrek syzdatatyn oqighalardan túratyn balalyq shaghy turaly aitudy kóp únata bermeytin.

Asharshylyq bastalghanda Salyq ata-anasyna qolghabys jasaugha jarap qalghan estiyar úl.  Jayyqtyng boyy, Narynnyng qúmy men Ýstirtting qyryn mynghyrghan týlikke toltyryp, baquatty tirlikte otyrghan halyqtyng bar malyn sypyryp alyp, tentiretip jibergende, bir ýzim nan men bir japyraq qyzylgha úmtylghan halyq Gurievke qaray shúbyrady.

Aghamyzdyng aituynsha, qalagha jetip jyghylyp, qolyn sozghan kýii otyrghan jerinde ýzilip ketken jandar bazar many men kóshelerge, temir joldyng boyyna lyq tolyp ketken. Jergilikti biylik kýn sayyn qas qaraya kóshege úzyn arbalar shygharyp, ýzilip ketkenderding mýrdelerine qosa shyghar-shyqpas  jany barlardy qosa jinap, qala syrtyndaghy shúnqyrgha ýsti-ýstine toghytyp otyrghan. Ondaghy әli jantәsilim ete qoymaghan keybir adamdardyng ynyrsyp, qybyrlap jatqandaryn kórgen bala Salyqtyng jýregi talay titirkengen.

Kóp úzamay jana biylikting qoldan jasalghan múnday qorlyghyna tózbegen Manghystau adaylary kóteriliske shyghady. Olardyng aldy Reseyden әkelgen әskerlerding qaruly tosqauyl, bógeuilderine qaramastan kórshi elderge ýdere kóshedi. Shevchenko týrmeleri kóterilisshilerge lyq tolghan son, qalghan bóligi Gurievke jóneltiledi. Abaqtydaghy úryp-soghu, qinau men azaptanudan әbden әlsiregen tútqyndardyng denelerin de qala syrtyndaghy shúnqyrgha tastaghan. Balany qoyyp, ýlkenning janyn syzdatatyn múnday aiuandyqtar bala Salyqtyng jýregin ayausyz tilgilegen.

Salyq aghamyz ózi tikeley kuәger bolghan Atyrau men Manghystau ónirin jaylaghan zúlmat asharshylyq jayly ol turaly jazugha tiym salynghan kenes zamanynda-aq baspasóz ókilderine bergen súhbattarynda aityp, keyin balalyq shaghy turaly estelikterinde tam-túmdap jazyp jýrdi.

Manghystau qazaqtyng nar aqyny Múrat Mónkeúly: «Mynnan-mynnan jylqy aidap, jýzden-jýzden nar baylap, dәuleti qalyng bitken jer. Aqtyly qoydyng órgen jer, shalqyghan dәulet mol bitip, qyzyghyn júrtym kórgen jer», – dep zor shabytpen jyrlaghan qazaqtyng ejelden qút qonyp, baq daryghan, «mayly qiyan» atanghan kiyeli óniri edi.

Qazaq ólkesin jaylaghan asharshylyq qarsanynda KSRO Ghylym akademiyasy Alashorda ýkimetining basshysy bolghan ýlken oqymysty Álihan Bókeyhanovty 1926 jyly qazirgi Manghystau, Atyrau jәne Aqtóbe oblystarynda túratyn qazaqtardyng antropologiyasyn, túrmys-salty men sharuasynyng jay-kýiin zertteu ýshin arnayy ghylymy ekspedisiyagha attandyrady. Onyng nәtiyjesi boyynsha Á.Bókeyhanov «Kazahy (túpnúsqada – kazakiy) Adaevskogo uezda» atty enbek jazyp, ony  1927 jyly Leningradta bastyryp shygharady.

Manghystau men Atyrau ólkesining sol kezdegi jay-kýiin meylinshe tolyq sipattaghan Á.Bókeyhanovtyng derekteri boyynsha, 1925 jyly Aday uezindegi 27 bolysta 127.798 adam túryp, 21.611 sharuashylyq júmys istegen.

Manghystau týbegin emin-erkin aralaghan Alash kósemi Kaspiy men Ýstirt arasyn en jaylap, alansyz tirlik keshetin adaylardyng baquatty ómirine erekshe tang qalghan. Ol ekspedisiya barysynda 3 ýiden túratyn shaghyn aday auyly 21 týiemen kóship-qonatynyn, búghan qosymsha ýsh otbasynyng 300 jylqysy jәne 1000-nan astam qoyy baryn sipattap jazady.

Qazaq ólkesining әr qiyryn aralap, onyng sharuashylyq jaghdayyn óte jaqsy bilgen Á.Bókeyhanov: «Shyndyghynda adaylar baqqan qondy maldy búghan deyin men esh jerden kórgen emespin», – dep Manghystau ólkesining maly da erekshe dily ekendigine tan-tamasha bolghan.

Zertteushi Sәbit Shildebaydyng derekteri boyynsha, Manghystau ekspedisiyasy kezinde Álihan Bókeyhanovtyng basqan adymy OGPU tarapynan anduda bolghan. Ata dәstýrin qatang ústanatyn adaylar Alash kósemine ziyaly, bilimdar azamat qana emes, han túqymy retinde airyqsha qúrmet kórsetip, qiyan týpkirdegi el aghalary Álekene sәlem beruge kelgen. Múny tynshylar «palomnichestvo» dep baghalap, sol kezde OGPU tóraghasynyng orynbasary Genrih Yagoda Stalinge hat jazyp, Bókeyhanovty aldaghy uaqytta Qazaqstangha jibermeudi úsynghan.

Á.Bókeyhanov enbeginde adaylar men olardyng baraqat tirligi jayly zor qúrmetpen jazdy.

Mine, osynday ejelden qút qonyp, baq daryghan ólke asharshylyq jyldary oirangha týsti.

Erjýrek adaylardyng Tobaniyaz Álniyazov siyaqty batyrlary zorlyq-zombylyq pen ozbyrlyqqa qarsy qolda bar qarumen kóteriliske shyghady. Mal-mýlki jәne kóship-qonugha jaraytyn mýmkindigi bar myndaghan otbasylar Týrikmenstan arqyly Irangha, Ózbekstan arqyly Aughanstangha jónkile kóshedi.

Asharshylyqtan jan saughalaghan qazaqtar

Salyq agha jurnalist M.Stukalinagha bergen súhbatynda: «Manghystauda adaylar kóteriliske shyqty. Maqashqala men Astrahannan qaruly әsker keldi. Shevchenko týrmeleri lyq tolghandyqtan tútqyndardy Gurievke toghyta bastady. Jantәsilim etkender kóbeye bastaghanda olardy arbagha tiyep, qala syrtyndaghy kýltókpege kýn sayyn shygharyp otyrdy. Kómgen joq, birden qoqysqa tastay saldy. Keybir qayyr súraghandar jas balalarymen birge otyrghan jerinde ýzilip ketip jatty. Olardy da balalarymen birge arbagha tiyep, ýiindige shygharyp otyrdy», – dep, asharshylyqtyng adamnyng jan-dýniyesin týrshiktiretin ashy shyndyghyn aitady.

Kóterilisshilerdi kenes ýkimetining qas jauy, banditter dep aiyptap, olargha eshbir ayaushylyq jasamau ýshin jazalaushylardy syrttan aldyrady.

Tarih ghylymynyng kandidaty Bolat Júmaghúlovtyng qúpiya múraghattardan alghan derekteri boyynsha, ólkedegi kóterilisshilerge qarsy shyqqan 32 toptan túratyn múzday qarulanghan jazalaushy jasaqtar beykýnә halyqty qandy qyrghyngha úshyratqan.

Jazalaushylar jalpy sany 400-den astam: OGPU-ding Kavkaz okrugtik basqarmasyna qarasty eki divizionnan, Bakuden kelgen eskadron men Daghystan otryadynan, OGPU-ding 100 kisiden túratyn atqyshtar toby men eki stanoktyq pulemet pen atys qúraldarymen qarulanghan 70 adamdyq jasaqtan, Saratovtan 2 stanokty pulemet jәne 6 qol pulemetimen qarulanghan 100 jauyngerden túratyn taghy bir qandyqol otryadtardan qúraldy.

Osynday raqymshyldyqty, ýlken-kishi, kәri-jasty mýsirkeuding ne ekenin bilmeytin jauyz tobyrlardan qúrylghan qaruly jasaqtar Á.Bókeyhanov zor tandanyspen, airyqsha qúrmetpen sipattaytyn kiyeli týbekting bayyrghy, baquatty halqyn qynaday qyryp, mal-mýlkin talan-tarajgha týsiredi.

Eski sýrleu, qúpiya soqpaqtarmen qaruly jasaqtan qashyp qútylyp, týrikmen jerine aman jetkenderdi de zarly taghdyr kýtip túrdy. Sonday azamattardyng biri Qydyrbay Berdibaev: «Onda barghanda jaghday óte nashar boldy. Áke-shesheleri balalaryn sharasyzdan balalar ýiine ótkize bastady. Týrikmenstandaghy Tashauyz oblysynyng Kalshishy audany ortalyghyndaghy balalar ýiinde balalardyng qoregi ýshin bir ýzim nandy 4 balagha bólip beretin. Kýnde qabyldanatyn 40-50 balanyng 20-30-y ashtyqtan óldi», – dep jazady.

Ashtyq azaby...

Múnday derekterdi oqyghanda jýreging atqaqtap, ashu-yzadan qanyng basqa shapshidy. Beybit halyqqa qan jútqyzghan zúlmatty qoldan úiymdastyrghan Stalin men Goloshekin siyaqty jauyzdar men olar basqarghan jýiege laghynet aitasyn.

Jauyz biylik múnymen de toqtaghan joq. Qolgha týsken kóterilisshiler men bas kótergen azamattardy qanypezerlikpen jazalaudy bastap ketti.

Tarih ghylymynyng doktory, professor Talas Omarbekting derekteri boyynsha, kóteriliske qatysqan 1715 adam tútqyndalghan. Olardyng 802-si qylmystyq jauapqa tartylyp, 508 adamnyng isi OGPU-ge jiberilgen, 373 adam sottalghan. Kóterilisting 15 basshysy atu jazasyna kesilip, 21 adam konsentrasiyalyq lagerilerge jiberilgen, al 100-den astam kóterilisshi jer audarylghan. Sottalghandardyng basym kópshiligi irgedegi Guriev pen Aqtóbening týrmelerine jabylghan, olardyng 79-y abaqtynyng azabyna shydamay jan tapsyrghan.

Bala Salyq osynday súmdyq pen zamana zúlmatynyng tiri kuәgeri boldy. Keyin orta mektepti bitirip, Shevchenko qalasynda ústazdyq jolyn bastaghanda qyrghyngha úshyraghan halyqty, oirandalghan dalany, anyrap qalghan analar men botaday bozdaghan balalardy óz kózimen kórgen. Sondyqtan búl taqyrypqa kelgende qatepti qara narday aghamyzdyng iyghy qushyq tartyp, dauysy dirildep, kózi jasqa shylanyp ketushi edi...

Salyq aghamyz qazaq halqyn osynshama qisapsyz qasiretke batyrghan jauyzdyqqa jol bergen Stalin ólgende elding jylaghanyn kórgen Nechitaylo degen qart kommunistin: «Qazaqtar, sender nesine Stalinning ólimine jylaysyndar. Men sol kezde asharshylyqpen kýres jónindegi ýkimet komissiyasy tóraghasynyng orynbasary boldym. Asharshylyqtan qyrylghan beybit halyqta esep joq edi. Temir joldyng boyy jantәsilim etken qazaqtardyng mәiitine tolyp ketti. Jinap ýlgere almaytynbyz», – degen sózin estigen eken.

Býginde múraghattar ashylghanymen ashtyqty qasaqana  úiymdastyrghan sol kezdegi biylik qaldyrghan qújattarda zúlmat zaman shyndyghy týgel kórsetilmegen. Olar óz qylmystary men kýnәharlyghyn býrkemeleu ýshin әrbir ónir boyynsha qaytys bolghandar sanyn ýnemi kemitip kórsetken.

Manghystau men Atyrau qazaqtary jappay qyrghyngha úshyrap jatqanda Guriev tresi Jayyq pen Kaspiyde aulanghan balyqty tazalap, Mәskeu proletariatyna jóneltumen bolghan. Akademikting aituynsha, balyqtyng ishek-qarny aryqqa tastalyp, sumen shayylyp, kýn sayyn kombinattyng syrtyna shygharylyp otyrghan. Salyq siyaqty qara siraq balalar qolqany qabar iysine qaramastan shybyn-shirkey ýimelegen әlgi juyndynyng qolgha ilinerin jiyp-terip, ýige әkelip, otqa aunatyp, sugha pisirip, talghajau etipti.

Ólmesting ghana kýnin kórip, qalghan-qútqandy qorek etken múny «balalyq shaq» dep aitudyng ózi qiyn-aq. Sondyqtan Salyq agha ýnemi: «Mende balalyq shaq mýlde bolghan emes. Ony ashtyq jalmady. Bizding balalyghymyz bir ýzim nan men qaljaugha jaraytyn bir talshyq qyzyl ýshin kýrespen ótti. Bizdi asharshylyq tyrnaghynan aman alyp qalghan qoradaghy jalghyz siyrdyng sýti men týiening sýmesi edi», – deytin balalyq shaghy turaly sóz bolghanda.

Salyqtyng jasy 17-ge endi ghana tolghanda әkesi Ziman dýnie salyp, alty balasy bar ýiding endigi bas kóterer erkekten ýlkeni ózi bolady.

Aghamyz 1938 jyly qaladaghy Oraz Isaev atyndaghy qazaq mektebin ýzdik bitirip, bir ailyq arnayy kurstan ótken song Shevchenko qalasyndaghy S.M.Kirov atyndaghy qazaq mektebine matematika jәne fizika pәninen múghalim bolyp qyzmetke ornalasady. Jesir qalghan anasyna qolghabys jasaugha úmtylghan onyng búl talpynysy da úzaqqa barmay, 1939 jyly jeltoqsan aiynyng sonynda jas azamat әsker qataryna shaqyrylady.

Gvardiya mayory

Jauynger Salyq Zimanovtyng óz ómirbayanynda әsker qataryna shaqyrylghan merzimi 1939 jyldyng jeltoqsany dep kórsetilgenimen barlyq әskery qújattarynda búl derek 1940 jyldyng 3 qantary dep rәsimdelgen. Múnday azghantay aiyrmany onyng múghalimdik qyzmet atqarghan Shevchenko qalasynan Gurievke kelip, әskery komissariatta resmy tirkeuden ótken uaqyt aralyghymen týsindiruge bolady.

Onyng әskerdegi qyzmeti Gruziya men Týrkiyanyng arasynda túrghan Choroh ózenining qaptalynda ornalasqan 9-taulyq-atqyshtar diviziyasynyng qúramyndaghy 121-polkte ótedi.

Búl kezde Kenes Odaghy aldaghy uaqytta soghys órti tútana qalghan jaghdayda elding iri múnay kenderi men ony óndeytin kәsiporyndary ornalasqan Baku, Groznyi, Maykop audandaryn qorghaugha arnalghan bekinister jasaumen ainalysty. Soghys qarsanynda bir jarym jyl qart Kavkazdyng qarly shyndarynda qar tósenip, múz jastana jýrip shyndalghan qatardaghy jauynger S.Zimanov saqa soldat bolyp qalyptasty.

Soghys bastalghan bette ol óz qarulastarymen birge Rostov jaqqa attansa da, kóp úzamay onyng tolyq orta bilimi men múghalim bolyp istegen tәjiriybesi bary әri orys tiline jetiktigi eskerilip, Suhumiydegi әskery uchiliyshege jiberiledi. Osylaysha jas kýninde alghan tiyanaqty bilimi men ghylymgha degen qúshtarlyghy ony tura kelgen ajaldan arashalap qalady. Óitkeni soghystyng alghashqy kezeninde Rostov baghyty, Ukraina jerinde bolghan úrystarda milliondaghan kenes jauyngerlerining qyrghyngha úshyrap, tútqyngha týskenin biz keyingi tarihtan jaqsy bilemiz.

Bir jylgha da jetpeytin qysqa merzim ishinde jedeldetilgen әskery dayyndyqtan ótken Salyq Zimanov 1942 jyldyng jazynda leytenant shenimen qaytadan maydan dalasyna oralady.

Leytenant Salyq Zimanov. 1942 jyl.

Búl kezde Kavkazdyng qarly shyndary men qúz jartastaryndaghy bet qaratpas yzghar men aqtýtek borandarda shiryqqan jauyngerlerden túratyn arnayy jasaqtar qúryla bastaydy. Sonyng 11-derbes otryadynyng qúramyna vzvod komandiyri, leytenant Salyq Zimanov ta kirip, shayqasqa týsedi.

Kez kelgen әskery tapsyrmany tap-túinaqtay etip oryndaytyn jas ofiyser birtindep Soltýstik Kavkaz maydanyndaghy 5-gvardiyalyq atqyshtar brigadasy qúramyndaghy 1-derbes gvardiyalyq atqyshtar batalionynyng minomet rotasynyng komandiyrine deyin jogharylatylyp, oghan әueli agha leytenant, keyin kapitan sheni beriledi.

Soghys órti órship túrghan 1943 jyldyng jazynda gvardiya kapitany Salyq Zimanovtyng keudesinde alghashqy mәrtebeli marapat – «Qyzyl Júldyz» ordeni jarqyraydy. Onyng úsynu qújatynda: «Minometshiler rotasynyng komandiyri ózin eng ýzdik komandirlerding biri retinde kórsetti. Zimanov joldas 16-18.7.43 jyly 114.1 biyiktik ýshin bolghan shayqasqa óz bólimshesin úiymdasqan týrde, zor sheberlikpen júmyldyra bildi. Tәrtipti, ótkir, batyl, erjýrek komandiyr», – dep jazylghan.

Babalary er Mahambet, batyr Isataylar salghan erlik dәstýrin berik ústanghan gvardiya kapitany Salyq Zimanov Soltýstik Kavkaz, Ontýstik, Birinshi jәne Ekinshi Ukraina maydany, Ekinshi Belarusi maydany qúramynda Kavkazdan Berlinge deyingi aralyqta erlik pen janqiyarlyqqa toly jauyngerlik joldan ótedi.

Germaniyanyng tas-týiin bekingen berik әskery plasdarmyna ainalghan Dansig ýshin bolghan keskilesken shayqastarda 2-Belarusi maydany 6-mehanikalandyrylghan korpusy qúramyndaghy 615-minometshiler polki komandiyrining orynbasary, gvardiya mayory S.Zimanov býkil qarulastary men generaliytet aldynda qaharmandyqtyng ghajayyp ýlgisin kórsetedi. Onyng osy erligi ýshin toltyrylghan marapat paraqshasyn qaz qalpynda keltirer bolsaq, onda bylay delingen: «Bizding jayau әsker bólimsheleri 1945 jyldyng 25-nauryzynda Dansig qalasynyng manyndaghy 139.2 biyiktigi ýshin keskilesken úrys jýrgizdi. Zimanov joldas úrymtal sәtte artilleristerdi bastap, biyiktikke birinshi bolyp jetti. Ol minometshiler divizionyna ózi túrghan jotany kózdep atugha búiryq beredi. Qarsy shabuylgha әreket jasaghan jaudyng tas-talqany shyqty. Minometpen joyqyn atqylaudyng nәtiyjesinde dúshpannyng 22 soldaty ólim qúshyp, ekeui jaralanady. Osylaysha bizding jayau әskerler biyiktikti baghyndyryp, 1 kilometrdey algha jyljydy. Zimanov joldas «1-dәrejeli Otan soghysy» ordeni ýkimettik marapatyna әbden layyq».

Korpus komandiyri, tank әskerlerining general-mayory A.N.Firsov qol qoyghan dәl osy qújat negizinde gvardiya mayory S.Zimanovtyng keudesinde eng mәrtebeli әskery marapattar qataryndaghy «1-dәrejeli Otan soghysy» ordeni jarqyrady. (Orayy kelgende aita keteyik: qazaqtyng batyr qyzy Mәnshýk Mәmetova da  kezinde әueli dәl osy marapatqa úsynylyp, keyin Qazaqstan júrtshylyghynyng tabandy talabymen «Altyn Júldyzdy» iyelengen).

Qazaqtyng arqaly aqyny Qasym Amanjolov Zimanovtay erding bar-joghyn bilgen-bilmegeninen habarsyzbyn, biraq onyng Abdolla dosyna arnap jazghan poemasyndaghy «Jau jolyna atam seni, Bomba bol da, jaryl jýrek» degen ot-jalyndy joldar maghan ózi túrghan jotany kózdep, «Atyndar!» dep búiryq bergen Salyqtay erlerge arnalghanday kórinedi.

Maydanger Zimanovtyng dәl osy erligine kuәger bolghan qarulas dostary ony keyingi estelikterinde tamsana jazady. Solardyng biri – soghys jyldarynda 615-minometshiler polki komandiyrining orynbasary bolghan otstavkadaghy polkovnik I.A.Kotelinikov.

Onyng «Vyzyvang ogoni na sebya» atty esteligi Guriev oblystyq «Prikaspiyskaya kommuna» atty gazetining 1967 jylghy 9 mamyrdaghy sanynda jariyalandy. Qart ofiyserding esteligi oqighagha tikeley kuәger bolghan adamnyng jazbalary retinde airyqsha qúndy. Ol Dansigtegi jau bekingen biyikti alu kezinde  gvardiya mayory S.Zimanov jasaghan erlikti әskery dәldikpen bayandaydy.

Kotelinikovtyng jazuynsha kenes әskerleri jau tas-týiin bolyp bekingen jotagha birneshe ret shabuyl jasasa da, ala almaghan. Ár úrys sayyn kenes әskerleri tarapynan shyghyn molaya týsedi. Áskery basshylyq biyiktikti qaytken kýnde alu kerektiginen tanbaydy. Ary qaray bolghan oqighany IY.Kotelinikov bylay dep suretteydi: «Diviziongha  polk komandiyrining orynbasary, mayor Salyq Zimanúly Zimanov keldi. Divizion komandiyrining baqylau punktindegi komandirmen bolghan pikir alysuy barysynda bizding jayau әskerlerding biyiktikti alugha baghyttalghan shabuyldarynyng ne sebepten sәtsizdikke úshyrauynyng mәn-jayyn talqylaydy. Ol jau bekinisining alghy shebi men oq jaudyru nýktelerin anyqtap, ózderi jayau әskerler túrghan aralyqty eseptep shygharady. Nәtiyjesinde: «Biz biyiktikti aluymyz kerek. Shabuyldaushy topty ózim basqaramyn», – degen batyl sheshimge keledi».

IYә, 1945 jyldyng nauryz aiynda – soghystyng ayaqtaluyna bir jarym ay ghana qalghanda polk komandiyrining orynbasary mayor Zimanovtyng qaramaghyndaghylargha tiyisti tapsyrmany berip, shabuyl barysyn baqylau punktinen-aq basqarugha әbden bolatyn edi, biraq erjýrek qazaq ofiyseri basyn oqqa baylap, jaugha qaray atoy sala úmtylady.

Kotelinikov Zimanov bastaghan shabuyldaushy toptyng әrbir әreketin әskery naqtylyqpen tәptishtep bayandaydy.

Bekingen jau onaylyqpen berilsin be!? Olar atys qaruynyng barlyq týrinen oq jaudyryp, birneshe mәrte shabuyldaushy toptyng betin qaytarghan. Atu pozisiyasyn qayta-qayta auystyryp, kenes әskerlerin janylystyra bergen.

Ary qaray bolghan oqighany IY.Kotelinikov bylay dep jalghastyrady: «Jaghday mýlde shiyelenisip, erekshe sheshim qabyldaudy qajet etti. Dәl osynday sәtte mayor S.Z. Zimanov nartәuekelge baryp, birden-bir dúrys sheshim qabyldady. Ol ózi túrghan biyiktikti kózdep atugha búiryq berdi. Top bastaghan mayor Zimanovtyng ótkir, qaysar jәne batyl sheshimi barshamyzdy tan-tamasha qaldyrdy».

IYә, ardager ofiyserding esteligi nebәri bir-aq abzastan túratyn marapat qújatyndaghy negizdemeden әldeqayda tolyq.

Óz aituy boyynsha, Salyq Zimanovpen eki jyl boyyna talay mәrte qan maydangha kirgen Ivan Anatolievich onyng talay mәrte jasaghan ózge de erlik isteri men azamattyghyna tikeley kuә bolghan. Sondyqtan ózimen qyzmeti jәne әskery dәrejesi birdey әriptesin: «chutok, vnimatelen k ludyam, spravedliyv, chesten y beskorysten», – dep aghynan jaryla sipattaydy.

Shtab bastyghy mayor S.Petrov pen polk komandiyrinin
orynbasary mayor S.Zimanov. 1944 jyl.

Taghy bir hatty podpolkovnik N.S.Brayko respublikalyq «Kazahstanskaya pravda» gazetining redaksiyasyna 1985 jyldyng 28 aqpanynda joldapty. Ol Salyq Zimanovpen 1943 jyldyng sonynda auyr jaraqatyn emdetip, gospitalidan oralghan kezden bastap tanys bolghan. Sol kezde Zimanov 615-minometshiler polki 1-divizionynyng komandirligine taghayyndalghan. Brayko qarulas dosynyng Ukrainanyng Kirovograd oblysyn azat etu kezindegi erligin erekshe baghalap: «pokazal sebya v boyah umelym, opytnym y raschetlivym komandirom», – dep bagha beredi.

Ol da ózi qatysqan Dansig týbindegi erlikti zor rizashylyqpen bayanday kelip: «Onyng is-әreketi polkting barlyq әskerleri tarapynan ózderining komandiyrine degen zor maqtanysh sezimin tughyzdy», – degen qorytyndy jasaydy.

Brayko 615-minometshiler polkining jauyngerlik is-qimyldary  turaly әskery jurnaldyng bir danasyn ózinde saqtaghan eken. Onyng esteligi osy qújat negizinde jazylghandyqtan әskery dәldigimen erekshe qúndy. Ardager sonymen birge Zimanovtyng ózi de soghys kezinde Belarusi әskery okrugining gazetinde maqala jariyalaghandyghy turaly taghy bir mәlimetti algha tartyp, onyng avtor qolynda boluy mýmkin ekendigin jazghan.

Salyq Zimanov turaly 2001 jyly «Atamúra» baspasynan jaryq kórgen jinaqty qúrastyru barysynda biz aghamyzdan Brayko aitqan әlgi maqala jayly súraghan bolatynbyz. Ol ózine tәn qarapayymdylyqpen: «Otqa oranyp jýrgende qaysybir qaghaz saqtaldy deysin, biraq minometshi bolyp qyzmet atqarghan komandirding tәjiriybesi retinde ózgelerge de paydasy tiyer dep maqala jazghanym ras. Qajet bolsa, izdep kóreyin», – dep maydandyq «Na shturm!» dep atalatyn gazetting 1944 jyldyng 29 qazanynda jariyalanghan maqalasynyng sarghayghan qiyndysyn úsynghan edi.

Biz ýshin qazaqtyng úly ghalymynyng qalamynan shyqqan әrbir enbek qymbat. Onyng ýstine búl bolashaq akademikting baspasóz betinde jaryq kórgen tyrnaqaldy tuyndysy bolyp shyqty.

Maqala «Deystviya minometchikov v lesisto-bolotnoy mestnosti» dep atalady. Ol eshbir әsireleusiz-aq әskery akademiya bitirgen tәjiriybeli ofiyserding jazbasynday әser qaldyrady.

Mayor Zimanov ormandy-batpaqty jaghdayda minometten atylghan oqtyng nysanagha dóp tiii ýshin ony sazdauyt nemese qúmdauyt jerlerge ornalastyru kezinde oq jaudyratyn oryndy múqiyat tegistep, nyghyzdap, minometting ondy-soldy serpilmeuin qadaghalau kerektigine erekshe nazar audarady. Minometti týnde, qaranghyda paydalanudyng ózgeshelikterine de arnayy toqtalady.

Kýndizgi shabuyl kezinde atu pozisiyasyn jaudan jasyru men ainaldyra atys saludyng barysynda tuyndaytyn qiyndyqtardy enseru joldaryn da týsindiredi. Minometshilerding jayau әskerler jәne jaqyn manda ornalasqan basqa әskery bólimderimen birlese qimyldauynyng manyzdyghyna da toqtalghan. Maqalasy arada 60 jylgha juyq uaqyt ótken song 2001 jylghy jinaqta qayyra basyldy.

Salyq agha 1965 jyly Dneprden ótu kezinde bolghan oqighalar jayly da maqala jazypty. Qarapayym jannyng búryn esh jerde jariyalanbaghan búl enbegin de óz rúhsatymen 2001 jylghy jinaqqa qosqan edik.

Maqalany oqy otyryp, eger ol әskery jazbalaryn dәl osy stilide jalghastyra bergen jaghdayda akademikting qalamynan kórkemdik quaty myqty talay tegeurindi tuyndylar dýniyege keler edi dep shamalaugha bolady. Oqyp kóriniz: «Bizding aldymyzda aryny qatty, aidyny ken, kókpenbek, alyp dariya jatty. Men Dneprdi túnghysh ret kórdim jәne ol maghan, alystaghy dala perzentine, úmytylmas әser qaldyrdy. Tónirek týgel tynyshtyq qúshaghyna bólenip, jaghalaudyng arghy betindegi selodan da eshqanday tirshilik belgisi sezilmedi», – dep jazady.

Eger osy joldardy oqyghan adam onyng tek zang tilinde ghana jazyp, zang tilimen ghana uәjdesetin ghalym ekendigin aldyn-ala bilmese, búl maqalasyn kәsiby jazushynyng qalamynan tughan shygharma dep qabyldauy da әbden mýmkin.

Oqyrmanyn jandy surettermen birden baurap alatyn shaghyn maqala onyng bolashaqta osy taqyrypqa búdan da jilikti dýnie jazudy josparlaghanynday әser qaldyrady.

Keskilesken shayqastarda sharbolattay shyndalghan gvardiya mayory soghys sonyna qaray artilleriyalyq polk shtabynyng bastyghyna deyin ósti. Germaniyanyng Shtralizind, Grimmen, Demmiyn, Malihiyn, Varen, Vezenberg, Vittenberg, t.b. qalalaryn azat etushiler qatarynda boldy.

Gvardiya mayory S.Zimanov pen kapitan N.M.Semenuk,1945 jyl

Salyq Zimanov әskery jәne memuarlyq әdebiyetterde eng kóp jazylghan kenes-amerika әskerlerining Elibadaghy kezdesuine de qatysypty. Búl turaly ol 1965 jyly jazylghan esteliginde bylay dep jazady: «Quatty bronetehnikalyq 8-mehanikalandyrylghan korpus eki-ýsh kolonnamen Elibagha qaray jyljy týsti. Ýshinshi mamyr kýni týske taman bizding bólimder Elibagha jetip, ormangha jayghasty. Villister men motosiklderge mingen amerikalyq ofiyserler men soldattardyng bir toby bizge keldi. Anau-mynau formalidyqtar ysyrylyp tastalghan kezdesu óte jyly jәne quanyshty jaghdayda ótti. Jerge tósenishti jayyp tastap, bir-birimizdi bar mәzirimizben syilay bastadyq. Bizder amerikalyqtar kórgen alghashqy orystar bolyp shyqtyq. Sodan beri 20 jyl da óte shyghypty. Kóp nәrse kónilden jyraq qalyp, esten shygha bastapty. Biraq antigitlerlik soghysta qalyptasqan odaqtas-soldattardyng sol bir jauyngerlik dostyghy eshqashan úmytylmaq emes».

Bayqaghan bolarsyz, Salyq aghamyzdyng esteligi de ózi siyaqty salmaqty, sabyrly. Artyq pafos joq, tek әskery adamgha tәn faktiler konstatasiyasy bar.

Dәl osy esteliginde mayor Zimanov amerikalyqtarmen Elibadaghy kezdesu aldynda tútqyngha týsken nemister arasynan әbden aryp-ashqan bir ofiyser kórgenin, ol nemis tilinde ózining amerikalyq ekenin aityp, ózin solarmen jolyqtyrudy ótingenin jazady. Bayghús búghan deyin osy sózin talay kenes ofiyserlerine aitsa da, týsinetin pende tappaghan siyaqty. Mektepte әri әskery uchiliyshede nemis tilin oqyghan gvardiya mayory әlgining sózin asyqpay tyndap, ony brigada shtabyna jóneltedi. Aytqany rastalghan song әlgi ofiyserdi orystar amerikalyq odaqtastargha qaytarady.

Mayor Podberyozko men Zimanovtar bastaghan kenes әskerleri Elibadaghy amerikalyqtargha kelgende әlgi ofiyser arsalandap aldarynan shyghyp, Salyq bastaghan kenes әskerlerin kezek-kezek qúshaqtap, әriptesterine  búl ofiyserlerding týsinistigi men ózine jasaghan qamqorlyqtary ýshin qayta-qayta alghys aitumen bolghandyghy da estelikten tys qalmaghan.

S.Zimanov maydandaghy ómiri turaly arnayy memuar jazbaghan. Kezinde «әskery qúpiya» retinde saqtalghan onyng mәrtebeli marapatqa úsynylghan qújattary da kózi tirisinde Salyq aghamyzdyng qolyna tiymedi. Áytse de maydanger akademik sol kezdegi dәstýrge say ózimen birge shayqasqan qarulas dostarymen habarlasyp, olarmen hat-habar alysyp túrghan. Tipti egde tartqanyna qaramastan, 84 jasynda Úly jenisting 60 jyldyghyna oray Mәskeude ótken әskery sheruge ardager ofiyser – gvardiya polkovniygi retinde qatysady.

Salyq aghanyng ómirbayandyq derekteri tolyq boluy ýshin myna bir derekti keltire ketken jón.

Áskeri  ómir jolynda qatardaghy jauyngerden bastap, satylap ósu arqyly kursant, vzvod komandiyri, rota komandiyri, batareya komandiyri, divizion komandiyri, minomet polki komandiyrining orynbasary, minomet bataliony komandiyri, artilleriyalyq polk shtabynyng bastyghy siyaqty asa jauapty qyzmetterdi abyroymen atqarghan Salyq Zimanovqa korpus komandiyri, general-mayor Aleksandr Nikolaevich Firsov 1946 jyldyng basynda Mәskeudegi Bronetehnikalyq әskerler akademiyasyna oqugha týsuge úsynys jasaydy. Biraq qos birdey úlynan airylyp anyrap qalghan anasyna, aghasynyng keluin asygha kýtken ýsh birdey qaryndasyna degen saghynysh ony tughan jerine tezirek jetuge asyqtyrady.

Aghamyzdyng kónil qoshy kelgende aitylatyn әskery ómiri jayly syrlarynan taghy bir estigenim, ornyna Akademiyagha oqugha jiberilgen qarulas dosy keyin ony oidaghyday tәmamdap, general-leytenant dәrejesine deyin ósipti.

Salyq aghamyz otbasy turaly әngimelegende soghysqa Zimanovtar әuletinen ózining sonynan ergen Sapar jәne Otar atty eki birdey inisining de attanyp, ekeuining de qan maydannan oralmaghany turaly aitushy edi. Biraq qaytys bolghandary turaly bir japyraq qara qaghazdan ózge eshtene kelmegen. Soghystan keyin eng bolmaghanda, jatqan ornyn anyqtap, oghan tughan jerding bir uys topyraghyn salu niyeti bolghanyn, biraq qolynda naqty maghlúmat joqtyghynan búl oiyn jýzege asyra almaghanyn qynjyla aitushy edi.

Ókinishke oray, S.Zimanov qaytys bolghangha deyin qabiletsiz qolbasshylardyng óreskel qatelikterinen milliondaghan adamnyng qandy qasapqa týskenin jasyru ýshin әueli KSRO, keyin Resey Federasiyasynyng Qorghanys ministrligi soghysta qaza tapqandar men iz-týzsiz joghalghandar jayly derekterdi qúpiya ústady. Tek 2015 jyly ghana búl qújattardan qúpiyalyq griyfi alynyp, jariyagha shyqty.

Osy enbekti jazu barysynda armanda ketken arystardyng ruhy riza boluy ýshin qos bozdaqtyng taghdyry jayly biz de múraghattyq izdestiru júmystaryn jýrgizdik. Soghan sýiensek, 1923 jyly tughan Sapar Zimanov 1942 jyldyng 2 mamyrynda  Guriev qalasynan Qyzyl armiya qataryna shaqyrylyp, Ukraina jerindegi Ontýstik-Batys maydan qúramyndaghy 87-gvardiyalyq minomet polkining sapynda úrysqa kirgen. Esil er 1943 jyldyng 16 nauryzy kýni Ukrainanyng Harikov oblysy, Chuguev audany Granovo selosy ýshin bolghan keskilesken shayqasta erlikpen qaza tauypty.

Ókinishke oray, armanda ketken taghy bir bozdaq – Otar Zimanovtyng taghdyr-talayy  jayly derekterdi qansha izdesek te esh nәtiyje bermedi.

Qazaq halqynyng qaharman perzenti, gvardiya mayory S.Zimanov Úly Otan soghysyna basynan ayaghyna deyin qatysyp, 1946 jyldyng tamyz aiynda 651-artilleriyalyq polktyng shtab bastyghy qyzmetin atqaryp jýrgen kezde demobilizasiyalanyp, tughan eline oraldy.

Alghashqy adymdar

 Maydan dalasynda zor abyroygha bólengen Salyq Zimanovtyng soghys ayaqtalghanda әli joghary bilimi de joq bolatyn. Ol eki birdey úlynan airylyp, shermende bolghan anasy men endigi jerde tirek bolar aghasyn ansay kýtken qaryndastaryna, aghayyn-tuysqa jaydan-jay qaytudy jón kórmedi. Kóp oilanyp-tolghanyp, әskery qyzmetke bir taban bolsa da jaqyn zangerlik mamandyqty tandaydy. Salyq agha turaly jazylghan estelikterding basym kópshilikterinde onyng Saratov zang institutyn, keyde Qazan zang institutyn bitirgendigi jóninde jansaq derekter kezdesedi.

S.Zimanovtyng anasy Bolghan apa men qyzdary Mәdina, Gýljamal, Dina.

Jas ofiyserding tandauy sol kezde ataghy dýrildep túrghan syrttay oqytatyn Býkilodaqtyq Zang institutyna týsedi. Búl sol jyldardaghy qúqyq qorghau jýiesine joghary bilimdi zangerler dayarlaytyn Kenes Odaghyndaghy eng iri oqu orny edi. Bir qyzyghy, ol dәl bayyrghy atauymen 1990 jylgha deyin júmys istep, keyin Zang akademiyasyna ainaldy. Al býginde  O.E.Kutafin atyndaghy Moskva memlekettik zang uniyversiyteti degen atpen belgili. Búl oqu ornyn tandauynyng taghy bir syry – onyng  syrttay oqytatyny edi.

Instituttyng elge jaqyndau ornalasqan Qazan filialyndaghy alghashqy leksiyalaryna qatysyp, tiyisti qújattary, oqulyqtary men tapsyrmalaryn alghan song keudesin jarqyraghan orden, medalidargha toltyryp, Atyraugha oralady.

Ansap kýtken anasymen, aghayyn-júrtpen quana kórisip, sәlemdesu reti ayaqtalghan song maydanda jýrip 1943 jyly partiya qataryna ótken jas kommunist oblystyq partiya komiytetine kelip, esepke túrady. Áriyne, júmysqa ornalasudyng da jay-japsaryn súraudy úmytpaydy. Symday tartylghan symbatty jas ofiyserge ondaghylar oblystyq prokuraturany núsqaydy.

Salyqtyng baqytyna qaray, búl kezde osy mekemeni úzaq jyldar basqaryp, keyin respublika prokurorynyng orynbasaryna deyin kóterilgen Bәiish Hasanúly Tapalov degen azamat basqardy. Ol jas ofiyserdi birden stajer retinde qabyldap, arada 1-2 ay ótkende arnayy bilimining joqtyghyna qaramastan agha tergeushilikke, keyin oblys prokurorynyng tergeu isi jónindegi kómekshisi qyzmetine jogharylatady.

Salyq tergeushilik qyzmet atqaryp jýrgen 1947 jyldyng jazynda oblysqa respublika prokurory K.Ya.Rumyansev keledi.

Konstantin Yakovlevich 1919 jyldyng ózinde-aq partiyagha ótken qart bolisheviyk, soghysqa qatysyp, bir ayaghyn maydan dalasynda qaldyrghan ardager azamat bolatyn. Qazaqstangha kelgenshe Reseyding asa iri oblystary – Stalingrad jәne Novosibir oblystyq prokuraturasyn basqarghan tәjiriybeli zanger Salyq siyaqty Úly Otan soghysynyng ot-jalynynda shynyqqan, әskery tәrtipke әbden mashyqtanghan, eki tildi birdey erkin mengergen, matematikadan sabaq bergen múghalim retinde taldamaly oigha jýirik azamatqa birden nazaryn audarady.

Oblysta issaparda bolghan kýnderi Salyqty janynan tastamay, týrli súraqtar qoyyp, bilim-biligin bayqastap, synaqtan ótkizedi. Áskeriyler «Bog voyny» dep erekshe qadirleytin mamandyghyna qaray «artillerist» dep erkelete arqasynan qaghyp, janyna jaqyn tarta týsedi. Sapar sonynda oghan respublikalyq prokuraturagha auysugha úsynys jasaydy. Anasynyng rúqsatyn alghan song Salyq búghan quana kelisedi.

Osylaysha qylshyldaghan jiyrma besten endi ghana asqan jas ofiyser 1947 jyldyng kýzinde respublikalyq prokuraturanyng asa manyzdy ister jónindegi tergeushisi bolyp shygha keledi.

Qazaq KSR Bas prokuraturasynyng sol kezdegi R.Múhamediyarov, A.Churbanov, M.Demme siyaqty basshylary әskery qyzmetke әbden tóselip, oblystyq prokuraturada әjeptәuir tәjiriybe jinaqtaghan, onyng ýstine Býkilodaqtyq Zang institutynda syrttay oqu barysynda teoriyalyq bilimin de jetildirip jýrgen jas tergeushining jana mamandyqty iygerudegi ynta-yqylasyn layyqty baghalap, birden qamqorlyqtaryna alady.

Almaty siyaqty kitaphanasy men aqyl-kenes berer mamandary mol ghylymy ortagha kelgen song Salyq instituttaghy oquyn myqtap qolgha alyp, Qazandaghy filialgha alghashqy ýsh kurstyng oqu baghdarlamasy boyynsha ekstern jolymen emtihandar tapsyryp, (ol kezde soghysqa qatysqan joghary shendi ofiyserlerge múnday mýmkindik beriletin), songhy kursta Almatyda janadan ashylghan filialgha birjolata auysady.

Kóp úzamay, 1948 jyldyng kýzinde Almatydaghy filialda bes birdey pәnnen memlekettik emtihan tapsyrugha kirisedi. Búl turaly instituttyng Almaty filialynda diyrektor bolghan Salyq aghanyng ústazy L.V.Dukov: «Gvardiya mayory S.Z. Zimanov 1948 jyly Býkilodaqtyq zang institutynyng Almaty filialyn (Qazan filialynan auysu arqyly) syrttay oqyp bitirdi. Bes memlekettik emtihandy týgeldey «óte jaqsygha» tapsyryp, aspiranturagha úsynyldy. Búl kezde ol respublikalyq prokuraturada asa manyzdy ister jóninde tergeushi bolyp istedi», – dep jazady.

Dәl osy tústa Salyq Zimanovtyng keyingi ómirin kýrt ózgertken erekshe oqigha boldy.

Qúqyq qorghau men memleket qauipsizdigi salasynda joghary bilimdi kadrlar tapshy zamanda respublikalyq mekemelerdegi basshy qyzmetterde arnayy qúqyqtyq bilimi joq azamattar da qyzmet istey beretin. Sonday lauazym iyelerining biri 40-50 jyldary Qazaq KSR Memlekettik qauipsizdik komiytetining orynbasary qyzmetin atqarghan polkovnik Bayzolda Sәkenov boldy. Ol da 1948 jyly Býkilodaqtyq Zang institutyna memlekettik emtihan tapsyrugha Salyqpen birge dayyndalady.

Emtihangha dayyndyq jәne oghan qatysu barysynda qashanda Salyqtyng bilimdiligi men alghyrlyghyn, dәtke de, syrgha da beriktigin andaghan Sәkenov oghan memlekettik qauipsizdik jýiesine auysudy úsynady. Tipti onyng kelisimin kýtpey-aq syrtynan qújattaryn rәsimdeuge kirisip ketedi.

Bir kezderi ózi zor senim artyp, alystaghy Atyraudan arnayy shaqyrumen aldyrghan jas shәkirtining ózimen aqyldaspay jasaghan búl asyghystau әreketine renjigen shikәmshil qart bolishevik Rumyansev Salyqqa qatqyldau sóilep, narazylyghyn bildiredi.

Qashanda birbetkey, tikminez Salyq diplom qolgha tiygen song syrtynan ton pishken jana «dosy» Bayzoldagha da, týimedeydi týiedey etken bastyghyna da razy-hosh aityp, aspiranturagha berilgen joldamany tandaydy. Dәl osy oqigha onyng búdan keyingi taghdyryna kýrt ózgeris engizip, ómirining sonyna deyin serik bolghan ghylym-bilim әlemine alyp keledi.

Osylaysha әueli temirdey tәrtipke negizdelgen әskery ómir men algha basqan әrbir qadamyndy zang talabymen ólsheytin prokuratura organynda ótkizgen on jyldan song Salyq Zimanovtyng shetsiz-sheksiz ghylym ólkesindegi jemisti jyldary bastaldy.

Býkilodaqtyq zang institutynda syrttay oqyghan jyldary  ghylymgha beyimdele bastasa da, búl salanyng oghan әli de bolsa, beymәlim qyrlary kóp edi. Naqty búiryq, shúghyl tapsyrma, jedel әreketke negizdelgen әskeriy-qúqyqtyq tәrtippen salystyrghanda әrbir sóz, pikirinizdi saralap, salystyryp, taldap, tolghap aitudy qajet etetin ghylymy qyzmetting jayy mýlde bólek bolatyn. Búl oghan jýris-túrysynnan bastap oilau, pikir jarystyru, ózgening kózqarasyn da eskerip, óz oiyndy elep-ekshep aitudy talap etetin ghylymy ortamen janasha qarym-qatynas jýiesin qalyptastyrudy qajet etti.

Sonymen, 1948 jyldyng 1 qyrkýieginde S.Zimanov Qazaq KSR Ghylym akademiyasy qúqyq sektorynyng akademiyasyna aspirant retinde qabyldanady.

Dәl osy jyly onyng ómirinde taghy bir aituly oqigha boldy. Ol búdan keyingi ghúmyrynda ózine adal jar, anasyna ibaly kelin, qaryndastaryna qamqor jenge, balalaryna ayauly ana bolghan Shәrban Battalqyzymen otasyp, shanyraq kóterdi.

Ómirding nebir qiya joldary men qiyan soqpaqtarynda senimdi serik bolar ómirlik qosaghyn naghyz ertegining batyrlarynday tanday bilgen asqar tauday aghalardyng kóregendigine әrdayym tang qalamyn. Jalpy, ataghy alysqa ketip, abyroygha bólengen kez-kelgen azamattyng tabystarynyng tasasynda Qobylandynyng Qúrtqasynday, Alpamystyng Gýlbarshynynday aghalarymyzdyng babyn da tauyp, balasyn da asyrap, aghayyn-tuysyna da qamqor bola bilgen nәzik jaratylys iyeleri túrady. Shәrban apamyz osynday ayauly jandardyng qatarynan edi.

Jas júbaylar Salyq pen Shәrban, 1950 jyl.

Aqiqat ýshin aita keteyik, Shәrban Battalqyzynyng jeke ómiri men ghylymdaghy jetistikterining ózi bir emes, birneshe kitapqa jetip artylady.

Arqagha  aty mәlim ataqty Jarylqap batyrdyng túqymy Battal atamyz otyz ekining asharshylyghynda qyzyl biylikting kelensizdikterine qolyna qaru ala qarsy shyghyp, halyq kóterilisin bastapty. Sol ýshin Battal Ábeuov 1932 jyldyng ózinde repressiyanyng qandy qasabyna týsip, atylyp ketedi. Kóp eshteneden ygha qoymaytyn turashyl Zimanov múny әr jyldary toltyrghan ómirbayandyq anketasynda jasyrmay, anyq kórsetip otyrghan.

Ákesining halyq jauy bolyp, repressiya shengeline týskenine qaramastan Shәrban apamyz Qaraghandy oblysynyng qiyan týpkiri – Shet audanyndaghy qazaq mektebin 1939 jyly altyn medalimen bitirip, Mәskeu memlekettik uniyversiytetining himiya fakulitetine oqugha qabyldanady. Ol ekinshi kursta oqyp jýrgende soghys bastalyp, Shәrban apay elge oralady. Jerlesterining «halyq jauynyng qyzy» degen týrtkisinde qalmauy ýshin Almaty oblysyndaghy orta mektepte himiya jәne fizika pәninen ústazdyq etip, oqu isining mengerushisine deyin kóteriledi.

Soghys ayaqtala salysymen Mәskeudegi oquyn jalghastyrady. Mәskeu memlekettik uniyversiyteti siyaqty Kenes Odaghynyng eng bedeldi uniyversiytetin ýzdik bitirgen Shәrban aspiranturagha berilgen sanauly joldamanyng birine qol jetkizedi. Ony da oidaghyday tәmamdap, 1952 jyly kandidattyq, al 1968 jyly doktorlyq dissertasiyasyn zor tabyspen qorghaydy.

Shәrban Battalqyzy otandyq himiya ghylymynyng damuyna ýlken ýles qosyp, ózindik ghylymy mektep qalyptastyrdy. Eki jýzden astam ghylymy enbek jazdy. Ashqan ghylymi, ónertapqyshtyq janalyqtary ýshin 7 birdey býkilodaqtyq avtorlyq kuәlikke ie boldy. Ol 1975 jyly Últtyq ghylym akademiyasynyng mýshe-korrespondenti, al 1989 jyly akademiygi bolyp saylandy. Bir ghajaby, Kenes zamanynda býkil Qazaqstanda bir shanyraqtan erli-zayypty qos akademik shyqqan eki-aq otbasy boldy. Sonyng biri – Salyq aghamyz ben Shәrban apamyz qúrghan Zimanov-Battalovalardyng jarasty júby edi.

Psihologtardyng payymdauynsha, er azamat ózine jar izdegende kóbinese anasyna úqsas adamdy tandaydy eken. Ómirlik serik tandaghanda Salyq aghamyz da óz anasynday aqyl men minezge bay, ómirding qanday synaqtaryna qaymyqpay qarsy túryp, erimen birge ensergen Shәrban apamyzdy dәl osynday asyl qasiyetteri ýshin alghan siyaqty kórinedi.

Salyqtyng әkesi erterek dýnie salghannan keyin asharshylyq, joq-jitiktik qyspaghynda qalghan Bolghan әjemiz ýsh úl, ýsh qyzyn qyzghyshtay qoryp, joqtan bar jasay jýrip qatargha qosty. Tepse temir ýzetin atpal azamattardyng ózi asharshylyq tyrnaghyna iligip, halqymyzdyng teng jartysyn jalmaghan nәubet jyldarynda osynday qajyr-qayrat kórsetken adamdy «analardyng anasy» desek, artyq bola qoymas.

Shәrban apamyz enesin tughan anasynday syilap, qayyn sinlilerine jol kórsetip, joba siltegen aqylman jenge boldy. Sonyng arqasynda Sәkenning Mәdina degen qaryndasy Shәrban Battalqyzynyng yqpalymen himiya ghylymyn tandap, keyin dәl osy saladan ghylym kandidaty atandy. Ýlken qaryndasy Dina Kenes Odaghynyng Batyry Jәnibek Eleusizovke túrmysqa shyghady. Mәskeuge qol ústasyp qatar kelgen Salyq pen Shәrban 1948 jyly aspiranturagha da qatar týsedi. Olardyng búdan keyingi ghúmyry bir shanyraq astyndaghy tatu-tәtti, jarasymdy tirlikpen jalghasyp, ghylym әlemindegi berekeli, tabysty, únasymdy jyldargha úlasady.

Ghylymdaghy ghibrat

Salyq aghamyz túraqty týrde bolmasa da, qoly qalt etkende kýndelik jýrgizgen. Onyng alghashqy otbasylyq jyldary men aspiranttyq ómiri turaly keybir siyrek maghlúmattardy sol kezde jýrgizgen jazbalarynan tabugha bolady. Endigi kezekti ózi-aq sóilep túrghan mәlimetterge bereyik. Onda: «27.X.49. Otbasymyzben birge Shәrban ekeumiz Almatydan Mәskeuge attandyq», «27.X. Mәskeuge keldik. Shәrban – MGU-ge, men Rastorguevodaghy KSRO GhA-nyng jataqhanasyna ornalastyq», «14.XI. Kitappen birge ómir sýrip, nәr alyp jatyrmyn. Tanertennen týnning bir uaghyna deyin qolymnan kitap týspeydi. Búryn kitapqa degen dәl osylay yqylasym bolmaghan siyaqty edi. Soghan qaraghanda Mәskeu maghan jaqsy әser etken siyaqty», «18.XII. 1949 j. Býginge deyin biz bólek túryp keldik: Shәrban MGU-de, men Rastorguevoda – GhA-nyng jataqhanasynda. Endi ekeumiz Donskoy kóshesi 32-ýiden pәter jaldadyq. Mәskeuding qaq ortasynda, metronyng janynda», «13.II.1950 j. Dýisenbi. Býgin KSRO memleket tarihy men teoriyasynan songhy kandidattyq minimumdy tapsyrdym. Komissiya mynanday qúramda: tóraghasy prof. Yushkov, mýsheleri Vladimir Sergeevich Pokrovskiy, Samuil Lazarevich Ronin qabyldady. «Beske» tapsyrdyq. Endi alda – dissertasiya», – degen Salyq Zimanovtyng aspiranttyq ómiri men kandidattyq dissertasiyasy jay-japsarynan tolyghyraq maghlúmat beretin naqty derekter bar.

Osy tústa sәl damyldap, jas ghalym dissertasiyasynyng taqyryby men sol kezdegi Qazaqstannyng zang ghylymynyng jaghdayyna da toqtalyp óteyik.

Aspirant Zimanov Mәskeude kandidattyq dissertasiya qorghaudyng qamynda jýrgen 1950 jyly býkil respublikada qazaq últynan shyqqan bir ghana zang ghylymynyng kandidaty bar edi. Ol 1935 jyly Saratov zang institutyn tәmamdap, 1938 jyly Leningrad zang institutynda kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn qorghaghan, dýniyeden erterek ozghan qazaqtyng ayauly azamaty Tayyr Moldaghaliyúly Kýlteleev edi.

Salyq Zimanovtay zanghargha ústaz әri aqylman agha bolghan búl ghalym jayly da bilmekke qúmar oqyrmangha az-kem maghlúmat bere ketken artyq bola qoymas.

Býginde esimin qalyng kópshilikti bylay qoyghanda zangerler qauymynyng ózi úmyta bastaghan Tayyr Moldaghaliyúly 1911 jyly qazaqtyng ejelgi qonysy Atyraumen japsarlas ólke – Resey imperiyasynyng Astrahani guberniyasynda dýniyege kelipti. Ol 1938 jyly kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn qorghasymen endi ghana ashylghan Almaty zang institutynda әueli agha oqytushy, keyin dosent, al 1940 jyly institut diyrektory bolyp qyzmet atqarady.

Soghys bastalghannan keyin әsker qataryna shaqyrylsa da, ghylym kandidaty ekendigi eskerilip, 1942 jyly elge qaytarylyp, búrynghy qyzmetine kirisedi. T.Kýlteleev 1947-48 jyldary Qazaq KSR Joghary Sotynyng mýshesi de bolypty. Qazaqtyng úly ghalymy, akademik Q.IY.Sәtbaevtyng bastamasymen 1946 jyly Ghylym Akademiyasy qúrylyp, qúqyq sektory ashylghanda onyng alghashqy mengerushiligine taghayyndalypty. Dәl osy jaysang jan ghylym jolyna týsken Salyq inisine aghalyq qamqorlyq jasap, bolashaghyna jón-joba silteydi.

Zimanov Mәskeude kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn qorghaugha kiriskende Tayyr Moldaghaliyúly qazaqtyng әdet-ghúryp zandary boyynsha doktorlyq dissertasiyasyn ayaqtaugha jaqyndap qalghan bolatyn. Biri doktorlyq, ekinshisi kandidattyq dissertasiya qamyna kirisken qos azamat júmystarynyng sәtti qorghaluyna Sәtbaev bastaghan respublika ghylymy júrtshylyghy týgeldey tilektes bolyp, barynsha qoldau kórsetti.

Salyq Almatyda jýrgende alghashqy kandidattyq dissertasiyasynyng jetekshisi retinde qazaq zangerlerining alghashqy buynyn tәrbiyeleuge zor ýles qosqan ghalym, dosent L.V.Dukov belgilendi. Mәskeudegi qorghalatyn dissertasiya ýshin almatylyq dosentting bedeli olqy soghatyndyqtan oghan Sәtbaevtyng úsynysymen zang ghylymynyng doktory, professor S.V.ngshkov pen tarihshy V.S.Pokrovskiyler negizgi opponentter retinde bekitildi.

Sonymen 1950 jyldyng sonynda aspirant S.Zimanovtyng dissertasiya qorghauy mәrege jaqynday týsti. Taghy da kýndelik betterine ýnileyik: «3.IX.1950. Professor S.V. Yushkov mening dissertasiyamdy qarap shyghyp, telefon arqyly ózining ong pikirin jetkizdi. Erteng jazbasha qorytyndysyn bermekshi. Keremet! Endi onyng ózi mening negizgi opponentim bolmaq. Bastaluy tamasha. Ary qaray ne bolady eken?», «4.IH. Óte jaghymdy pikir aldym. Ol «Júmystyng dengeyi maghan Zimanov joldasqa zang ghylymynyng kandidaty ghylymy dәrejesin beru jóninde tabandata úsynys engizuge tolyq negiz bere alady», – dep jazypty», «9.IH. Júmys sektorda talqylanyp, jalpy qoldaugha ie boldy. Opponent retinde prof. S.V. Yushkov, prof. S.A. Pokrovskiy bekitildi», «17.IH. Serafim Vladimirovichting Pokrovskiymen birge sóz sóileuden bas tartqany belgili boldy (olardyng arasynda búrynnan kele jatqan ózara kiykiljing bar eken)».

Kýndelik dәl osy tústan ýziledi. (Ony akademikting jeke múraghatynan tauyp, 2014 jyly alghash jariyalaghan – tarih ghylymynyng doktory, professor IY.M.Qozybaev).

Kýndelikte Zimanovqa opponent bolghan birneshe ghalymnyng esimi atalady. Onyng alghashqysy Serafim Vladimirovich Yushkov Reseyding eski ýlgidegi asa kórnekti ghalymdarynyng biri edi.

Qazan tónkerisine deyin Imperatorlyq Sankt-Peterburg uniyversiytetining әueli zan, keyin tariyh-filologiya fakulitetin bitirgen ol naghyz ensiklopediyalyq bilim iyesi edi. Songhy fakulitette esimi әlemge әigili týrkolog bolghan akademik V.M.Jirmunskiymen qatar oqypty. Ol 20-30 jyldarda Mәskeu, Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, Saratovtyng uniyversiytetterinde memleket pen qúqyq tarihynan dәrister beredi. Soghys bastalghanda Almatygha evakuasiyalanghan ýlken oqymystyny Q.Sәtbaev birden óz qamqorlyghyna alyp, qazaqtyng jas zangerlerin dayarlau isine jegedi. Qazaqstanda 1946 jyly Ghylym Akademiyasy shanyraq kótergende Yushkovty akademik etip saylap, Tariyh, arheologiya jәne etnografiya institutynyng diyrektorlyghyna taghayyndaydy.

S.V.yshkov soghys ayaqtalghan song Mәskeuge oralyp, Býkilodaqtyq zang institutynda profesor retinde qyzmetin jalghastyrady. Kenes Odaghy boyynsha zor bedelge iye, «Memleket pen qúqyq tarihy» pәnining negizin salushy retinde sózsiz moyyndalghan ghalymdy jas aspirantqa opponent etken Qanysh aghamyz ózi zor ghalymnyng «yghy da zor» bolatynyn eskeruden tuyndasa kerek. Shyndyghynda, Yushkovtyng shapaghaty qorghau barysynda Zimanov shәkirtine molynan tiydi. Qart professordy airyqsha syilaytyn ghylymy qauym onsyz da «shappay bәige alayyn dep» túrghan Salyqty tolyqtay qoldap shyqty.

Býkilodaqtyq institut tarapynan qosylghan ekinshi opponent Serafim Aleksandrovich Pokrovskiy bir kezderi Stalinning ózimen pikirtalasqa týsken daukes әri Yushkovqa mýlde júldyzy qarsy adam edi. Sondyqtan oghan kóp eshkim qarsy kele bermeytin. Obaly neshik, ol da talaby da, talanty da zor jas ghalymnyng enbegine layyqty bagha berdi.

Osyndayda «bir kandidattyq dissertasiya tarihyn osynshama ejikteuding ne qajeti bar?» degen zandy súraq tuyndauy da mýmkin. Búl bir qaraghanda Salyq Zimanovtyng kandidattyq dissertasiya qorghauy siyaqty kóringenmen, otandyq zang ghylymynyng qaz túryp, qalyptasuy tarihynan mol maghlúmat beretin belesti kezenning aituly oqighasy edi. Sondyqtan jas aspiranttyng resmy opponentterin belgileuden bastap, qorghaudyng jay-kýiin týgelimen Ghylym akademiyasynyng preziydenti, qazaqtyng úly ghalymy Q.Sәtbaev údayy óz baqylauynda ústaghan. Qanysh agha keyin Zimanov doktorlyq dissertasiya qorghaghanda da dәl osylay qamqorlyq kórsetipti.

«Jaqsynyng aty, ghalymnyng haty» ólmeydi demekshi, Salyq aghanyng ghylymdaghy aty da, haty da múraghattarda sayrap túr. Onyng kandidattyq, doktorlyq dissertasiyasyna qatysty derekter Býkilodaqtyq attestasiya komissiyasynyng (VAK) Mәskeudegi múraghatynda saqtalghan bolatyn. Ony izdestiruge arnalghan bizding alghashqy әreketimiz nәtiyjesiz ayaqtalyp, izdegen qújattarymyz Mәskeu múraghatynan tabylmady. Ary qaray indete týstik, izim-qayym joghalmapty. Ol Resey Federaldy múraghat agenttigining Týmen oblysyndaghy saqtau qoryna kóshirilgen eken. Onyng S.Zimanovqa arnalghan isinde akademikting dissertasiyalyq júmystaryna qatysty 300 bettik qújattar sol kýiinde saqtalypty. Endi qayta-qayta silteme jasamay-aq, solargha negizdelgen derekterdi algha tartayyq.

Sonymen, 1950 jyldyng 3 qarashasynda KSRO Ghylym Akademiyasynyng Qúqyq instituty ghylymy kenesi aldynda jas ghalym kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn óte joghary dengeyde qorghap shyghady.

Endi respublika ghylymy júrtshylyghyn alandatyp, asygha kýttirgen Salyq Zimanovtyng dissertasiyasy qanday taqyrypqa jazylghan edi? Osy súraqty tarqata keteyik.

Qazaq ghalymdary ýshin әdebiyet pen tarih ghylymy kommunistik iydeya ýstemdik etken jyldarda qaterli ótkel boldy. Jiyrmasynshy jyldardyng basynda-aq Shәkәrim, A.Baytúrsynov, M.Dulatov, J.Aymauytov, t.b. әdebiyet alyptary qughyn-sýrginge úshyray bastady. Otyzgha endi ghana tolghan Múhtar Áuezov Alashtyng taghy bir alyby Á.Ermekovpen birge 1929-32 jyldary týrmege otyryp shyqty. Revolusiyany jan-tәnimen qorghap, jalyndy shygharmalar tudyrghan Sәken, Iliyas, Beyimbet te qandy repressiya qúrbanyna ainaldy.

Reseyding asa iri uniyversiytetterin tәmamdaghan Á.Bókeyhanov, H.Dosmúhamedov, M.Tynyshbaev bastaghan Alash qayratkerleri, mamandyghy dәriger bolsa da, qazaq tarih ghylymynyng qaynar bastauynda túrghan Sanjar Asfendiyarov siyaqty ziyatker azamattardyng bәrine «últshyl» degen aiyp taghylyp, kommunistik iydeya qalybyna syimaghan sayasi, ghylymy kózqarastary ýshin atu jazasyna kesildi.

Alash ardaqtylarynyng bәrine olardyng últshyldyghynyng dәleli retinde tarih pen әdebiyet salasyndaghy aituly shygharmalary aighaq retinde tartyldy.

Repressiyanyng alghashqy legi qazaqtyng qoghamdyq sanasy men aqyl-oyyn XX ghasyr basynda europalyq, әlemdik dengeyge kótergen últ ziyalylaryn jalmap, odan aman qalghandary Úly Otan soghysynyng maydan dalalarynda sheyit boldy.

«Ornynda bar onalady» deydi dana halqymyz. Soghystan keyin tarih sahnasyna Ermúhan Bekmahanov bastaghan qazaq ziyalylarynyng ekinshi buyny shyqty. Ermúhan Bekmahanov ózining aqyl-parasat, qabilet-qarymy túrghysynan Alash qayratkerlerining isin jalghastyrghan kýresker túlgha edi. Ol әueli Tambov pedagogikalyq institutynyng tarih fakulitetine oqugha týsip, keyin Voronej institutyna auysady. Dәl osy jyldarda Voronejde Alashtyng qos birdey arysy Halel Dosmúhamedov pen Múhametjan Tynyshbayúly aidauda jýrgen edi. Sayasy qyzmetterimen qatar kezinde qazaq tarihyna qalam tartyp, sonyna sýbeli enbekter qaldyrghan qos ziyaly Ermúhannyng últtyq ruhty úran etken tarihshy retinde qalyptasuyna zor әserin tiygizedi.

Soghys jyldarynda Almatyda bolghan orystyng aituly ghalymy, akademik A.M.Pankratovanyng ghylymy kenesshiligimen E.Bekmahanov 1946 jyly Mәskeude «XIX ghasyrdyng 20-40 jyldaryndaghy Qazaqstan» degen taqyrypta doktorlyq dissertasiyasyn qorghap, kelesi jyly qos tilde osy attas monografiyasyn shygharady.

Qazaqtan shyqqan túnghysh tarih ghylymynyng doktory dәl osy kezden bastap jalghan jala, orynsyz aiyp, sayasy qudalaugha týsip, onyng sony T.Shoyynbaev, H.Aydarova, A.Yakuninderding «Pravda» gazetinde 1951 jyly jaryq kórgen neshe aluan aiyptaulargha toly maqalasynyng jariyalanuymen ayaqtaldy.

 

Qazaqtyng qaysar tarihshysy Ermúhan Bekmahanov

Ol kezde Kenes Odaghynyng 15 respublikasyndaghy ondaghan uniyversiytetterde ay sayyn derlik doktorlyq dissertasiyalar qorghalyp jatatyn jәne olar turaly ghylymy basylymdardan basqa organdar kóp jaq asha bermeytin.  Al elding bas gazeti «Pravda» otyzgha endi ghana tolghan qazaq tarihshysynyng alghashqy monografiyasyn nysanagha alyp, auyr soqqy jasaydy.

Búl sot ýkiminen de auyr aiyptau edi. Nәtiyjesinde Salyq Zimanov kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn qorghau qamynda jýrgen jyldarda Bekmahanovty otyz jetinshining ýrdisindegi qaralau nauqany jýrip jatty. Onyng sony 1952 jyly jeltoqsanda Abylay hannyng túqymy (Ermúhan Abylaydyng ýlken úly Uәly hannyng Tәuke súltan degen úrpaghynan taraydy), tarih ghylymynan shyqqan túnghysh ghylym doktory E.Bekmahanovty el aman, júrt tynyshta 25 jyldyq aidaugha jiberumen ayaqtaldy.

Múnday qyzyl sayasattyng kórigi qyzyp túrghan mezgilde Bekmahanovtyng doktorlyq dissertasiyasy arnalghan kezenge jәne taqyrypqa qatysty enbek jazu basty bәigege tigumen birdey edi.

Salyq Zimanovtyng kandidattyq dissertasiyasynyng resmy atauy «Obshestvenno-politicheskiy stroy Bukeevskoy Ordy» dep atalatyn. Birinshiden, Bókey ordasy XIX ghasyrdyng alghashqy jartysynda bolghan memlekettik qúrylym, E.Bekmahanovtyng doktorlyq dissertasiyasy XIX ghasyrdyng 20-40 jyldaryna arnalghan edi. Ekinshiden, Bekmahanov enbegining bas keyipkeri Kenesary han bolsa, Zimanov zertteuining ózeginde Bókey han men onyng úly Jәngir han túrdy. Basqany bylay qoyghanda, osy eki úqsastyqtyng ózi-aq Zimanovtyng ghylymdaghy alghashqy ayaq alysy men keyingi taghdyry sәl janylys basqanda ondyrmay oryp týsetin.

Sәtbaev bastaghan qazaq ziyalylarynyng Zimanovtyng kandidattyq dissertasiyasyna sonshalyqty alandauynyng bir syry osy edi. Sondyqtan jas ghalym zang ghylymynda seng búzyp, ózine de, sonyna ergen buyngha da jol ashugha tiyis boldy.

Osy tústa Bekmahanov tarihshy, Zimanov zanger, endeshe olardyng ghylymy enbekterine osynsha parallelider jýrgizuding qajeti qansha deytin súraq tuyndauy da mýmkin.

Akademik S.Zimanovtyng Qazaqstan tәuelsizdik alghangha deyingi enbekterining basym kópshiligi memleket pen qúqyq tarihyna, sayasy jәne qúqyqtyq ilimder tarihyna arnaldy. Búl – zang ghylymynyng irgetasy ispetti ghylym salalary.

Dýnie jýzining zangerler dayarlaytyn oqu oryndarynyng bәrinde derlik alghashqy kursta «Memleket pen qúqyq tarihy», «Memleket pen qúqyqtyng jalpy tarihy», «Sayasy jәne qúqyqtyq ilimder tarihy» degen pәnder oqytylady. Osylaysha bolashaq zangerlerge adamzat órkeniyetining damu tarihy barysynda payda bolghan memleketter men olardyng qúrylymy jәne erekshelikteri, memleketting formasy men klassifikasiyasy, memleketterding tipologiyasy, sayasy jýiesi men funksiyalary, memlekettegi qúqyq pen ekonomika, qúqyqtyq ilimning qaynar kózderi men negizderi, sayasy jәne qúqyqtyq ilimderding payda boluy, damuy jәne qazirgi jay-kýii oqytylady. Búl pәnder bolashaqta arnauly zang ghylymdary: konstitusiyalyq qúqyq, azamattyq qúqyq, qylmystyq qúqyq, әkimshilik qúqyq t.b. bolyp jiktelip, jiliktenip ketetin ózge qúqyqtyq ilimderding bәrinen búryn sanagha siniriledi.

Kezinde imperiyalyq Reseydegi eng ýlken uniyversiytet – Sankt-Peterburg uniyversiytetin bitirip, magistrlik júmysyn osy uniyversiytetting rektory, professor A.H.Golimstennen qorghaghan Jaqyp Aqbaevtyng ómiri men qyzmetin zertteu barysynda men tónkeriske deyingi Resey uniyversiytetterindegi zang fakuliteti oqu baghdarlamalarymen tanysqan edim. Sonda bir bayqaghanym, ol negizinen sol kezdegi Europa uniyversiytetteri baghdarlamalarynan kóshirilgen eken. Onda ejelgi Rimnen bastap, Europanyng sol kezdegi damyghan elderining tarihy men qúqyghy terendete oqytylghan. Búl oqulyqtarda bir kezderi Altay men Europa tórine deyingi aralyqtaghy imperiya qúrghan ghún memleketi nemese Qiyr Shyghystan bastap Qara teniz aralyghyndaghy Euraziyanyng alyp memleketi – Týrik qaghanaty turaly bir auyz sóz bolmady. Onyng esesine, Fransiya tarihy ejelgi zamannan kýni býginge deyin egjey-tegjeyli tarqatylyp, onda fransuz burjuaziyalyq revolusiyasy, jirondister konventi, yakobinder diktaturasy, diyrektoriya biyligi, bonaparttyq imperiya, ekinshi respublika, Parij kommunasy t.b. taqyryptar tәptishtep oqytyldy.

Tura osy ýrdis kenes zamanyndaghy oqulyqtardan da kórinis tapty. Onyng shyghys halyqtaryna arnalghan bóliginde tek Arab halifatyna ghana oryn berilip, Shynghys han imperiyasy men Altyn Orda memleketi turaly eshtene aitylmady.

Osynday astamshyl dәstýr osy kýngi Resey oqulyqtarynda әli kýnge deyin jalghasyp keledi. Mәselen, jetekshi orys ghalymdary jazghan әrqaysysy qos tomnan túratyn «Istoriya gosudarstva y prava zarubejnyh stran», «Obshaya teoriya gosudarstva y prava» atty oqulyqtar men akademiyalyq kurstarda ghúndar men kók týrikter qúrghan imperiyalar turaly bir auyz sóz joq.

Memleketshildik, otanshyldyq úghym memleket tarihyn tanudan bastalady. Sondyqtan qazaq zangerlerining alghashqy buyny – Salyq Zimanov, Ghayrat Saparghaliyev, Súltan Sartaevtar dәl osy salany tandap, ózderining kandidattyq, doktorlyq dissertasiyalaryn tura «Memleket pen qúqyq tarihy men teoriyasynan» qorghap, memleketshildik sanany qalyptastyrugha zor enbek sinirdi.

Salyq Zimanov turaly enbekter men әriptesterining baghasynda ol ýnemi «tarihshy zanger» dep atalady. Tipti onyng esimi Kenester Odaghyna mәshhýr ústazy S.nshkovtyng da resmy dәrejesi «tarih ghylymynyng doktory» bolatyn.

Jas ghalym Salyq Zimanov ne ýshin XIX ghasyrdyng alghashqy jartysynda ómir sýrgen Bókey ordasynyng tarihyn zertteu nysanasy retinde aldy?

Bókey ordasy aryda Altay men Azau tenizi aralyghyndaghy úlan-baytaq aumaqty alyp jatqan Joshy úlysy orys tarihnamasynda «Altyn Orda» degen atpen belgili bolghan  alyp imperiyanyn, beride Edil men Ertis arasynda saltanat qúrghan Qazaq handyghynyng túyaq serper túsyndaghy eng songhy memlekettik qúrylym bolatyn.

Bir kezderi shyghys tarihshylary «Deshti Qypshaq» dep dәriptegen Úly dala memleketining eng tusyrylghan júqanasy siyaqty kórinetin Bókey ordasynyng aumaghy tónkeriske deyingi eng ýlken orys ensiklopediyasy – «Brokgauz-Efronnyn» derekteri boyynsha, 92.144,5 sharshy kilometr edi. Eger salystyrar bolsaq, búl әlemdegi eng aituly, damyghan memleketterding biri sanalatyn býgingi Beligiyadan ýsh ese ýlken.

Zimanov tandauynyng Bókey ordasyna týsuining taghy bir sebebi Reseyge qanshalyqty vassal bolsa da, Bókey ordasy qazaq memlekettigining ejelgi handyq basqaru josyghyn, sharuashylyqty jýrgizu tәrtibin, zan-qúqyqtyq jýiesin, әleumettik-sosloviyelik jiktelui, әdet-ghúryptary men kóshpeli ómir saltyn barynsha tolyq saqtaghan memlekettik qúrylym edi.

Kenestik tarihnamada Qazan tónkerisine deyingi qazaq túrmysyn joq-jitikke negizdelgen ayanyshty halde surettep, «halyqtyng qoly tek tónkeristen keyin ghana baqytqa jetti» degen mýlde shyndyqqa janaspaytyn jalghan tezis oryn alyp keldi.

Mening akademik Manash Qozybaev jetekshilik etken tarih ghylymynan qorghaghan kandidattyq dissertasiyam tónkeriske deyin shyqqan orys ensiklopediyalaryndaghy qazaq tarihynyng sayasiy-әleumettik problemalaryna arnaldy. Olardy negizinen orystyng bekzat ortasynan shyghyp, ghylym aldyndaghy adaldyghyn saqtaghan orys ghalymdary dayarlady. Sondyqtan búl basylymdaghy derekter sayasy koniukturagha say jii qúbylyp otyratyn kenes ensiklopediyalarynday emes, kóbinese shyndyqqa negizdelip jazyldy.

«Brokgauz-Efronnyn» 8-shi tomynda «F. Sh.» degen býrkenshik atpen Imperatorlyq Resey ghylym akademiyasynyng mýshe-korrespondenti F.A.Sherbinanyng «Bókey Ordasy» degen maqalasy jariyalandy. «Jaqsynyng jaqsylyghyn ait» demekshi, tónkeristen keyin Pragagha emigrasiyagha ketip, sol jerde qaytys bolghan Fedor Andreevich 1898-1909 jyldary «Materialy po kirgizskomu zemlepolizovanii» degen qazaq tarihy ýshin bagha jetpes 12 tomdyq irgeli enbek shyghardy. Mine, osy Sherbinanyng ensiklopediyada jariyalanghan maqalasynda Bókey ordasynda 1890 jyly 216.850 adam túrghandyghy kórsetilip, olardyng qolynda 1889 jyly 1 million 827.298 bas mal bolghandyghy, naqtylay týssek, 87.708 týie, 198.236 jylqy, 329.609 iri qara, 1.256.745 bas qoy men eshki bolghandyghy keltirilgen. Avtor osy mәlimetterdi talday kele: «Ordadaghy әr otbasynyng qolynda orta eseppen 40,7 bas mal bar. Eng bay qazaqtar Naryn qúmynda túrady. Ondaghy әr shanyraq 48 bas mal ústaydy. Eng kedey degen qazaq otbasynda 35,5 bas mal bar», – dep jazady.

Al endi osy derekterdi «asyra silteu bolmasyn, asha túyaq qalmasyn» dep úrandatqan újymdastyru kezindegi Bókey ordasy ornalasqan Batys Qazaqstan jerindegi qazaq auyldarynda maldy qoyyp, birdi-ekili jan ghana qalghan zúlmat zaman shyndyghymen salystyrar bolsaq, Kenes Odaghynyng qazaqqa ne berip, ne alghandyghy ózinen-ózi týsinikti bolady.

Sherbinanyng maqalasyn oqyghanda juannyng jinishkerip, jinishkening ýziler shaghynda, Reseyge tolyq kiriptar jaghdayda ómir sýrgen  Bókey ordasyndaghy eng kedey otbasynyng jaghdayy qara jerge ghana telmirip ótken orys mújyghy men myltyghyn shoshandatqan kazaktardyng qaysysynan da  әldeqayda joghary bolghanyn angharamyz. Al baylyqty qolyndaghy malynyng sanymen ólsher bolsaq, qazaq ortashasynyng dәuleti kez-kelgen orys kulagynyng jaghdayynan artyq edi.

Osy tústa ghylymy әdebiyette әli kýnge deyin qylang berip qalatyn «Bókey ordasy han Bókeyding Resey imperatory Birinshi Pavelge Edil qalmaqtary Jonghariyagha jónkile kóshken song bos qalghan jerge qonystanugha rúhsat bergennen keyin payda boldy» degen teris týsinik bar ekendigin atap ótuge tura keledi.

Shyndyghynda Edil men Jayyqtyng arasyn bylay qoyghanda, aryda Azau men qiyrdaghy Qyrym júrty da bir kezdegi Joshy negizin salyp, Batu dәuirletken Altyn Ordanyng ejelgi qonysy, sol orda halqynyng basym bóligin qúraghan qazaq rularynyng atakýldik mekeni bolatyn. Tipti orys tarihshylary «Krymskoe hanstvo», europalyqtar «Malaya Tartariya» dep jýrgen, al ózining resmy atauy boyynsha – «Deshti Qypshaqtyng Úlyq ordasynyn» ózi Mәskeudi birneshe ret tas-talqan etip jengenin orys tarihshylary әldeqashan moyyndaghan.

Qyrym handyghy ghana emes, jalpy osy týbektegi kenes zamanynda ghana ózgertilgen eldi mekenderding atauyna qarap-aq, onyng halqy negizinen qazaq rularynan qúrylghanyn angharudyng esh qiyndyghy joq. Dәl osy Qyrym handarynyng mórinde memleketting atauy «Úlyq orda uә Deshti Qypshaq» dep jazylghanyn kenestik oqulyqtarmen tәrbiyelengen kóshpeliler úrpaghynyng kóbi bilgen joq.

Myng jasaghyr Múhtar Maghauin aghamyzdyng arqasynda handyq dәuirdegi qazaq jyraulary býkil sәn-saltanatymen qazaq poeziyasynyng tórine jayghasqanda ghana «búdyrayghan eki shekeli, múzday ýlken kóbeli» babalardyng «alang da alan, alang júrt, aghala ordam qonghan júrtynan» mol maghlúmatqa qanyqtyq. Osynday qúdiretti jyr tolghaghan Qaztughan jyrau «Qayran da mening Edilim, Men salmadym, sen saldyn» dese, Asan Qayghy babamyz «Edil menen Jayyqtyng birin jazgha jaylasan, Al qolyndy malarsyn, altyn menen kýmiske» dep ósiyet qaldyrady. «Arystanday eki bútyn alshaytyp, arghymaq mingen» Dospambet atamyz «Azaulynyng Stambúldan nesi kem?» dep babalar jaylaghan kiyeli qonystyng shekara shebi men dәreje-danqyn layyqty dәripteydi.

Sondyqtan endigi jerde «orys patshasy Pavel Bókeyge bos jatqan jer berdi» dep otarshyldar auzymyzgha salghan eski tezisti termelemey, «Bókey han óz qarauyndaghy Kishi jýzding 12 ata bayúlyna qosa jetiru men әlimúlyna qarasty taghy 2 rudy jәne oghan eski júrtta qalghan noghay-qazaqtardy qosyp, babalarynyng ejelgi qonysyna ornalasty», – degen tújyrymdy ústanghan jón.

Salyq Zimanovtyng Bókey ordasy taqyrybyn tandauynyng taghy bir sebebi onyng ata-babalary týgeldey osy ólkeden shyqqan edi.

Jәngir han 1845 jyly dýnie salghannan keyin onyng Sankt-Peterburgting Paj korpusynda oqyghan 15 jasar talantty úly Sahypkerey 2 jyl el biyleydi. Keyin «oquyn jalghastyruy kerek» degen syltaumen imperiya astanasyna qayta jetkizilgen ol qúpiya jaghdayda ayaq astynan qaza tabady. Búdan keyin handyq biylik taratyryp, Bókey ordasy birtindep Astrahani guberniyasynyng qúramyna óte bastaydy. Tipti osynday zamanda da qazaqtardyng dau-sharlary kezinde Bókey negizin salghan «biyler kenesinde» sheshilip keldi. Búl turaly A.F.Sherbina: «Sot tóreligi túrghysynan Bókey ordasy Astrahan palatasynyng qaramaghyna berilse de keybir mәseleler biyler kenesinde sheshilip, olardyng tóreligi appelyasiya men kassasiyagha jatpay, týpkilikti bolyp esepteldi», dep jazady.

Bala Salyq Jәngir han kezinde dýniyege kelgen abyz aqsaqaldardy kórip ósti, al onyng XIX ghasyrda tuyp, handyq biylik joyylsa da, jón-josyghy saqtalyp qalghan zamanda ómir sýrgen әkesi Ziman aqsaqal zerek balasyna Bókey ordasyndaghy qoy ýstine boztorghay  júmyrtqalaghan zaman turaly talay qyzghylyqty maghlúmattardy jetkizgenin angharudyng esh qiyndyghy joq.

Bókey handyghynyng taghy bir ereksheligi – han ordasynda onyng barlyq resmy alys-beris, qatynas qaghazdaryn jýrgizgen arnayy kensebasy boldy. Búl ólkening tarihyna qatysty jýieli ghylymy zertteulerding tónkeriske deyin de (A.Haruziyn), odan keyin de (V.Shahmatov) jan-jaqty zertteluine mol mýmkindikter tughyzdy.

Batyl oi, baysaldy enbek

Kenes zamanynda qorghalghan kandidattyq, doktorlyq dissertasiyalardyng tolyq mәtini Býkilodaqtyq attestasiyalyq komissiya múraghatynda saqtaldy jәne jariyalanugha jatpaytyn. Kitaphanalargha onyng shaghyn, tezisti núsqasy – avtoreferaty ghana jiberiledi. Biraq dissertant óz qalauynsha onyng ghylymy janalyghy, ózgeshe tújyrymdary mol bóligin arnayy basylymdarda jariyalaydy. Zimanov óz dissertasiyasynyng osynday jilikti tústaryn qorghau ayaqtalghan song ghana shygharghan.

Aspirant Salyq Zimanov kandidattyq dissertasiyasynyng basty tezisterin 1951 jyldyng nauryzynda Ghylym akademiyasynyng ekonomika jәne qúqyq sektorlarynyng ghylymy sessiyasynda bayandap, júmystyng «O politicheskom stroe Bukeevskoy ordy» degen sýbeli bóligin Akademiyanyng «Habarshysynda» jariyalaydy. (№10, 1951 jyl).

Respublikanyng býkil ghylymy qauymy әr nomerin qalt jibermey oqityn ghylymy basylymgha shyqqan alghashqy enbeginde-aq Zimanov óz oilaryn eshkimning yghyna jyghylmay meylinshe ashyq, aiqyn bayandaydy.

Ol ghylymy pikirtalasty ózine deyin «Vnutrennyaya orda y vosstanie Isataya Taymanova» atty ýlken monografiya jazyp, onysyn 1946 jyldyng ózinde-aq jariyalap ýlgergen ghylym kandidaty bolsa da, sol kezdegi aituly tarihshylardyng qatarynan sanalatyn V.F.Shahmatovtyng jansaq ústanymyn synaudan bastaydy.

Shahmatov óz monografiyasynda Bókey ordasynyng payda bolu sebebin týsindire kelip: «Ol XIX ghasyrdyng basy patsha ýkimeti jýrgizgen otarlau sayasatynyng jalpy baghyttarymen tikeley baylanysty boldy. Bókey ordasy patsha ýkimetinin, atap aitqanda, baron IYgelistrom sayasatynyng nәtiyjesinde qúryldy jәne birneshe jyl boyy jýrgizilgen jan-jaqty dayarlyqpen jýzege asty», – degen tújyrym jasaydy.

Búl pikirden patsha ýkimeti qazaqtardy qanaushy, otarlaushy emes, kerisinshe, onyng taghdyryna alandap, jyldar boyyna jýrgizilgen arnayy reforma negizinde jer bólip, jarylqaushy bolghan degen aramza tezis qylang beredi. Al shyndyghyna keler bolsaq, Edil men Jayyqtyng ortasyndaghy ejelgi qazaq, noghay qonystaryn orys qaruynyng kýshimen ozbyrlyqpen tartyp alyp, oghan bir kezderi Jonghariyadan ontýstik Sibir arqyly jónkile kóship, Edilge jetken jongharlardyng torghauyt, hoshout jәne dýrbit taypalaryna jer ýlestirgen patshalyq Reseyding ózi bolatyn. Otarshyl apparat qazaq pen noghay júrtynyng ata jauy sanalatyn qalmaqtardy olargha aidap salyp, «bólip al da biyley ber» degen súrqiya sayasatty jýzege asyrdy.

Búl mәseleni biz kezinde «Kolonialinyy rejim v Kazahstane» (2000 jyl) atty  enbegimizde taldaghandyqtan, tolyq maghlúmat alghysy keletin oqyrmangha sol kitapqa silteme jasaumen shektelip, Zimanov pen Shahmatovtyng pikirtalasyna oralamyz.

Shahmatov әdeyi nemese janylyspen tónkeriske deyingi otarlau apparatynyng sheneunikteri men әskery ofiyserler ornyqtyrghan patshalyq Reseyding qanau men tonaugha negizdelgen ozbyr sayasatyn aqtap alugha qúrylghan astamshylyq sayasattyng jeteginde ketken. Múny súnghyla Zimanov birden angharyp, mýiizi qaraghayday bedeldi tarihshy Shahmatovqa qarsy pikir aitady. Ol: «Biz mәsele dúrys sheshimin tappaghan dep sanaymyz. Shyntuaytqa kelgende Bókey ordasynyng qúryluy qazaq qoghamynda oryn alghan bitispes tap kýresimen tikeley baylanysty boldy... Syrym batyr bastaghan halyq kóterilisi qarumen basyp-janshylghannan keyin Kishi jýz qazaqtary kóship-qonatyn qonys izdep ishki jaqqa qaray kóshedi, búl dәl osy kýresting basqasha jaghdayda, ózgeshe formada jalghasuy boldy. Kishi jýz qazaqtary Jayyqty keship ótkennen keyin patsha ýkimeti olardy «qoldaugha» mәjbýr boldy. Áriyne, múnyng qazaq qoghamyna degen alitruistik kózqarastan tuyndamaghany aidan anyq», – dep jazady.

Zimanovtyng dәl osy pikiri onyng ne ýshin Bókey ordasynyng tarihy men memlekettik qúrylymyn ghylymy zertteu nysanasy etip alghanynan qosymsha habar bere týskendey.

Birinshiden, Zimanov patshalyq Resey ghalymdary negizdep, kenes tarihshylary jalghastyryp, ghylymy týrde ornygha bastaghan «Bókey ordasyn qúru – patsha ýkimetining bastamasy» degen jalghan tezisti joqqa shygharady. Patshalyq Resey әueli qangha bóktirip Qazandy, odan keyin tas-talqan etip Qajytarhandy (orystar keyin Astrahani atap ketken) alghan song qazaqtardy ejelgi ata-baba qonysy – Edilden yqtyra bastaydy. Búl oqigha әigili Qaztughan jyraudyn: «Kindigimdi kesken júrt, kir-qonymdy jughan júrt, Qaraghaydan sadaq budyryp, Qylshanymdy sary jýn oqqa toltyryp, Jangha saqtau bolghan júrt», – dep tolghay kelip, «Qayyrly bolsyn sizderge, Menen de qalghan Edil júrt», – dep kókiregi qarsy airyla tolghaghan jyrlarynan kórinis tapqan.

Qaztughan jyrau – esimi XVII ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysyndaghy orys jylnamasyna týsken naqty tarihy túlgha. Sondyqtan Dospambet, Qaztughan, Shalkiyiz jyraulardyng tolghaularyn әdeby shygharma ghana emes, tarihy oqighalar qaynary әri Qazaq handyghynyng otty jyrmen órilgen kórkem shejiresi dep qarastyrghan jón.

Ejelgi qonys Edilden yghystyrylsa da, Jayyqtyng boyyn elge de, malgha da toltyrghan Kishi jýz rulary Zimanov jazghanday, erkin «kóship-qonatyn» jana óris izdeydi. Sonyng negizinde qalmaqtar Jonghariyagha qayyra kóshken song qazaqtar ata-babasy kindigin kesken kiyeli qonysqa qayta oralady.

Osy tústa myna jaygha da nazar audarudy úmytpaghan jón. Ár sózine zor maghyna syidyratyn ejelgi biyler úrpaghy sanalatyn Zimanov tújyrymynda «Resey jeri» degen bir auyz sóz joq. Ol: «Kishi jýz qazaqtarynyng bir bóligi ishki jaqqa qonystandy», – dep jazady. Basqasha aitsaq, kezinde syrtqy betke yghystyrylghan júrt qolayly sәtti paydalanyp, ishki jaqqa ótti degen janasha tújyrym jasalady.

Ekinshiden, Shahmatovtyng «patsha ýkimeti sayasatynyng nәtiyjesi» dep qadap túryp aitqan sózin Zimanov birjolata teriske shygharady. Shahmatovqa patsha sayasatynyng únaytyny sonshalyq, ol múndayda kenes ghalymdary qystyra ketetin «otarshyldyq sayasat» degen túraqty tirkeske ainalghan frazanyng «otarshyldyq» degen sózin paydalanudy artyq sanaghan. Zimanov ýlken әriptesining osy ústanymyn patsha ýkimeti búl әreketti «qazaq qoghamyna degen alitruistikten jasalghan joq» degen kekesinmen týirep ótedi.

Zimanov Shahmatovtyng belgili monografiyasyna negiz bolghan jansaq konsepsiyanyng tórkini onyng 1943 jyly jaryq kórgen «Qazaq KSR» újymdyq monografiyasynan bastalyp, on jylgha juyq ghylymy әdebiyette ýstemdik etip kele jatqanyn da nazarynan tys qaldyrmaghan. Ol atalghan újymdyq monografiyada jariyalanghan ústanymdy talday kelip, onyng «patsha ýkimeti qazaqtardyng «ishki jaqqa» uaqytsha kóship-qonuyna yqylas tanyta qoymady, biraq qazaqtardyng Naryn qúmyna kóshui patsha ýkimetining týpki maqsatyna say keletin edi», degen tústaryn syn tezine salady.

Qazaq ghalymy onyng osy tezisting ózinde bir-birine kereghar eki pozisiya baryn: bir jaghynan qazaqtardyng kóship-qonuy patsha ýkimetining mýddesine say kelgendigin, ekinshi jaghynan sol ýkimet oghan mýlde yqylassyz barghandyghyn aityp, ózin-ózi teristegenine nazar audarady.

Qazaqtardyng Edil men Jayyq arasyndaghy ejelgi qonysqa kóshui mәselesine kelgende 1947 jyly Syrym batyr turaly irgeli monografiya jariyalaghan belgili ghalym, professor M.P.Vyatkin de jansaqtyqqa úrynyp, kenestik tarihshylargha say ony Kishi jýzdegi «tap kýresining shiyelenisuinen» dep týsindiredi.

Al shyn mәnisinde, patshanyng otarshyldyq sayasatyna qarsy últ-azattyq kóterilisting tuyn ústaghan Syrym batyr qazaqtardyng Edil boyyna kóshuin meylinshe qoldap, Bókey hangha kóp kómek kórsetken.

Patshalyq Reseyding Kishi jýz qazaqtarynyng ejelgi qonysqa kóshui turaly búl bastamasyn qoldauynyng basty sebebi, imperiyamen shekaralas aimaqta túratyn Kishi jýzding er Edige zamanynan tartatyn ejelgi jauyngerlik ruhy sónbegen batyr-baghlandary kazak stanisalaryna jii shabuyl jasap, olardyng qaruly jasaqtarynyng ózin zor shyghyngha úshyratyp otyrdy. Bir kezderi eki ortadaghy buferlik aimaq qyzmetin atqarghan qalmaqtar Edilden aughan song qazaq batyrlary tarapynan jasalghan múnday shabuyldar tipti jiyilep ketti. Osynday qaruly qaqtyghystarda kisi ólimi de oryn alyp, onyng sony kek alu jolyndaghy bitispes úrys-keriske ainalghan kezder de boldy.

Orys otarshyldary qazaq qoghamynda ornyqqan dala demokratiyasynyng jay-kýiinen mýlde beyhabar edi. Han qanshalyqty jeke-dara biyleushi bolsa da, ol әrdayym yqpaldy rubasylary men dala shonjarlarymen jәne sol zamandaghy qoghamdyq pikirding tizginin ústaghan azuly biyler men qol bastaghan batyrlarmen sanasyp otyratyn.

Últ tarihynda esimi zor qúrmetpen «Ensegey boyly er Esim» dep atalghan Esimning aghasy Tәuekel han biylik qúrghanda qazaqtar Samarqan men Búhargha deyingi aumaqty Qazaq handyghynyng dәrgeyine keltiredi. Al Esim han taghyna otyrghanda Tashkentti qosyp alyp, ony eki ghasyr boyy qazaq handarynyng erkin biylep-tósteuine jol ashady. Ensesi biyik, aibyny asqan Esim han ashu ýstinde әigili Jiyembet jyraudyng inisi Jolymbetti ólim jazasyna keskende: «Ámiring qatty Esim han, Býlik salyp búiyrdyn, Basyn ber dep batyrdyn, Qanyn iship qanbaqqa... Han iye, ising jol emes, Jolbarystay Jolymbet, Qúrbandyqqa qol emes... Qaharyndy basqaly, Qalyng elim jiyldy. Bastap kelgen ózge emes, Jiyembet syndy biyin-di», – dep hannyng jolsyz jaza kesuine qarsy túrady.

Ata-babasy dәl osy Bókey ordasy halqynyng týp negizin qúraghan on eki ata bayúlynan shyqqan Bortoghashúly Jiyembet jyraugha aibyny asqan hannyng ózine «ising jol emes» dep turadan tartyp, qaharyn basugha dem bergen úly kýsh, aldymen, artyndaghy qalyng eli bolsa, ekinshiden, baba saltyn attaghan hannyng ózine qarsy sóz aitqyzatyn Joshy han zamanynan qalghan dala demokratiyasynyng josyghy bolatyn.

Patshasyna qarsy sóz aitpaq týgili, saray protokolyna  ýilespeytin ersi qylyq kórsetuge dәrmeni joq Resey biyshikeshteri qazaq qoghamynda oryn alghan múnday erkindikti «búratanalyqtyn, órkeniyetsizdikting kórinisi» dep qana baghalaudan asa almady.

«Esim hannyng eski jolynan» bastau alatyn, babalar josyghyna negizdelgen Kishi jýz batyrlarynyng orys bekinisterine jasaghan shabuyldaryn endigi jerde handyq biylikke orys patshasy jarlyghymen bekitiletin Bókey han arqyly azaytu kózdeledi. Shekten shyqqandardy han qolymen jazalap otyru ýshin orys patshasy qazaqtardyng Edil men Jayyq arasyna erkin kóship-qonuyna kelisim beredi. Orda biyligin syrtqy kýshterding aralasuynsyz Bókeyding jeke-dara jýrgizuine orys biyligi Zimanov keketip ótken «alitruistikten» emes, amalsyzdan bardy.

Kenes zamanyndaghy ghylymy әdebiyette Kishi jýz qazaqtarynyng Syrym Datov bastaghan kóterilisin qazaq qoghamynyng handyq biylik pen ezgige qarsy últ-azattyq kýresi retinde ghana baghalaghan synarjaq kózqaras oryn aldy. Shyndyghynda, otarshyl biylik Kishi jýzding yqpaldy rubasylary men batyrlaryn hannyng ózine jәne onyng basqaru tәsiline qarsy aidap salyp otyrdy. Múnday qaskóilik orda biyleushilerining ashu-yzasyn tudyrghan. Zimanovtyng nazarynan búl da qalys qalghan joq. Ol: «Jәngir hannyng shekaralyq basqarmagha jazghan hattarynyng birinde orda halqymen kórshiles qonystanghan orystargha narazylyq bildiredi. Ol qazaq auyldaryna jii keletin keybir sheneunikterding is-әreketi Ishki ordadaghy keybir kelensizdikter men býlikterge sebep bolghandyghyn atap kórsetedi», – dep jazady.

Resey imperiyasy 1822 jyly Orta jýzdegi handyq biylikti joyghannan keyin XIX ghasyrdyng ortasynda býkil qazaq dalasynda Joshydan bastap ýzilmey kele jatqan han lauazymyn saqtap qalghan jalghyz ghana Jәngir han edi.

Ol ózining aqyl-parasatynyng arqasynda patshanyng da kónilin tauyp, qandastaryna da jayly túrmys syilay aldy. Biraq orda shekarasynyng Reseymen shektes tústaryndaghy shúrayly jer men Naryn qúmynyng Kaspiyge súghynghan túsyndaghy aumaghy 300.000 desyatinagha juyq qúnarly ólke knyazi Yusupovtar men graf Bezborodkogha tiyesili bolatyn. Bókey ordasynda mynghyrghan qoy men ýiirli jylqy aidaghan shynjyr balaq, shúbar tós shonjarlardyng maly bos jatqan mayly qiyandargha kirgende olargha salynatyn salyq ta, alynatyn alym da eselep óse týsti. Al ol tólenbegen jaghdayda múzday qarulanghan kazak-orystar qylyshy men myltyghyn shoshandatyp, qazaq auyldaryn qyspaqqa aldy.

Kýz ben qysta tebindep jayylatyn jylqynyng «qazynalyq jer» dep esepteletin kazak stanisalarynyng aumaghyna ótip ketkenderi eshbir aqy-púlsyz tartyp alynyp, joghyn izdep kelgen qazaqtar soqqygha jyghylyp, abaqtygha jabyldy. Toptasyp bas kótergen auyldyng azamattary qylyshqa shabylyp, mert boldy. Múnyng bәri halyqtyng ashu-yzasyn tudyryp, oiyna kelgenin istegen orysty tәrtipke shaqyra almay otyrghan hangha degen narazylyqty kýsheyte týsti. Zimanov aityp otyrghan Jәngir hannyng orys «kórshilerine» jasaghan shaghymy osyny menzep túr.

Qanshalyqty qyspaq pen qolaysyzdyqta ómir sýrse de, Bókey ordasynda Jәngir han túsynda handyq instituttyng býkil jón-josyghy ghana emes, onyng biylik jýrgizu men dau-sharlardy sheshudegi ata-baba dәstýrine negizdelgen zannamalyq negizi de saqtalyp qaldy. Ol turaly S.Zimanov: «Sol kezde qazaq qoghamynda ýstem bolghan basqaru jýiesin súltandyq-biylik jýiesi deuge bolady. Súltandyq-biylik memlekettik basqaru apparaty biylik jýrgizip otyrghan «feodaldyq taptyn» mýddesin senimdi týrde qorghaudy qamtamasyz etti», dep jazady.

Basqasha aitar bolsaq, Bókey ordasynda qazaq qoghamynda ghasyrlar boyy qoldanylyp, әbden synnan ótken «han – súltan – bi» ýsh satyly biylik jýiesi qoldanyldy.

Ókinishke oray, qazaq dalasyndaghy basqaru jýiesin zertteushilerding basym kópshiligi múnday qúrylymdy artta qalushylyq, tipti orta ghasyrlardaghy feodaldyq qogham tәrtibine de jete almaushylyq dep baghalady. Solardyng qatarynda soghys jyldary Almatyda qyzmet istegen kórnekti kenes zangeri S.L.Fuks ta boldy.

Zimanov ústazy, professor Saveliy Livovichtin: «Professor Fuks qazaq memleketi ózining mazmúny jóninen feodaldyq bolsa da, mehanizmi jaghynan feodalizmge deyingi dәrejede edi», – degen pikirine qarsy shyghady.

S.L.Fuks kenestik zang ghylymynyng asa kórnekti ókili edi. Ol soghys bastalghannan keyin 1941 jyldyng kýzinde Almatygha kelip, Almaty memlekettik zang institutynda ústazdyq etedi. Qazaqstangha kelgen ózge ghalymdar siyaqty qazaq taqyrybyna den qoyyp, halqymyzdyng dәstýrli qúqyghyn zertteuge kirisedi. Ol soghystan keyin de ghylymy izdenisterin jalghastyryp, 1948 jyly Mәskeude «XVIII ghasyr men XIX ghasyrdyng alghashqy jartysyndaghy qazaq memleketi men qúqyghynyng tarihy» atty taqyrypta doktorlyq dissertasiyasyn qorghaydy. Irgeli júmysta Tәuke hannyng «Jeti jarghysynan» bastap, handyq biylik taratylghannan keyingi otarshyldyq zannamagha deyingi qazaq memlekettiligi men qúqyghynyng eng ózekti mәselelerin týgel qamtyghan búl enbekke kenestik qyzyl iydeologiya «qúpiyalyq» griyfin qoyyp, jaryqqa shygharugha tiym saldy. Akademik Salyq Zimanovtyng ýzdiksiz qozghauy nәtiyjesinde ghana onyng ekinshi bóligi «XVIII ghasyr men  XIX ghasyrdyng alghashqy jartysyndaghy dәstýrli qazaq qúqyghy» degen atpen 1983 jyly basyldy. Enbekting professor Sh.Tilepina tapqan 50 baspa tabaqtan asatyn tolyq núsqasy Qazaqstan tәuelsizdik alghan song 2008 jyly Sankt-Peterburgte jaryq kórdi.

Tónkeriske deyingi qazaq tarihyn zerttegen orys ghalymdarynyng kópshiligi dala demokratiyasynyng tabighatyn týsinbedi. Oghan jabayy dep aidar taqqandar da, tipti alghashqy qauymdyq dengeyge deyin aparyp tastaghandar da boldy. Mәselen, 1868 jyly «Oblasti sibirskih kirgizov» degen kitap shygharghan M.Krasovskiy deytin sheneunik qazaqtardyng ómir salty turaly: «qanghybas ómir sýrdi, qoregin jabayylar siyaqty tauyp alatyn edi», – dese, ghasyr basynda (1906) jaryq kórgen «Istoriya  zavoevaniya Sredney Azii» atty ýsh tomdyghynda M.A.Terentiev deytin Orta Aziyany jaulaugha qatysqan general-leytenant Qazaq handyghyn «jabayy nomadtardyng alghashqy qauymdyq qoghamy» retinde kórsetip, al qazaqtardy «aqymaq jabayylar» dep sipattaydy.

Jalpy tónkeriske deyingi qazaq tarihyn zertteushilerdi shartty týrde ýsh topqa bóluge bolady. Búlar – otarshyldyq apparatynyng týrli dengeyindegi sheneunikteri, qazaq jerin jaulaugha qatysqan әskery ofiyserler men dala ólkesin zertteuge shyn niyet etken ghalymdar.

Krasovskiyding «jabayy», al Terentievting «alghashqy qauymdyq qogham dengeyinde» dep kemsitip otyrghan qazaqtardyng arasynan shyqqan, nebәri ýsh synyptyq qana oryssha bilim alghan Abay sol kezding ózinde aqyl-parasat jaghynan әlemning eng ozyq oily danyshpandarymen bir dengeyde túrghan edi.

Qazaq biylerining el ishindegi dau-sharlardy sheshudegi aitys-tartysy, әdil tóreligi Dala ólkesine kelgenderdi tan-tamasha qaldyrghan.

Qúnanbay auylyna kelgende osynday oqighagha kuәger bolghan polyak ziyalysy A.M.Yanushkevich olardy «dala Demosfenderi men Siyserondary» dep ataghan.

Qazaq ólkesin jan-jaqty zertteushiler qataryna ýsh tomdyq irgeli enbek jazghan A.IY.Levshiyn, qazaqtardyng әdet-ghúryp zandaryn zertteuge, jýieleuge ýles qosqan D.Ya.Samokvasov, L.F.Balluzek, I.A.Kozlov, K.E.Makoveskiy, A.A.Leontiev, N.A.Aristov, V.V.Radlov, V.V.Veliyaminov-Zernov, A.Dobrosmyslovtardy qosugha bolady.

Amerikanyng әigili jazushy-publisiysi Djordj Kennan ózining «Sibiri y ssylka» atty kitabynda osynda jer auyp kelgen A.Leontiev degen studentpen Semey kitaphanasynda sóileskenin, ol Ibragim Qúnanbaev degen qyr qazaghynyng osy kitaphanagha jii kelip, sol kezderi Europany auzyna qaratqan Milli, Bokli jәne Dreper siyaqty oqymystylarynyng kitaptaryn oqitynyn, tipti onymen induksiya jәne deduksiyanyng aiyrmashylyqtary turaly kemel filosoftarsha әngime qúrghanyn tamsana jazghan.

Zimanov professor Fukstyng qate tújyrymyna әdeppen toytarys bere otyryp: «Qazaq handyghynyng sipatty belgisi súltandyq-biylik basqaru jýiesining bolghandyghy joqqa shygharylady»,– degen qorytyndygha keledi.

Jas ghalym dissertasiyasynda Bókey ordasyndaghy biyler sotynyng qyzmetine «han kenesi» dep atalatyn biyleushige halyq pikirin jetkizip, el ishindegi talas-tartystardy sheshu barysynda aqyl-kenes berip otyratyn biregey konsulitativtik-kenestik qúrylym júmysyna keninen toqtalady.

Bókey ordasynda Kishi jýz qúramyna engen 15 rudyng halqy mekendedi. Jәngir han әr rudyng dau-sharlaryn sheshu ýshin solardyng óz ókilderinen túratyn «han kenesin» qúrady. Orda parlamentining rólin atqarghan búl qúrylym 1828 jyly sәuirden bastap túraqty júmys isteydi.

«Han kenesi» bir jaghynan týrik súltandarynyng «diuan» dep atalatyn uәzirler kenesin eske týsirse, ekinshi jaghynan әr rudyng atynan saylanyp, han bekitken kenes mýsheleri ózderi saylaghan rudyng «deputaty» qyzmetin atqardy.

Ordagha qarasty 12 ata Bayúlyna qosymsha noghay-qazaq ruynan bir bi, Jetiru qúramynan kelgen tabyn, tama, kerderi rularynyng atynan bir ókil, Álimúlyna qarasty kete ruynan taghy bir by saylanghan.

Atap aitar bolsaq:

Mýsirep Aydabolúly – sherkesh,

Balqy Qúdaybergenúly – berish,

Baytu Tómenbayúly – aday,

Altay Dosmúhambetúly – alasha,

Kýshatar Moynaqúly – jappas,

Jantóre Abdalúly – ysyq,

Duantay Aytughanúly – qyzylqúrt,

Tatan Sәkenbayúly – esentemir,

Qúdayshýkir Bozayúly – taz,

Qúdaybergen Kenjebaev – tana,

Qúnajan Sapaqúly – baybaqty,

Shora Qidayúly – masqar,

Shombal Niyazúly – noghay-qazaq,

Kendirbay Yrysbayúly – jetiru (tabyn,tama, kerderi),

Bos Bozdaqúly – kete(Álimúly atynan).

Bir ghajaby – osy tóbe biyler úrpaqtarynan keyingi zamandarda da topty jaryp, el aldyna shyqqan abyroyly azamattar az bolghan joq. Mәselen, noghay-qazaqtan shyqqan Shombal Niyazúlynyng nemeresi Mәjit Múhamedjanúly Shombalov Ordadaghy Jәngir ashqan mektepti tәmamdaghannan keyin Qazan uniyversiytetining medisina fakulitetin bitirip, keyin Qazaqstannyng densaulyq saqtau halyq komissarynyng orynbasary lauazymyna deyin kóterildi.

Biyler kenesi el ishindegi aitys-tartystardy sheship, sot tóreligin ghana atqaryp qoymay, el ishindegi sayasi, ekonomikalyq mәselelerge de belsene aralasty jәne kóp jaghdayda hanmen aqyldaspay-aq jeke-dara sheshim qabyldau qúziretine ie boldy.

Búl turaly Zimanov: «Olar memlekettik biylikting ókilderi edi jәne әjeptәuir dengeyde sayasi, ekonomikalyq derbestigin, әkimshilik avtonomiyasyn saqtay bildi. Olardyng qaramaghyndaghylargha týrli alym-salyq salugha, sot biyligin jýzege asyrugha húqy boldy», – dep jazady.

El arasynda «han shorasy» (shura – arab tilinen audarghanda «kenes» degen maghynany beredi) dep te atalghan búl institut tәjiriybesi keyin qazaqtyng ózge ólkelerindegi dauly mәselelerdi sheshu barysynda da keninen paydalanyldy.

Bókey ordasy taratylyp, «han kenesi» óz júmysyn toqtatqannan keyin orys soty da, otarlau apparatynyng sheneunikteri de sheshe almaytyn qiyn týiindi mәselelerdi ata-baba josyghyna say qazaq biyleri sheshti.

Sonyng bir kórinisi 1885 jyly Semey oblysynyng Shar ózeni boyyndaghy Qaramola degen jerde ótken «sherbeshney» sezd júmysynan aiqyn angharylady. Onda Abay tóbe by bolyp saylanyp, qazaq dalasynyng shyghys ólkesin mekendegen týrli duandardan 100-den astam bi, bolys, әskery jәne azamattyq shendi lauazym iyeleri qatysady. Onda Abaydyng tikeley basshylyghymen 74 baptan túratyn jana ereje qabyldanyp, búl qújat atalghan ólkedegi dauly mәselelerdi sheshu ýshin tónkeriske deyin keninen paydalanyldy.

Abay salghan dәstýrding negizinde Tarbaghataydyng etegindegi Shúbaraghash degen jaylauda 1908 jyly Resey men Qytay shekarasynyng arghy-bergi betinde otyrghan qazaq rularynyng iygi jaqsylary, bolys, biyleri qatysqan iri basqosuda taghy bir Ereje qabyldanady. Ony dayarlau kezinde Altay uniyversiytetining profesory V.A. Moiyseev tapqan múraghat derekterinde kórsetilgendey, bizding úly babamyz Qúl-Múhammed aqsaqal tóbe biylik jasaydy. Qazaq әdet-ghúryp qúqyghyn zertteushi ghalym Sh.A.Andabekovting maghlúmaty boyynsha, múnday halyqaralyq tótenshe basqosular 1891-1908 jyldar aralyghynda 5 ret ótkizilipti.

Zimanov dissertasiyasynyng «K voprosu o prave feodalinoy sobstvennosty v Kazahstane» dep atalatyn taghy bir sýbeli bóligi Ghylym akademiyasy «Habarshysynyn» 1952 jylghy 4-sanynda jariyalandy.

Búl joly ghylym kandidaty ataghyn resmy týrde iyelengen S.Zimanov jer men malgha qatysty menshik jigin anyqtauda Shahmatovtan asyp týsip, ózine ghylymy jetekshilik jasaghan professor Yushkovpen ghylymy pikirtalasqa týsedi.

Kenes zamanynda tarih ghylymy boyynsha jariyalanghan enbekter týgeldey taptyq kózqarasqa negizdelgen marksistik teoriyagha sýienip jazyldy. Qoghamdyq-ekonomikalyq qatynastardyng ara-jigin anyqtau, menshik týri men onyng iyesin belgileu, sol arqyly qanaushy men qanalushynyng kim ekendigin anyqtaugha basym baghyt berildi. Zimanov ta osy prinsipti ústana otyryp, qazaq qoghamynda sharuashylyqty jýrgizu mәselesin qarastyru  barysynda tuyndaytyn ózindik erekshelikterge toqtalady.

Ol pikirtalasty әueli Yushkovtyng enbeginen, «Osnovaniyem feodalinoy ekspluatasiy nado priznati zemlu, a ne skot», – degen jadaghaylau pikirinen dәiekshe aludan bastaydy. Zimanov pikirtalas mәdeniyetin saqtay otyryp, avtordyng búl pikirin әli de bolsa naqtylay týsu qajet ekendigine nazar audarady.

Zimanov enbekterinde jii qoldanylatyn tәsilderding biri – matematikalyq taldau. Búghan onyng bir kezderi orta mektepte matematikadan sabaq bergendigi әri 7 jyl ýnemi esep-qisapqa negizdelgen artilleriyada qyzmet etkendigi әser etken bolar dep shamalaymyn.

Matematikada «keri dәleldeu teoriyasy» bar. Zimanov jetekshisi Yushkovtyng qatesin dәleldeu ýshin oghan mýlde qarama-qarsy baghyt ústanyp: «kóshpeli mal sharuashylyghy jaghdayynda óndiristing negizgi qúraly jer emes, mal boldy» dep, ary qaray óz tújyrymyn dәleldeuge úmtylady.

Zimanov orys jәne Europa ghalymdarynyng eginge, bau-baqsha salugha paydalanyp, onyng ónimin bangdyng kózi esebinde paydalanatyn iri jer iyelenushilerding renta arqyly tabys tabu tәsilin jerdi negizinen jayylym retinde paydalanatyn qazaqtarmen salystyrugha mýlde bolmaytynyn naqty mysaldarmen dәleldeydi.

Ghalym tújyrymdaghanday,  jayylymdyq jerde óz betinshe eshtene ónbeydi, yaghny múnday jer qosymsha qún tughyzbaydy. Oghan mal baghylghan kezde ghana payda kózine ainalady. Sol sebepti jer men mal kóshpeli tirlikte bir-birimen tyghyz baylanysta. Ol Yushkov jәne Shahmatov siyaqty eki birdey ataqty әriptesterimen oy jarystyru barysynda  Bókey ordasy qúramyndaghy jappas ruynyng «qaraghúl» taypasyna qarasty «baybatsha» tarmaghyndaghy 100 iri baydyng mal-mýlki men  sharuashylyqty jýrgizu dәstýrin taldau turaly óz tújyrymdaryn taygha tanba basqanday naqty mysaldarmen dәleldep shyghady.

Tónkeriske deyingi jәne kenes zamanyndaghy orys ghalymdary kóshpeli tirlikting erekshelikterin, ondaghy sharuashylyqty jýrgizuding ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan qazaqy dәstýrlerding ózgeshelikterin týsinbedi. Múnday kýrdeli mәselelerdi markstik teoriyanyng qasang dogmattary túrghysyn taldap, sol bayaghy qanaushy men qanalushygha negizdelgen taptyq prinsipting ýdesinen shyghu ýshin kóptegen qatelikterge boy aldyrdy.

Múnday jansaq tújyrymdar әlemdik damu biyiginde dep esepteletin Europada tek XVIII-XIX ghasyrlargha deyin, al Reseyde 1861 jylgha deyin saqtalghan qúldyq qoghamnyng elementterinen túratyn krepostniktik pravomen salystyrudan tuyndady. XIX ghasyrda Reseyde qúldan sәl ghana artyq qúqyghy bar pomeshikterge jaldanghan orys krepostnoy mújyghynyng eki qoly men bir kýreginen basqa eshtenesi bolmasa, Bókey ordasyndaghy eng kedey degen qazaq otbasynyng qolynda 39 irili-uaqty maly bolghandyghyn biz emes, «Brokgauz-Efronda» jariyalanghan maqalasynda iri orys ekonomiysi F.A.Sherbina dәleldep shyqqanyn biz jogharyda keltirip óttik.

Jer men malgha menshik turaly pikirtalasty órbitu barysynda S.Zimanov Bókey ordasynda sol kezde qalyptasqan ekonomikalyq jaghdaydy talday kelip, Reseyding imperiyalyq otarlau sayasatynyng tonauyna týsken qazaq qoghamynyng mýshkil halinen mol maghlúmattar keltiredi.

Salyq Zimanov kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn 1950 jyldyng 3 qarashasynda zor tabyspen qorghaghannan keyin jeltoqsan aiynda Almatygha oralyp, Ghylym akademiyasynyng qúqyq sektorynyng agha ghylymy qyzmetkerligine qabyldanady.

Dәl osy kezden bastap onyng ómirining sonyna deyin jalghasqan ghylymdaghy jemisti jyldary bastaldy. Ol 1958 jyly dәl osy kandidattyq júmysy negizinde jazylghan «Obshestvennyy stroy kazahov pervoy poloviny XIX veka» atty monografiyasyn, keyin ony tolyqtyryp, 1982 jyly «Rossiya jәne Bókey handyghy» atty klassikalyq enbegin jariyalady.

Dәl osy enbekterden otandyq zang ghylymyndaghy jana baghyt – memleket pen qúqyq tarihynyng negizi qalandy jәne ony akademik ómirining sonyna deyin ýnemi jetildirip otyrdy. Dәl osy ghylym salasy boyynsha ol ondaghan ghylym doktory men kandidattaryn dayarlady. Olar ústazdary negizin qalaghan, zang fakulitetteri studentterine birinshi kurstan bastap ótiletin zang ghylymynyng irgetasy sanalatyn Qazaq memleketi men qúqyghy tarihyn jana qyrynan tolyqtyra týsti.  Dәl osy enbekter býginde Qazaqstannyng barlyq orta mektepterinde el tәuelsizdik alghannan keyin ghana oqytyla bastaghan «Memleket pen qúqyq negizderi» oqulyghyna deyin úlasty.

Akademikting osy taqyryptaghy enbekteri qazaqtarda tónkeriske deyin memlekettik bolmaghan, olardyng damu dәrejesi «feodalizmge deyingi» qogham dәrejesinde ghana qaldy degen әueli imperiyalyq Resey, keyin kenestik ghylymynda ýstemdik etip kelgen jat pighyldan tughan astamshyl konsepsiyalargha toytarys berdi.

S.Zimanov enbeginde aryda Altyn Orda, beride Qazaq handyghynyng el basqaru men baquatty qogham qúrudaghy XIX ghasyrgha deyin ýzilmey jetken ýzdik dәstýrleri negizinde ómir sýrgen Bókey ordasynyng memlekettik qúrylymy, handyq basqaru jýiesi, parlament rólin atqarghan «han kenesinin» qyzmeti, han jarlyghymen belgilenetin: súltan, bi, tarhan, starshyndardyng qyzmettik pozisiyalary jәne han ordasyndaghy is qaghazdaryn qazaq, orys, tatar, parsy jәne shaghatay tilderinde jýrgizgen basqaru kensesi, Reseyding shekaralyq ónirleri men Qazaq ólkesining ózge biyleushilermen, Hiua handyghymen diplomatiyalyq baylanystary, din isterin jýrgizetin qoja, ahun t.b. diny qyzmetshilerding mindeti, han qauipsizdigin qamtamasyz etetin kýzet qyzmeti jan-jaqty taldandy.

Reseyge qanshalyqty tәueldi bolsa da, imperatordyng ózi onyng handyq biyligin tanyp, arnayy jarlyghymen general-mayor shenin bergendikten, Jәngir han general-gubernator Perovskiyding de keybir «ótinishterine» qúlaq aspay, ordanyng ishki isteri jóninde jeke-dara sheshimder qabyldap otyrdy.

Ár rudyng kóship-qonu aumaghyn belgilep, qolyndaghy mal basynyng sanyna qaray alym-salyq mólsherin aiqyndady. Orda halqy 300 myngha juyqtaghan kezde onyng qúramyndaghy auyldar sany 1200-1500-ge deyin ósip, europalyq ólshemmen alghanda derbes memlekettik qúrylym dәrejesine kóterildi.

Bókey handyghy múraghatyn týgeldey sýzgiden ótkizgen S.Zimanov ondaghy bilim beru jýiesi men onyng oqu baghdarlamasy, densaulyq saqtau isi, mektepter men dәrihanalar, auruhanalar men emhanalar, mәdeny mekemeleri, ordadaghy orys ýlgisimen jasaqtalghan «qaru-jaraq palatasy» turaly jan-jaqty maghlúmattar keltiredi.

Jәngir han ashqan sol mektepterde keyin qazaqtyng asa kórnekti qayratker túlghasyna ainalghan Múhamed-Salyq Babajanov siyaqty talay azamattar oqydy.

S.Zimanov ózi qorghaghan dissertasiya negizinde jazylghan monografiyasynyng qorytyndy bóliginde: «Bizding zertteuimizding basty maqsaty – Bókey handyghy men onyng halqynyng tútas tarihyn jasau», – dep ózi atap kórsetken maqsatyna tolyghymen jetti.

Bókey ordasynyng parasatty hany, alghyr súltandary, dana biyleri men dostyqqa adal, bergen sertke berik jauynger júrty, bilimge qúshtar jastary ólkege kelgen orys ziyalylaryna qazaq halqy turaly ong pikirler qalyptastyrugha iygi әserin tiygizdi. Múnyng bәri kezinde Bókey ordasynda bolghan A.Levshiyn, P.Nebolisiyn, Ya.Hanykov, V.Grigoriev t.b. enbekterinde, han stavkasynda túrghan G.Karelinning jazbalarynan kórinis tapty.

Túnghysh doktor, alghashqy akademiyk

Salyq Zimanov qorghau ayaqtalysymen, 1950 jyldyng jeltoqsan aiynda Ghylym akademiyasynyng qúqyq sektoryna agha ghylymy qyzmetker bolyp ornalasady. Arada bir jylday uaqyt ótip, 1951 jyldyng qazan aiynda T.M.Kýlteleevting doktorlyq dissertasiya jayymen Moskvagha attanuyna baylanysty onyng ornyna sektor mengerushisining qyzmetin atqarushy bolyp taghayyndaldy.

Jigerli, alghyr ghalym T.M.Kýlteleev 1953 jyldyng aqpan aiynda dissertasiyasyn tolyq ayaqtap, ýsh birdey opponentinen jaghymdy pikir alyp ýlgeredi. Qazaqtyng dәstýrli zanyna negizdelgen qylmys qúqyghyna arnalghan doktorlyq dissertasiyasynyng qorghaluyna birneshe kýn qalghanda ayaq astynan bolghan apattan 1953 jyldyng 15 aqpanynda qayghyly qazagha úshyraydy.

Zang ghylymy jolyna týsken qazaq jastaryna aqylshy agha, jol kórsetken ústaz bola birgen onyng doktorlyq dissertasiyasy negizinde dayarlanghan «Ugolovnoe obychnoe pravo kazahov» atty monografiyasyn S.Zimanov bastaghan әriptesteri zor yqylaspen әzirlep, 1955 jyly baspadan shygharady. Keyin birneshe ret basylghan T.Kýlteleevting búl monografiyasy qazaqtyng dәstýrli qúqyghy boyynsha klassikalyq enbekke ainalyp, ózining ghylymy qúndylyghyn әli kýnge deyin joghaltqan joq.

Salyq Zimanov Ghylym akademiyasy qúqyq sektorynyng mengerushisi qyzmetin atqarghan alghashqy bir jyl ishinde-aq ózine tәn jigermen birshama iygilikti isterdi tyndyryp ýlgerdi.

Akademiya Preziydenti Q.Sәtbaevtyng qoldauymen 15 jas ghalymdy SSSR Ghylym akademiyasynyng Memleket jәne qúqyq institutynyng aspiranturasyna jiberedi. Búl sol kezde eki ghana zang ghylymynyng kandidaty bar respublika ýshin óte ýlken jetistik edi. Onyng ýstine Mәskeuge jiberilgen 15 aspiranttyng segizi qazaq boldy. Olardan keyin ghylymy enbekterimen keninen tanylghan A.Tәukelov, N.Jangeldiyn, Z.Abdulina, K.Ýrgenishbaev, Q.Jolamanov t.b. qazaq zangerlerining tegeurindi buyny shyqty.

Eluinshi jyldardyng basynda Qazaqstanda ghana emes, býkil Kenes Odaghynda zang ghylymyn órkendetuge, joghary bilimdi zangerler dayarlau isine erekshe kónil bóline bastaydy. Akademiya jýiesinde qyzmet isteytin ghylymy dәrejesi bar jas zertteushiler joghary oqu oryndaryndaghy ústazdyq qyzmetke tartyldy. Osynday sebeppen otyzgha endi tolghan S.Zimanov 1952 jyldyng 15 qyrkýieginde KSRO Joghary bilim ministri V.Stoletovtyng búiryghymen Almaty memlekettik zang institutynyng diyrektory qyzmetine taghayyndalady.

S.Zimanovty Almaty zang institutynyng diyrektory qyzmetine bekitu jóninde KSRO Joghary bilim ministrining búiryghy

Kerek kezinde bar jauapkershilikti moynyna alyp, naqty búiryq berip, shúghyl sheshim qabyldaugha ýiretken әskery ómir tәjiriybesi diyrektor Zimanovtyng jana qyzmetinde kóp kәdege jarady.

Qazaqstanda zang ghylymynyng qalyptasyp, damuyna soghys jyldarynda Almatygha evakuasiyalanghan orys ghalymdary zor septigin tiygizdi. Olar ózderimen birge Mәskeu men Leningrad uniyversiytetterinde qalyptasqan oqu baghdarlamalary men oqu isin jýrgizuding tamasha tәjiriybesin alyp keldi. Ghylym akademiyasy jýiesinde enbek etken iri ghalymdar óz shygharmashylyghyn Qazaqstan taqyrybyna beyimdep, jergilikti ghalymdarmen birlese jana enbekter jazdy. Esimi Odaqqa mәshhýr búl ghalymdardyng shygharmalary KSRO ziyaly qauymynyng nazaryn Qazaqstangha audaryp, respublikanyng ghylymy ómirindegi әrbir janalyq odaqtyq dengeydegi ynta-yqylasqa ie bolyp otyrdy.

Almaty memlekettik zang institutynda iri zangerlermen qatar S.Ya.Bulatov, V.N.Margelov, M.A.Vaksberg siyaqty bolashaghy zor ghylym kandidattary da qyzmet istedi. Áygili Zinovievting inisi 1937 jyly Qazaqstangha jer audarylyp kelgen Matvey Abramovich Vaksberg sayasy senimsizdigi ýshin Almaty zang institutyndaghy oqytushylyq qyzmetinen shygharylyp tastalsa da, S.Zimanov ony ghylymy biliktiligi ýshin qaytadan qabyldaydy. Vaksberg ómirining sonyna deyin  Qazaqstanda qalyp, otandyq zang ghylymynyng damuy men zangerler dayarlau isine layyqty ýlesin qosty.

Alghan betinen qaytpaytyn birbetkey Zimanov Alashordanyng kórnekti qayratkerleri Halel Dosmúhamedovting qyzy Q.Dosmúhamedova men Jaqyp Aqbaevtyng qyzy A.Jaqypovany da júmysqa qabyldaydy. Keyin  Aspaziya Jaqypqyzy S.Zimanov joldamasymen Mәskeuge aspiranturagha baryp, 1954 jyly Mәskeu zang institutynda otbasylyq qúqyq mәselesi boyynsha kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn oidaghyday qorghap, qazaq qyzdary arasynan túnghysh zang ghylymynyng kandidaty atanady.

Kezinde Jaqyp Aqbaevqa qatysty múraghat materialdaryn aqtarghanda mening aldymnan sol qordy oqyghan adam retinde ýnemi Aspaziya Jaqypqyzynyng qoltanbasy shyghatyn. Onyng әkesi J.Aqbaev 1902 jyly Sankt-Peterburg uniyversiytetin tәmamdaghan kezde qazaqtyng dәstýrli qúqyghyndaghy otbasy jәne neke mәselesi boyynsha qorghalghan magistrlik júmysyna Imperatorlyq uniyversiytetting rektory, ýlken oqymysty ghalym, professor A.H.Golimsten jetekshilik etken bolatyn. Aspaziya әkesining mamandyghyn ghana tandap qoymay, onyng ómirin de zerttep, ghylymdaghy jolyn da jalghastyrdy jәne ómirining sonyna deyin Qazaq memlekettik uniyversiyteti zang fakulitetining memleket pen qúqyq tarihy men teoriyasy kafedrasynyng mengerushisi retinde zangerler dayarlau isine ýles qosty.

Oblystyq, respublikalyq prokuratura mekemelerinde qyzmet istegen jyldarynda ondaghy joghary bilimdi zangerlerding az ekendigin jaqsy biletin Zimanov institut ghalymdaryna Jogharghy sot, Bas prokuratura, Ádilet ministrligi, Ishki ister ministrligi men memlekettik qauipsizdik organdaryna ózderining salalary boyynsha leksiya men seminar sabaqtaryn ótkizudi mindetteydi.

Diyrektor Zimanov sot organdarynyng júmysyna erekshe kónil bólip, Jogharghy sot, oblystyq, audandyq sot qyzmetkerleri men halyq zasedateliderine arnap ay sayyn seminar ótkizudi túraqty júmys josparyna engizedi. Keyin tyndaushylar qataryna oblystyq, qalalyq jәne audandyq atqaru komiytetining jauapty qyzmetkerlerin de qosady.

Búl kezde býkil Qazaqstanda Resey men KSRO-nyng ózge respublikalarynan kelgen zanger-ghalymdardy qospaghanda qazaq últynan shyqqan zangerlerding sausaqpen sanarlyqtay ghana bolghanyn eskersek, jergilikti qyzmetkerler ýshin jasalghan múnday seminar-kenesterding atqarghan róli de, praktikalyq paydasy da asa zor boldy.

Institut diyrektory retinde Salyq Zimanov engizgen taghy bir janalyq – oqu ornynyng óz «Ghylymy jazbalarynyn» shygharyluy boldy. Sol kezde kitaphanaaralyq abonent arqyly Odaqtaghy barlyq jogharghy oqu oryndary men KSRO Ghylym akademiyasy jýiesindegi ghylymiy-zertteu mekemelerine týgel taraytyn búl jazbalar arqyly qazaqstandyq zanger ghalymdardyng jana ghylymy izdenisterin ózge respublikadaghy әriptesterine birden jetkizu mýmkindigi tuyndady.

Soghystan keyin Kenes Odaghy on bes respublikadan túratyn alyp memleketting júmysyn beybit arnagha búrady. Otyzynshy jyldary elding býkil intellektualdyq kýsh-quaty industriyalandyrugha, ónerkәsipti damytugha, injener-tehnik mamandardy dayarlaugha júmyldyrsa, endigi kezende barlyq dengeydegi basqaru jýiesine kәsiby zangerler dayarlau maqsaty algha qoyylady.

Qazaqstandaghy zangerler tapshylyghy respublikalyq mekemelerdi bylay qoyghanda, oblystyq, audandyq qúqyq qorghau organdarynda airyqsha sezile bastady. Onyng ýstine kәsiby zangerler audandyq, oblystyq atqaru komiytetteri apparattary ýshin de asa qajet edi. Múnday auqymdy kadr tapshylyghyn sheshuge shaghyn ghana újymnan túratyn Almaty memlekettik zang institutynyng kadrlyq әleueti jetisinkiremedi.

Osy sebepterge baylanysty 1955 jyly Zimanov júmysyn dúrys jolgha salyp, etek-jenin jinastyrghan institutty S.M.Kirov atyndaghy Qazaq memlekettik uniyversiytetine qosyp, sonyng bazasynda búryn mýlde bolmaghan zang fakulitetin ashu mindeti algha qoyyldy.

Múnyng eki týrli sebebi bar edi. Birinshiden, institut qanshalyqty derbes oqu orny bolsa da, onyng kadrlyq, ghylymy әleueti men materialdyq-tehnikalyq bazasy әli әlsizdeu edi. Onyng ýstine soghys kezinde Qazaqstangha evakuasiyalanghan bilikti ghalymdardyng basym kópshiligi Resey men ózge respublikalardaghy óz qyzmet oryndaryna kóship ketken edi.

Ekinshiden, joghary bilimdi zangerler dayarlau ýshin tek osy salagha mamandanghan ghalymdardyng sabaq berui jetkiliksiz boldy. Múnday jan-jaqty bilimdi halyqaralyq tәjiriybege sәikes, qoghamdyq ghylymdardyng tariyh, filosofiya, ekonomika siyaqty sabaqtas salalardyng ghalymdary toghysqan iri uniyversiytetter ghana bere alatyn. Búl ýrdis kezinde imperatorlyq Reseyde jaqsy saqtalghan edi, biraq tónkeristen keyingi alasapyran zamandarda týrli sayasy koniuktura men nauqandardyng saldarynan iri uniyversiytetter úsaqtalyp, olardyng fakulitetteri men ghylymy ortalyqtarynyng negizinde jana oqu oryndary ashylghan bolatyn.

Soghystan keyin óz aldyna derbes ministrlik retinde júmys istey bastaghan KSRO Joghary oqu oryndary ministrligi jiberilgen qatelikterden sabaq alyp, Reseyding ýlken qalalary men odaqtas respublikalaryndaghy uniyversiytetterding oqu jәne kadr dayarlau baghdarlamalaryn qayta qarap, olardy irilendire bastady.

Onyng ýstine, 1934 jyldan bastap júmys isteytin Qazaq memlekettik uniyversiytetinde zang fakuliteti bolmauynyng ózi joghary oqu orny ýshin ýlken olqylyq edi. Memlekettik zang institutyn shashau shygharmastan sol kýiinde uniyversiytetke beru arqyly jana fakulitet ashu osy qordalanghan problemalardy sheshuding birden bir dúrys joly boldy.

Búl kezde Qazaq uniyversiytetining tariyh, filologiya, filosofiya jәne ekonomika fakulitetterinde esimi býkil respublikagha tanymal iri ghalymdar: ghylym doktorlary, professorlar, akademikter ústazdyq etetin. Olar bolashaq zangerlerge aralyq pәnder boyynsha sabaq beru arqyly studentterding jalpy bilim dengeyin kóteruge zor ýlesin qosty.

Soghystan keyingi kezende Kenes Odaghynyng qúqyq qorghau organdary janasha jýiege kóshe bastady. Partiyalyq basqaru, әkimshil-әmirshildik prinsipter saqtalghanymen, búrynghyday sebepsiz, sotsyz qaydaghy bir «ýshtiktin» sheshimimen adamdardy bas bostandyghynan aiyru kelmeske ketti. Búl zangerlerding bilimin, biligin jalpy kәsiby mәdeniyetin jana biyikke kóterudi talap etti.

Qogham ómirindegi ózgeristerge say qylmystyng týrleri de ózgerdi. Olardy sheshu ýshin bolashaq zangerlerge ekonomikanyng әr aluan salasy, ghylym men jana tehnologiyalar boyynsha qosymsha bilim beru mindeti algha qoyyldy. Joghary bilimdi zangerler biliktiligin arttyru ýshin olargha filosofiya, psihologiya, logika, din men morali, zangerding etikasy, tildik-lingvistikalyq sheberligi, al halyqaralyq qúqyq boyynsha shetel tilderin mengeru siyaqty qosymsha pәnder men jana talaptar qoyyldy. Múnyng bәrin shaghyn kollektivten túratyn zang instituty bere almaytyn edi.

Salyq Zimanov keshe ghana bar mýmkindigin salyp ayaghynan tik túrghyzghan institutty uniyversiytetke bere salugha basynda qarsy bolghanymen, últ aldyndaghy úly mindetter túrghysynan ony tolyq quattaydy.

Osylaysha 1955 jyly 1 mausymda institut týgeldey uniyversiytetting qaramaghyna ótedi. Osy jyldyng 26 shildesinde uniyversiytet rektory T.B. Darqanbaevtyng №676 búiryghymen S.Z.Zimanov zang fakulitetining alghashqy dekany bolyp taghayyndaldy. Dәl osy jayt keyingi buyn zangerlerine Salyq Zimanovqa «Qazaqstanda uniyversiytettik joghary bilimdi zangerler dayarlaudyng negizin salushy» degen abyroyly ataq berip, oryndy maqtan etuine negiz boldy.

Tumysynan aghyp túrghan sheshen, sheber lektor Zimanov dekandyq qyzmetimen shektelip qalmay, sol jyldyng 17-qazan aiynan bastap, әueli memleket pen qúqyq tarihy men teoriyasynyng agha oqytushysy, keyin dosenti retinde studentterge dәris oqugha da kirisip ketti.

Eluinshi jyldardyng ortasynda Qazaqstanda joghary bilimdi kәsiby zangerlerding sany birtindep óse týsti. Olardyng qataryna 1952 jyly Mәskeude kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn qorghaghan Súltan Sartaev siyaqty zanger ghalymdardyng jas buyny kelip qosyldy. Bilimdar zangerlerdi bir kezderi S.Zimanovtyng ózi Mәskeude aspiranturagha attandyrghan jastar da tolyqtyra týsti.

Dekan qyzmetine qyzu kirisip ketken Zimanov óz bilimin de ýzdiksiz  jetildiru kerektigin úmytqan joq. Sol sebepti jana mansabyna toqmeyilsimey, 1955 jyldyng jeltoqsan aiynda uniyversiytetting ghylymy kenesine ózin doktoranturagha jiberu jóninde ótinish joldap, onda doktorlyq dissertasiyasynyng taqyryby men tezisterin ashyp kórsetedi. Qazaqstannyng mandayyna basqan jalghyz uniyversiytetining eng bedeldi fakulitetining dekandyghyna endi ghana taghayyndalghan adamnyng múnday shúghyl sheshim qabyldauy Zimanov siyaqty tabandy túlghanyng ghana qolynan keletin edi.

Ol dekan qyzmetin atqara jýrip, doktorlyq dissertasiyasyn dayarlay bastaydy. Búl kezde ghylym-bilimi damudyng әjeptәuir biyigine jetken respublikamyzda qazaq últynan shyqqan әli birde-bir zang ghylymynyng doktory joq bolatyn.

Zimanov uniyversiytetke qyzmetke auyssa da, Ghylym akademiyasy men onyng preziydenti, ózining qamqor ústazy Qanysh Imantayúlymen dostyq, inilik, seriktestik baylanysyn ýzgen joq.

Eluinshi jyldardyng sonyna qaray Akademiya qúramyndaghy ghylymiy-zertteu instituttarynyng sany artyp, ondaghy qazaqstandyq ghylym kandidattary men doktorlarynyng qatary molaya týsti. Respublika ghylymynyng bolashaghy endigi jerde jas buynnyng qolynda ekendigin ghúlama Sәtbaev jaqsy bildi. Búl kenjelep damysa da, talantty jastar qaulap ósip kele jatqan filosofiya jәne qúqyq salasyna da qatysty edi.

Osynyng bәrin oy eleginen ótkize kele Akademiya preziydenti respublika basshylyghynyng aldyna 1957 jyly Ghylym akademiyasynyng qúramynan derbes Filosofiya jәne qúqyq institutyn qúru jóninde mәsele qoyady. Onyng búl úsynysyn sol kezde Ministrler kenesining tóraghasy qyzmetin atqarghan D.A.Qonaev qyzu qoldaydy. Kelesi 1958 jyldyng 13 qantarynda Qazaq KSR Ghylym akademiyasy Prezidiumynyng arnayy qaulysymen jana qúrylym – Filosofiya jәne qúqyq instituty úiymdastyryldy.

Áriyne, Sәtbaev institut ashylmay túryp-aq ony bolashaqta kim basqaratyny turaly aldyn-ala oilanghany belgili. Ghúlamanyng tandauy búghan deyin qúqyq sektorynyng mengerushisi qyzmetin abyroymen atqarghan kezde enbekqorlyghy, tabandylyghy, batyldyghy, eng bastysy – ghylymgha degen qúshtarlyghymen daralanghan Salyqqa týsedi.

Búl kezde Zimanov fakulitet dekany әri dosenttik qyzmeti ýshin alatyn mol jalaqysy bar mansaby óte jayly qyzmette otyrsa da, Sәtbaevtay úly ghalymnyng úsynysyn birden qabyldaydy.

S.Zimanovty institut diyrektory qyzmetine bekitken Ghylym akademiyasynyng preziydenti Q.IY.Sәtbaev qol qoyghan hattama.

Maghan Salyq agha negizdegen osy instituttyng túnghysh ghalym-hatshysy bolghan, keyin ghylym doktory, professor, akademik atanghan erekshe ziyaly túlgha Ghayrat Saparghaliyev aghamyzben de aghaly-inili adamdarday aralasu qúrmeti búiyrdy.

Bir ghajaby, jas shamasy bir mýshelmen ghana ólshenip, kandidattyq dissertasiyalaryn 4-5 jyl aiyrmamen qorghasa da, Súltan men Ghayrat aghalarym Salyq Zimanúlyna әrdayym ýlken ústaz retinde qarap, aghadan góri әkege layyq qúrmet kórsetetin. Ekeui de әriptes aghasynyng әr jylghy mereytoyy qarsanynda tógildirip estelikter jazyp, irgeli enbekterine arnalghan tolayym maqalalar jariyalap otyrdy. Súltan aghamyz akademikting 70 jyldyq mereytoyyna arnap jazghan ólenin, 80, 90 jyldyq toylary túsynda tolyqtyryp, terennen tartqan tolghau dengeyine jetkizdi.

Akademiyalyq institut bolghan song onyng ghylymy kenesi qúrylyp, tóraghalyghyna janadan taghayyndalghan diyrektor saylandy.

Eluinshi jyldardyng ekinshi jartysynda Qazaqstanda zang ghylymymen qatar filosofiya ghylymy da jana arnada damy bastady. Onyng qaynar bastauynda Mәskeu memlekettik uniyversiytetining filosofiya fakulitetining aspiranturasyn bitirgen song sonda kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn oidaghyday qorghap, Salyq aghanyng shaqyruymen Filosofiya jәne pravo institutynyng kishi ghylymy qyzmetkerligine qabyldanghan, keyin shiyrek ghasyrday uaqyt boyyna osy instituttyng diyrektory jәne Ghylym akademiyasynyng viyse-preziydenti qyzmetin zor tabyspen atqarghan akademik Jabayhan Mýbәrakúly Ábdildin aghamyz túrdy.

Jabayhan Mýbәrakúly filosofiya ghylymyndaghy dialektikalyq logika mektebining negizin saldy. Býkil Kenes Odaghy ghalymdary moyyndaghan dәl osy mektepten A.Qasymjanov, Á.Nysanbaev, M.Sәbitov, A.Balghynbaev, Q.Ábishev, M.Orynbaev, N.Múqitanov t.b. akademiyk, professor, ghylym doktorlary shyqty.

Mening ómirimdegi eng zor baqytymnyng biri – jas kezimde-aq aldymen ýnemi S.Zimanov, M.Qozybaev, J.Ábdildin siyaqty últymyzdyng úly perzentteri, airyqsha aqyl-parasat iyeleri shyghyp, qoltyghymnan demegeni, aghalyq meyirin tógip, ústazdyq qamqorlyghyn jasaghany dep bilemin. Sondyqtan olardyng jarqyn jýzderi men asyl beyneleri әrqashan jýregimning tórinde saqtalady.

Manash aghamnan – kandidattyq, Salyq aghamnan doktorlyq dissertasiya qorghap, Jabayhan aghammen Parlament Senatynda birge qyzmet atqaru qúrmetine ie boldym. Aghalarymnyng atyn erttep, shylbyrynyng úshyn ústadym. Múny ózime әrdayym basyma qonghan baqyt, zor mәrtebe sanaymyn.

S.Zimanov janadan ashylghan instituttyng úiymdastyru júmystaryn jolgha qoyghannan keyin doktorlyq dissertasiyasyn qorghau ýshin Mәskeuge attanghanda úly ústazy Qanysh Sәtbaev taghy da kómek qolyn sozady.

Sәtbaev 1960 jyldyng 27 mausymynda KSRO Ghylym akademiyasy Qúqyq institutynyng diyrektory P.S.Romashkinge S.Zimanovtyng doktorlyq dissertasiyasyn qorghaugha tiyisti jaghday jasauyn ótingen hat joldaydy. Qorghau aldynda doktorant Salyq Zimanovtyng 1958 jyly «Obshestvennyy stroy kazahov pervoy poloviny XIX veka», al 1960 jyly «Politicheskiy stroy Kazahstana konsa XVIII – pervoy poloviny XIX veka» atty eki birdey monografiyasy jaryq kórgen. Búl oghan doktorlyq dissertasiya ýshin arnayy mәtin jazbay-aq, jariyalanghan enbekterining negizinde qorghaugha mýmkindik beretin. Áriyne, múnday qorghaudyng tez arada bite qalmaytyny belgili, sol sebepti júmysty qabyldau, opponentterdi belgileu, talqylau, úsynys-pikirler jinau siyaqty qajetti júmystar jyl ayaghyna deyin atqarylyp, qorghau 1961 jyldyng 13 qantaryna belgilendi.

Doktorlyq dissertasiyagha professor S.L. Fuks, N.V.Ustugov jәne ózbek professory A.I.Ishanovtar resmy opponentter bolyp belgilendi.

Salyq Zimanovtyng doktorlyq dissertasiya qorghauy jayly naqty derekter Resey Federaldy múraghatynda saqtalghan. Oqyrmangha ynghayly boluy ýshin siltemelerdi qaptatpay-aq solardan da maghlúmat keltire keteyik.

Doktorlyq dissertasiya qorghalghan KSRO Ghylym akademiyasynyng Memleket jәne qúqyq instituty ghylymy kenesining otyrysy týgeldey stenogrammagha týsken. Sarghayghan múraghat qújattaryn paraqtay otyryp, biz dissertasiyagha jogharyda esimderi atalghan ýsh resmy opponenttermen qatar KSRO Ghylym akademiyasynyng korrespondent-mýshesi, zang ghylymynyng doktory, professor P.S. Romashkiyn, zang ghylymynyng doktory G.A. Aksenenok, KSRO GhA Tarih institutynyng agha ghylymy qyzmetkeri N.G. Appolova, Shyghystanu institutynyng agha ghylymy qyzmetkeri I.Ya. Zlatkinderding beyresmy opponent bolghandyghyn anyqtadyq.

Ghylymy kenesti institut diyrektory P.S. Romashkin jýrgizip, әuelgi sózdi ghalym-hatshy V.N. Toporninge beredi. Ol dissertanttyng ómirbayan derekteri men dissertasiyagha dayyndyghy barysynan tiyisti maghlúmattar keltirilgennen keyin Zimanov sóz alyp, ghylymy júmysynyng mazmúny jayly jan-jaqty bayandama jasaydy.

Bayandama ayaqtala salysymen ghylymy kenes mýshesi, zang ghylymynyng doktory K.A. Baginyan dissertasiyanyng atauy «Qazaqstandaghy XVIII ghasyrdyng sony men XIX ghasyrdyng basyndaghy qoghamdyq jәne sayasy qúrylys» ekendigin, al osyghan sәikes shygharylghan eki monografiyanyng biri «Qazaqtardyng XIX ghasyrdyng alghashqy jartysyndaghy qoghamdyq qúrylysy» dep atalatyndyghyn algha tarta kelip: «Sonda XVIII ghasyr sonyndaghy qoghamdyq qúrylys qayda qalghan?», – degen saual tastaydy.

Salyq Zimanov jauap barysynda eki monografiyanyng jazylu tarihyna qatysty tyng derekterdi algha tartady. Ol jaryq kórgen qos monografiyanyng әuelgide bir kitap bolghandyghyn, keyin talqylau barysynda týsken úsynystardy eskere kelip, ony ekige bólip shygharugha sheshim qabyldaghanyn aitady. Birinshi monografiyanyng atauynan «XVIII ghasyrdyng sony» týsip qalghanymen onda búl kezendegi qoghamdyq qúrylystyng mәseleleri tolyq qamtylghany jayynda bayyppen jauap qaytarady.

K.A. Baginyan múnymen shektelmey eki kitap atauynyng birinde «qazaq», al ekinshisinde «Qazaqstan» termiyni ne ýshin paydalanylghandyghyn taratyp aityp berudi súraydy. S.Zimanov alghashqy jaghdayda, yaghny XVIII ghasyrdyng sonyndaghy qazaq qoghamynda halyqtyng 95 payyzy qazaq últynan bolghandyghyn algha tartyp, patsha ýkimetining otarlau sayasatynyng nәtiyjesinde búl kórsetkish ózgerip, sayasy biylikting otarlau organdaryna kóshkendikten soghan sәikes ekinshi monografiya atauynda «Qazaqstan» termiyni paydalanghanyn atap kórsetedi.

Akademik Zimanov ghylymy enbekterining odaqtyq dengeyde tanylyp, moyyndaluyna onyng kandidattyq, doktorlyq dissertasiyalaryn qorghau kezinde jetekshilik, kenesshilik jasaghan ghalymdardyng tiygizgen әseri men qoldauy mol boldy. Esimi odaqqa mәshhýr professor S.L.Fuksting Zimanovtyng resmy opponenti boluy dissertanttyng da, qorghaytyn júmystyng da manyzdylyghyn ghana emes, jauapkershiligin arttyra týsti.

Orys tilinen basqa nemis, fransuz, polyak, ukrain tilderin erkin bilip, birqatar shygharmalaryn osy tilderde jazyp, shet elderge bastyrghan professor Fuks esimi Kenes Odaghynda ghana emes, әlemdik dengeyde tanylyp ýlgergen ýlken oqymysty ghalymdardyng qatarynan edi. Onyng qazaq memlekettiligining tarihy men qazaq qoghamyndaghy jer mәselesi boyynsha doktorant Zimanovpen pikir qayshylyghy bolsa da, bekzat bolmysty ghalym opponent bolugha kelisim berip qana qoymay, doktorlyq júmysqa: «doktorant algha qoyghan maqsatyn tolyqtay oryndap, eshbir talassyz, ghylymy qúndylyghy joghary enbek jazyp shyqqan», – dep ong baghasyn beredi.

Memleket tarihy men teoriyasy boyynsha Odaqtaghy eng iri zanger S.L.Fukstyng múnday pikiri dissertanttyng balaghynan alyp, shaujayyna jarmasushylardy yqtyryp tastady deuge bolady.

Zimanovtyng ekinshi opponenti bolghan N.V.Ustugov te Resey imperiyasynyng Qazaqstangha shekaralas ólkesinde tughan, ghylymiy-zertteu enbekterining birqataryn bashqúrttar men qalmaqtardyng tarihyna arnaghan, soghan sәikes qazaq tarihynan, әsirese onyng otarlanu jaghdayynan habary mol orystyng eski kózdi tarihshylarynyng qatarynan edi. Ol da keybir úsaq-týiek eskertpelerine qaramastan: «S.Z.Zimanov zang ghylymynyng doktory ghylymy dәrejesin beruge әbden layyq», – degen kesimdi sózin aitady.

Onyng búl pikirining tolyq núsqasy qorghau sәtti ayaqtalghan song 1962 jyldyng qarasha aiynda KSRO Ghylym akademiyasynyng «Voprosy istorii» jurnalynda «Spornye voprosy istoriy Kazahstana konsa XVIII – pervoy poloviny XIX veka» degen atpen jariyalandy.

Ol kóshpeli qazaq qoghamynyng ekonomikasyna arnalghan enbekterde jer mәselesine baylanysty pikir aluandyghy jii kezdesetinin tilge tiyek ete kelip: «S.Zimanov qazaqtardyng menshik formalary turaly eng kóp talas-tartysty, qiyn týiindi mәseleni qarastyra kelip, qazaq qoghamyndaghy óndiristing negizgi qúraly retinde mal jayylymy esebinde paydalanylatyn jerdi oryndy atap ótedi», – dep dauly mәselege kelgende qazaq ghalymynyng pozisiyasyn qoldap shyghady.

N.V.Ustugov monografiya avtorynyng qazaq qoghamynyng taptyq jiktelui men handyq biylikting ózindik erekshelikterine baylanysty pikirlerining sonylyghyn da bayqap: «S.Z.Zimanovtyng eki birdey enbegi qazaq kóshpeli qoghamyndaghy feodaldyq qatynastardyng sipatyna qatysty ghylymy pikirtalasty ontayly sheshuge septigin  tiygizedi», – dep qazaq ghalymynyng dauly mәsele boyynsha ústanymyn qoldap shyghady.

Bir kezderi Euraziyanyng apaytós alyp dalasynda jeke dara biylik jýrgizgen Joshy han negizin qalaghan Úlyq úlys – Altyn Ordanyng tikeley múrageri, teriskeyde Ibir-Sibir júrtynan bastap, týstikte Búqar men Samarqangha deyingi aralyqta dәuirlep túrghan Qazaq handyghy qaruly kýsh jәne ozbyrlyqpen jýrgizilgen otarlyq sayasat negizinde HIH ghasyrda tolyqtay kýiredi. Sondyqtan dәl osy kezendegi qazaq qoghamynyng sayasy tarihy otandyq tarihshylar ýshin óte shetin әri ústaranyng jýzindey qylpyp túrghan taqyryp edi.

On toghyzynshy ghasyrda Speranskiy reformasy negizinde handyq biylik zang jýzinde talqandaldy. Búl úly dalanyng eng songhy erkin biyleushisi – Kenesary Qasymúly bastaghan qazaqtardyng azattyq jolyndaghy kýresining ghasyry edi. Ókinishke oray, qazaqtyng aq kiyiz tóselip, babalar saltymen saylanghan eng songhy hanynyng Orta Aziyadaghy týbi bir týrki halyqtarynyng ortaq jaugha qarsy kýsh biriktirip kýresui turaly týpki maqsatyn qyrdaghy qyrghyz da, oidaghy ózbek te týsinbedi.

Ekinshi jahandyq soghys qarsanynda jәne kenes әskerleri qan maydanda jan alysyp, jan berisip jatqanda Kenesary hannyng últ azattyghy jolyndaghy orys otarshyldyghyna qarsy kýresin kommunistik biylik qazaq jauyngerlerining otanshyldyq ruhyn kóteru ýshin paydalana bildi. Sondyqtan han Kenege arnalghan E.Bekmahanovtyng kandidattyq dissertasiyasy 1946 jyly әigili ghalym, akademik A.M.Pankratovanyng qoldauymen Mәskeude zor tabyspen qorghaldy.

Soghys jenispen ayaqtalghan song han Kene ruhymen ejelden «tolghamaly ala balta qolgha alyp, top bastaghan» qazaqtardyng otanshyldyq oi-sanasy kóterile bastaghanynan seskengen qyzyl biylik últ-azattyq kóterilisin – reaksiyalyq qozghalys, al onyng kósemin «burjuaziyalyq-monarhiyalyq biylikti kókseushi» dep aiyptap, qazaqtan shyqqan túnghysh tarih ghylymynyng doktory E.Bekmahanovty 25 jyldyq aidaugha jiberedi.

Stalin ólip, Beriya atylghannan keyin akademik A.M.Pankratovanyng janyn sala aralasuymen týrmeden bosap shyqqan qaysar ghalym 1957 jyly búrynghy enbegin Qazaqstannyng Reseyge qosyluynyng progressivti sipaty túrghysynan qayta «óndep», doktorlyghyn da, professorlyghyn da qaytyp alady. Dәl osy jaghday bolmasa, Zimanovtyng HIH ghasyrdyng sayasy tarihynan doktorlyq qorghauy neghaybyl edi.

Zimanov dissertasiyasynyng «qyraghy» biylikke jaqpaytyn birneshe qiyn týiinderi boldy. Onyng ekinshi tarauynda týgeldey HVIII ghasyrda Orta jýz ben Úly jýzde әli tolyq saqtalghan handyq biylikting basqaru jýiesi, qazaq handarynyng qúqyqtary men mindetteri, memleketting әskeriy-qorghanys qúrylymdary, súltandar ókilettigi men qazaq qoghamyndaghy biyler men by kenesining róli, handyqtaghy ekonomikalyq qatynastar men menshik mәseleleri egjey-tegjeyli talqylandy. Búl kezde orys ekspansiyasy  ozbyrlyqpen jýrgizip, qazaq jeri batystan shyghysyna deyin Resey imperiyasy salghan әskery bekinisterining qúrsauyna alynsa da, qazaq qoghamynda Shynghys han zamanynan kele jatqan handyq qoghamnyng býkil jón-josyghy týgelimen saqtauly edi. Zimanov dissertasiyasy kóshpeliler órkeniyeti tughyzghan dәl osy qúqyq fenomenining ómirshendigin memleket tarihynyn  teoriyasy men tarihy túrghysynan naqty dәleldeytin batyl enbek edi.

Monografiyanyng «XVIII ghasyrdyng sony men XIX ghasyrdyng birinshi shiyregindegi handyq biylik» atty ekinshi tarauynyng qorytyndy bóliginde «handyq biylikting joyyluyna ne sebepker boldy?» degen súraqqa jauap retinde: «Bastapqyda handyq biylikke arqa sýiegen patsha ýkimetining týpki maqsaty ony paydalanyp bolghan song birjolata qúrtu edi», – dep batyl qorytyndy jasaydy.

Monografiyanyng «Reforma 1822 goda v Srednem juze» atty ýshinshi tarauy E.Bekmahanovty aidaugha jiberuge sebep bolghan taqyryp, yaghny Orta jýzde HIH ghasyrdyng 20-40 jyldarynda oryn alghan tarihy oqighalargha arnaldy. Búl da sayasy koniukturagha qaray qúbylyp túrghan mәsele edi. Dәl osy kezenge qatysty tarau ýshin 1943 jyly «Qazaq KSR tarihy» shyqqanda basylymgha basshylyq jasaghan akademik  Pankratovanyng ózine de aiyp taghylyp, onyng sony odaqtyq dengeydegi aighay-shugha úlasqan. Sonyng bәrin bile túrsa da, doktorant Zimanov alda kýtip túrghan qiyndyqtardan taysalmay, tújyrymdy oi-pikirin algha tartady.

Búl taraudyng dәl osy taqyrypqa jazylghan ózge enbekterden artyqshylyghy, Zimanov zanger ghalym retinde qazaq qoghamyndaghy handyq biylikti zang jýzinde joyghan orystyng otarshyl qayratkeri M.M.Speranskiyding «Ustav o sibirskih kirgizah» atty qújatyn qúqyqtyq túrghydan baqayshyghyna deyin taldap, onyng ziyandy zardaptaryn jan-jaqty ashyp kórsetedi.

Býgingi orys ghylymynda Speranskiy Resey memlekettiligin nyghaytyp, onyng zang jýiesin jetildiruge zor ýles qosqan aituly memleket qayratkeri retinde sipattalady. Onyng asqan ailakerlikpen jýzege asyrylghan reformasy Resey imperiyasynyng shekarasyn keneytip, basqaru jýiesin jetildirgen janalyq retinde baghalanyp, Sibir

halyqtaryna zandy qúqyqtar bergen liyberaldyq baghyttaghy reformator retinde dәriptele bastady.

Speranskiy men onyng sybaylastary Sibir halyqtaryna búratana, taghy retinde qarap, olargha oiyna kelgenin istegen. Zimanov dissertasiyasynda graf Speranskiyding ómiri men qyzmeti turaly arnayy zertteu jazghan M.A.Korftyng Sibir halyqtary turaly «narod stonal ot nespravedlivosty y poborov», – degen baghasyn mysalgha keltiredi.

Al A.Fateev atty zertteushi 1910 jyly shyqqan kitabynda Loskutov degen ispravnikting aiuandyghynyng shekten shyqqandyghy sonday ol: «oblival golyh ludey na moroze y delal iz nih statuiy», – dep jazady.

Mine, osynday adam aitsa sengisiz súrqiyalyqtar oryn alghan ólkening gubernatory bolghan Speranskiy qazaq dalasynda ghasyrlar boyy ornyqqan sayasy basqaru jýiesin ghana emes, baquatty tirlik kózi bolyp kelgen qoghamdyq-ekonomikalyq qatynastardy da tas-talqan etti.

Rugha, taypagha, atagha, әuletke bólinip, bir-birine tayanyp, tirek bolyp tirlik etken bayyrghy ólke jana әkimshilik-territoriyalyq qúrylymdargha: auyl, bolys, okrugterge bólinip ketti. Olardyng jer telimin aiqyndauda qazaq qoghamynda qalyptasqan kóship-qonudyng ózindik erekshelikteri eskerilmedi. Búl aghayyn arasynda iritki tughyzdy. Reforma asyghystyqpen, jantalasa jýzege asyryldy. Onyng eng basty maqsaty – handyq biylikti týp-tamyrymen joyyp, qazaq rulary men onyng basshylaryn bir-birine aidap salu arqyly bәz-bayaghy «bólip al da, biyley ber» prinsiypin jýzege asyru edi.

Doktorant Zimanov sayasy aiyptaulardyng kórigi qyzyp túrghan alasapyran zamannyng qaterlerine qaramastan reformanyng qazaq halqyna qarsy baghyttalghanyn anyq kórsetip: «Ózge halyqty basyp-janshugha negizdelgen 1822 jylghy «Sibir qyrghyzdary turaly jarghy» derjavalyq biylikting barlyq aktileri siyaqty, eng aldymen, otarshyldyq mýddeni kózdedi», – degen qorytyndy jasaydy.

Ermúhan aghasy ghylym jolynda sonynan ergen jas әriptesining әli de baspahana boyauy keuip ýlgermegen monografiyasyna 1960 jyldyng 3 qyrkýieginde «Kazahstanskaya pravda» gazetinde «Poleznyy trud po sosialino-politicheskoy istoriy Kazahstana» degen kelisti maqala jazady.

Bekmahanov múny ghylymy basylymdardyng birine jariyalamay, respublika kommunisterining bas gazetine shygharuynyng ózindik sebebi de bar edi. Partiyalyq basylymda jariyalanghan maqalany respublika basshylyghy, әsirese onyng qyraghy kózi sanalatyn iydeologiyalyq belsendileri týgel oqityn. Sondyqtan kemenger tarihshy jas әriptesin osynday aiyptaulardan aldyn ala qorghau әri qoghamdyq pikir tughyzu ýshin orys tildi partiyalyq gazetti tandap, onda jariyalanghan maqalasynda enbekti jan-jaqty talday kelip: «Qamtylatyn mәselelerding kendigi jәne olardy әzirleuding ghylymiy-teoriyalyq dengeyi boyynsha S. Zimanovtyng monografiyasy Qazaqstannyng tarihy ghylymyna qosylghan qúndy ýles bolyp sanalady», – dep óte joghary bagha beredi.

Ózining qily taghdyry, talantty ghylymy enbekteri jәne qaytpas qaysarlyghymen Odaq ghylymy júrtshylyghynyng erekshe qúrmeti men bedeline bólengen jәne doktorlyghyn qayyra qorghau aldynda monografiyasyn Mәskeude shygharyp, orys ghalymdarynyng airyqsha yqylasyna ie bolghan Bekmahanovtyng búl pikiri Salyq Zimanovqa mәshhýr tarihshy tarapynan kórsetilgen naghyz aghalyq alqau boldy.

Doktorant Zimanovtyng eng ýlken qoldaushysy Ghylym akademiyasynyng preziydenti, әlemdik dengeydegi aituly ghalym Q.IY.Sәtbaev edi. Salyq aghamyz ómir boyy ústazynyng esimin zor qúrmetpen atap, «әkemnen kórmegen jaqsylyqty Qanekennen kórdim, ony eshuaqytta úmytpaymyn» dep ýnemi rizalyqpen eske alatyn. Ol ózining Qanysh agha turaly esteliginde: «1961 jyly yanvarida SSSR Ghylym akademiyasynyng Pravo institutynda doktorlyq dissertasiya qorghau aldynda azdap jýreksinip túrghanymda artymnan bireu kelip ústap aldy. Qarasam, bizding akademiyanyng josparlau-finans bólimining bastyghy, egde tartqan V.Sokolov eken. Asygha sóilep: «Sizdi kesheden beri Qanysh Imantaevichting tapsyrmasymen izdeudemiz... Preziydent Sizge doktorlyq dissertasiya qorghau aldynda tabys tileydi, qobaljymasyn, ghylymy aitysta әdeppen sóilep, ózining ghalym ekendigin kórsete bilsin – mine, osyny aita bar dep júmsady», – dedi de meni qúshaghyna aldy», – dep jazady.

Qanysh agha múnymen de shektelmegen, dissertasiya qorghaudyng jay-kýiin ol qorghalatyn Memleket jәne qúqyq institutynyng diyrektory, KSRO Ghylym akademiyasynyng korrespondent-mýshesi E.Korovin arqyly qadaghalap, tipti qalay qorghaghany jóninde telefonmen habarlasyp bilip otyrghan. Áriyne, Q.Sәtbaevtay odaqtyq dengeydegi aituly ghalym, Kenes Odaghynyng eng mәrtebeli syilyghy – Lenindik syilyq laureatynyng әrbir ótinish-tilekterine mәskeulik ghalymdar zor yqylaspen qarap, bar yntasymen oryndaghan.

Dissertasiya qorghau barysynda S.Zimanov әueli S.A. Fuks, N.V. Ustugov, A.I. Ishanov siyaqty resmy opponentterdin, keyin I.Ya. Zlatkiyn, N.G. Appolova, G.A. Aksenenoktardyng jazbasha kelip týsken pikirlerine, әsirese olardyng syny payymdaularyna ret-retimen, ornyqty jauap qaytarady.

Qorghaudy institut diyrektory, professor P.S. Romashkin qorytyndylaydy. Ol óz sózinde S.Zimanovtyng osydan birneshe jyl búryn dәl osy ghylymy keneste kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn zor tabyspen qorghaghandyghyn, býginde onyng irgeli zertteuler jazghan ýlken ghalym retinde qalyptasyp, respublikalyq Filosofiya jәne qúqyq institutynyng diyrektory ekendigine basa nazar audardy. Doktorlyq júmysqa: «tereng zertteuge qúrylghan biregey enbek», – dep qorytyndy bagha bere kelip, býgingi oqyrman men ziyaly qauymnyng qúlaghyna týrpidey tiyetin túrpayy kózqarasyn da bildiredi. Sovet Odaghynday alyp imperiyanyng Ghylym Akademiyasyna qarasty jalghyz Memleket pen qúqyq institutynyng diyrektory, zang ghylymynyng doktory, professor P.S. Romashkin býkil ghylymy kenes mýsheleri aldynda: «Ya hochu podcherknuti, chto sennosti etogo truda sostoit iymenno v tom, chto na osnove glubokogo issledovaniya v proshlom otstaloy okrainy, zabitogo, poludikogo naroda (tak nazyvaly neobektivno, no y na samom dele eta strana byla poludikoy), avtor pokazyvaet nam svetushee suverennoe gosudarstvo v osnove Soyza SSR», – dep salady.

Eger aldyn ala qaghazgha jazyp sóilegende «tigisin» jatqyza aituy әbden mýmkin edi, biraq onyng mikrofongha aitqan sózderi eshbir redaksiyalausyz qaz-qalpynda hatqa týsken.

Orystan myng jyl búryn tasqa tanbalanghan bitik jazuyn oilap tapqan, altyn-kýmis, asyl tasty búiymdar men adamdy bylay qoyyp, astyndaghy atynyng әbzelderin әshekeylegen, sәn-saltanatyna orta ghasyrlardaghy arab, parsy, qytay, europa sayahatshylary tan-tamasha qalghan ghajayyp qalalar salghan, ózderining moyyndauy boyynsha «monghol-tatar ezgisi» kezinde atalaryn 300 jyl boyy biylep-tóstegen halyqqa «poludikiy narod» dep astamshylyqpen bagha beru, ókinishke oray, kommunistik iydeologiyanyng qoldauymen ghana ósken kóptegen orys ghalymdaryna tәn qúbylys edi. Ol ara-túra býginde de qylang berip qalady.

Sonymen, 1961 jyldyng 13 qantarynda Salyq Zimanov Mәskeu tórinde doktorlyq dissertasiyasyn zor abyroymen qorghap, ghylymy kenes mýshelerining birauyzdan qoldauymen qazaq halqynan shyqqan túnghysh zang ghylymynyng doktory atandy.

Salyq Zimanovty zang ghylymynyng doktorlyghyna úsynghan ghylymy kenesting hattamasy

Arada jyl ótkende ghylymy júmysyn údayy joghary oqu oryndaryndaghy ústazdyqpen úshtastyryp kele jatqan 40 jastaghy ghylym doktoryna professorlyq ataq ta berildi. Osylaysha ol bas-ayaghy bir jyldyng ishinde doktorlyghyna qosa qazaqtyng túnghysh qúqyq professory degen mәrtebeli ataqty qosa iyemdendi.

Zimanovtyng ómiri men shygharmashylyghyn zertteu barysynda men ýnemi bir nәrsege tang qalamyn: ol әrbir ýlken belesti baghyndyrghan sayyn tizgindi tartyp, ekpinin bәsendetuding ornyna, attyng basyn jiberip, qarqynyn ýdetip otyrghan.

S.Zimanov alpysynshy jyldardyng ortasynan bastap týrli dengeydegi basshylyq aldynda Filosofiya jәne qúqyq institutyn ekige bólip, KSRO Ghylym akademiyasynyng ýlgisimen Memleket jәne qúqyq institutyn qúru mәselesin kótere bastaydy. Alpysynshy jyldardyng ortasynda Filosofiya jәne qúqyq institutynda tek qúqyq salasy boyynsha seksenge juyq ghylymy qyzmetker enbek etti. Búl Orta Aziya respublikalaryndaghy eng ozyq kórsetkish edi.

Zang ghylymyna arnalghan derbes institut ashu jónindegi Zimanov bastamasyn Sәtbaevtan keyin Ghylym akademiyasynyng preziydentteri bolghan akademik Shapyq Shokin men Shahmardan Esenovter de qyzu qoldaydy. Tipti KSRO Ghylym akademiyasy 1966 jylghy 29 shildedegi qaulysy boyynsha Filosofiya jәne qúqyq institutyn bólu arqyly 1966-70 jyldardaghy besjyldyqta derbes Memleket jәne qúqyq institutyn ashu turaly diyrektivti sheshim de qabyldaydy.

Odaqtyq Akademiya basshylyghynyng osy tapsyrmasyna sәikes 1967 jyly 17 qazanda diyrektor Zimanov ghylymy kenes aldynda arnayy bayandama jasap, Filosofiya jәne qúqyq institutynda keyingi on jylgha juyq uaqyt ishinde zang ghylymyna arnalghan derbes ghylymy institut ashugha jetkilikti kadrlyq baza jasalghanyn, ghylym kandidattarynyng sany 74, al doktorlardyng sany 11-ge jetkenin mysalgha keltiredi. Biraq institut ashu isi ýnemi týrli sebeptermen kesheuildey berdi.

Salyq Zimanov 1967 jyly zang ghylymy boyynsha Ghylym akademiyasynyng alghashqy akademiygi bolyp saylandy. Búl oghan institut ashu turaly kókeyde jýrgen oiyn erekshe jigermen algha jyljytugha qosymsha mýmkindikter tughyzdy. Ol Akademiyanyng janadan saylanghan jigerli basshysy, búryn Ministrler Kenesi tóraghasynyng orynbasary siyaqty biyik lauazymdy qyzmet atqaryp, ýkimet júmysynyng oi-shúqyryn jaqsy biletin Shahmardan Esenovke óz pikirin dәleldep, múnday instituttyng ashyluy respublikada zang ghylymyn órkendetuge jana perspektivalar ashyp qoymay, Akademiya bedelin kóteruge de zor septigin tiygizetinin jetkizedi. Dәl sol kezde Orta Aziya respublikalarynyng eshqaysysynda múnday institut әli ashylmaghan bolatyn.

Sh.Esenov Zimanovtyng úsynysyn tolyghymen qoldap, 1969 jyldyng 1 qantarynan bastap Filosofiya jәne qúqyq institutyn ekige bólu arqyly derbes Memleket jәne qúqyq institutyn ashu turaly jan-jaqty negizdelgen hatqa qol qoyyp, ony Qazaqstan Kompartiyasy Ortalyq Komiyteti men Ministrler kenesine joldaydy. Odaqtyq Ghylym akademiyasy qoldap, respublikalyq basshylyq ynghay tanytqan búl maqsattyng oryndaluyna bir ghana qadam qalghanda zang ghylymy salasyndaghy túnghysh akademik bolyp saylanyp, tasy órge domalap túrghan S.Zimanov ayaq astynan diyrektorlyq qyzmetinen alynyp, onyng ómirindegi búlghaq kezeng bastalady.

Mәshhýr ghalymnyng ne sebepten qyzmetinen alynghany respublika ghylymy júrtshylyghy ýshin sol zamanda da, býgin de әldeqashan qúpiya boludan qalghan. Onyng jay-japsaryn men akademikting óz auzynan talay estigenmin. Shetindeu mәsele bolghan song ishki qúpiyalaryna terendemey-aq túspaldap aitugha da bolar edi, biraq ómirining sonyna qaray Salyq Zimanov keyin artyq-auys әngime tuyndauy mýmkin jaydyng býkil aqiqat shyndyghyn ózi ashyp, arnayy estelik jazdy. Ony ózining kózi tirisinde 2009 jyly jaryq kórgen 10 tomdyq shygharmalar jinaghynyng songhy 10-tomynda «Smutnoe vremya» v istoriy jizny Instituta filosofiy y prava» degen atpen jariyalap ta jiberdi. Kóp tomdyq nebәri 500 danamen jaryq kórgen song onda jazylghan oqighalar qalyng kópshilikke jete qoyghan joq. Sonymen, akademik Zimanov ne ýshin qyzmetinen ketti jәne onyng astarynda qanday qúpiya bar edi? Endi osy súraqtargha jauap izdep kóreyik.

Qonaevtyng qyzy nemese búlghaq basy

Búl taqyrypty birden akademikting estelik-jazbasynan bastap, ary qaray naqty múraghattyq derektermen órbiteyik. Zimanov óz esteliginde:

«Keyin belgili bolghanday, mening qyzmetten bosatyluym respublika Kompartiyasyn basqarghan kýieuine yqpaly jýrip túrghan әielding ashu-yzasymen baylanysty bolghan eken. Men institut diyrektory retinde onyng kýieuining nekeden tys tughan qyzy – Qonaeva Raisa Dinmúhamedqyzyn KSRO Ghylym akademiyasy Filosofiya institutynyng aspiranturasyna qabyldanuyna biraz ýles qosqan edim», – dep jazady (Zimanov S., Polnoe sobranie sochiyneniy, A., 2009, t. 10, s. 431).

Eshqashan adaldyqtan attamaghan, eshkimge qylauday qiyanat jasamaghan akademikting búl sózine kýdik keltiru qiyn, biraq senbeytinder de joq emes. Múndayda barlyq resmy ómirbayandarynda perzenti joq dep esepteletin múndaghy «Qonaevtyng qyzy kim?», «Onyng ómirde bolghandyghy qanday qújattarmen dәleldenedi?» degen birqatar zandy súraqtar tuyndaydy.

Jogharyda ózimiz «shetindeu mәsele» dep shetin shygharghan osyghan qatysty biraz múraghat aqtarugha tura keldi.

Ýkimet basqarghan jyldaryn qosyp eseptegende respublikany 30 jyl basqaryp, Qazaqstandy ekonomikalyq әleueti kýshti, auyl sharuashylyghy men ónerkәsibi qatar damyghan Odaqtaghy eng bedeldi respublikalardyng birine ainaldyrghan, asa kórnekti memleket qayratkeri Dinmúhamed Ahmetúly Qonaevqa bizding býgingi keyipkerimiz akademik Salyq Zimanovtyng qúrmeti erekshe edi. Qazaqstangha seksen qala salyp bergen úly azamat turaly alda әli de talay zertteuler jazylar. Sol tústa mindetti týrde ashylatyn aqiqat bolghan song biz de ózimizge belgili biraz «qúpiyanyn» jay-japsaryn aita ketudi jón kórdik.

Kenes Odaghy túsynda Qazaqstandy Júmabay Shayahmetov, Dinmúhamed Qonaev jәne Núrsúltan Nazarbaev siyaqty ýsh qazaq qana basqarypty. Soghystan keyingi qysqa jip siyaqty kýrmeuge kelmegen, qiyn-qystau segiz jyl (1946-54) ishinde Qazaqstannyng birinshi basshysy bolghan J.Shayahmetovty býgingi buyn úmyta bastady. Qyzmetin qanqúily NKVD-dan bastaghan Júmabay Shayahmetov turaly qoghamdaghy pikir de ala-qúla. Onyng oirandy otyzynshyny bylay qoyghanda el aman, júrt tynysh eluinshi jyldarda Sәtbaev pen Áuezovter qughyngha týskende el ardaqtaryna ara týse almauyn týsinu qiyn.

Degenmen J.Shayahmetovting eki enbegin joqqa shygharugha bolmaydy. Soghys jyldarynda Qazaqstangha Resey, Ukraina men Belorussiyadan kóshirilgen iri zavod, fabrikalardyng az uaqyt ishinde iske qosylyp, keyin elding industriyalyq quatynyng negizi bolghandyghyna da sol kezdegi 2-hatshy bolghan Shayahmetovting zor ýlesi boldy. Keyin 1946-56 jyldary respublikany basqarghan kezde de ol óndiristi úiymdastyrushy retinde erekshe kózge týsti. Onyng búl enbegin D.Qonaev ta óz esteliginde oryndy atap ótedi.

Shayahmetov Hrushevting bastamasymen 52 jasynda birinshi hatshylyqtan ózine tapsyrylghan partiyalyq mindetterdi oidaghyday atqara almaghany ýshin degen jeleumen bosatylady. Al shyndyghynda ol josparsyz, jónsiz, qauyrt tyng iygeruge jýrgizuge qarsy bolghan. Búl turaly N.S.Hrushev ózi biylikten taydyrylghannan keyin jaryq kórgen 4 tomdyq memuarynda: «Keyin men onyng pozisiyasyn talday kelip, mynany týsindim. Ol Qazaqstannyng bar mýmkindigin jaqsy anghardy. Onyng dәl osy jerde sayasi, dәlirek aitqanda últshyldyq ústanymy basym týsti. Shayahmetov eger biz egis alqabyn úlghaytar bolsaq, ony qazaqtardyng ózderi ghana óndey almaytynyn bildi. Tyng jerlerdi iygeruge qúlshynghan eriktilerdi kómekke shaqyrugha tura keletin edi. Biz olardyng jetkilikti ekenine senimdi boldyq, al ol múny mýlde qalamady. Solay bolghanda Qazaqstandaghy qazaq halqynyng ýles salmaghy búrynghydan da azaya týsetin edi», – dep ashyqtan ashyq ózining ekijýzdi, súrqiya sayasatynyng syryn jayyp salady. (Hrushev N.S., Vremya. Ludi. Vlasti.M., 1999, 1-tom, 74-75 better)

Partiyalyq biylik әueli Qazaqstanda ashtyq úiymdastyryp, beybit, baquatty halyqty qyryp salady. Ekinshi dýniyejýzilik soghysta qolgha qaru ústaytyn er-azamattardyng basym bóligi maydan dalasynda qaza boldy. Qyp-qyzyl sayasat soghystan keyin órtenge shyqqan kóktey endi ghana qaulap óse bastaghan qazaqtardyng jas órkenin tyng iygeruge shaqyrylghan týrli qiyndy-jiyndylardyng talauyna týsirudi kózdeydi. Qanshalyqty kommunist bolsa da, Júmabay Shayahmetov búghan qarsy shyghady. Búl, әriyne, onyng azamattyq erligi. Múny úmytugha bolmaydy.

D.A.Qonaevtyng memlekettik qyzmeti men izgilikti izderi әli kýnge deyin el jadynda bolsa da, onyng ómiri tolyqtay, jan-jaqty zertteldi dey almaymyz. Ol turaly kenestik zamanda jilikti dýniyeler jazylmady. Tәuelsizdik túsynda mereytoylyq maqalalardan ary asa almadyq.  SOKP Ortalyq Komiytetining Sayasy burosyna týrki halyqtary arasynan mýshe bolghan túnghysh qayratker túlghanyng sayasy qyzmetimen qatar taghdyryna qatysty әr derek biz ýshin óte qymbat. Aldaghy uaqyttarda búl olqylyqtyng orny tolady dep ýmittenemiz.

Akademik Salyq Zimanov naqty kórsetip ketken D.Qonaevtyng qyzyna qatysty búryn esh jerde kezdespegen tosyn maghlúmatty tarqata jazudy jón kórdik. Búl Dinmúhamed aghamyzdyng qayratkerlik te, kisilik te kelbetine kólenke týsirmeytini anyq. Kerisinshe onyng adami, azamattyq bolmysyn jana bir qyrynan asha týsedi dep oilaymyz.

Zimanov óz esteliginde D.Qonaevtyng jeke óz basyna qatysty zәredey de ókpesin bildirmeydi, biraq onyng zayyby jayly pikirin: «Men ol kezde anghyrttyqpen búl әiel óz kýieui, respublika Kompartiyasynyng birinshi hatshysy – D.A.Qonaevtyng kadr sayasatyna aralaspaydy dep oilaushy edim», – dep naqpa-naq kórsetedi.

Ótkenning jady – múraghat. «Shang basqan arhivterden tabylarmyz» dep Múqaghaly aqyn aitqanday, shyndyqtyng bәrin bolmasa da, birazyn múraghattardan tabugha bolady. Óitkeni bizding tarih kóp búrmalanghan, kommunistik biylik partiyalyq standartqa syimaghan shyndyqty «prokrust tósegine» tanyp, kergilep, sozyp, iydeologiyanyng qalybyna týsirgen. Biraq shyndyq qanshalyqty búrmalansa da, ol bәribir uaqyty kelgende jaryqqa shyghatyn bolady.

Biz «qúpiya» qyz turaly derekti izdeudi S.Zimanov júmys istegen Ghylym akademiyasynyng múraghatynan bastadyq. Onyng esteliginde aitylatyn uaqyt – 1969 jyl. Býginde Ghylym jәne bilim ministrligine qarasty búl múraghat «Ghylym ordasy» degen mekemege qarasty. Onyng 1969 jylghy qújattary arasynan Qazaq KSR Ghylym akademiyasy Filosofiya jәne qúqyq institutynyng diyrektory S.Z.Zimanovtyng KSRO Filosofiya institutynyng diyrektory P.V. Kopninge 1969 jyly 2 sәuirde jazghan haty tabyldy. Onyng alghashqy abzasynda: «Qazaq KSR Ghylym akademiyasy Filosofiya jәne qúqyq instituty osy bizding instituttyng estetika boyynsha mamandanushy aspiranty R.Qonaevany KSRO Ghylym akademiyasy Filosofiya institutynyng aspiranturasyna qabyldauyn ótinedi», – delingen (F. 98, op.1, d. 235, p. 9).

Tolyq bir betke jazylghan hatta Qazaqstannyng filosofiya ghylymynda búl salagha mamandanghan biliktiligi joghary mamandardyng azdyghyna baylanysty osydan 4 ay búryn aspiranturagha qabyldanghan R.Qonaevanyng әli ghylymy jetekshisi joqtyghyn, sol sebepti  aspirantty 2 jyl 7 ay merzimge odaqtyq institutqa «ghylymy issapargha» jiberip otyrghandyghy kórsetilgen. Aspiranttyng stiypendiya, t.b. shyghyndaryn týgeldey Qazaqstandaghy institut óz moynyna alatyndyghy da aitylghan. Hatta aspirant R.Qonaevanyng familiyasy bes ret atalady.

Zimanov qolymen osy jyldyng 13 mamyrynda jiberilgen taghy bir jazba osy institutta qyzmet isteytin filosofiya ghylymynyng doktory, professor M.S.Jýnisovting atyna joldanyp, onda akademik belgili filosof ghalymgha aspirant R.Qonaevagha ghylymy jetekshi bolugha jәne ony ózi basqaratyn sektor qaramaghyna aluyna ótinish jasaydy.

Instituttyng resmy blankasyna basylyp, tirkeu nómiri men datasy qoyylghan resmy qújattarda aspirant qyzdyng ýnemi familiyasy ghana jazylyp, әkesining aty kórsetilmeydi, biraq hatqa tirkelgen qosymsha qújattarda әkesining aty degen tústa «Shayahmetqyzy» dep jazylghan.

«Ghylym ordasy» múraghatynda Qonaeva Raisa Shayahmetqyzyna qatysty alghashqy maghlúmat 1968 jyldyng 18 shildesinde tirkelgen eken. Onda Qyzdar pedagogika institutyn bitirgen talapkerding Filosofiya jәne qúqyq institutyna týsu ýshin emtihan tapsyrugha jiberilgendigi turaly mәlimet bar. Sol jyldyng 7 qarashasyndaghy ekinshi qújatta R.Sh.Qonaeva emtihandy tapsyrghannan keyin aspiranturagha qabyldanyp, oghan 100 som mólsherinde stiypendiya taghayyndalghany kórsetilgen.

Búdan keyingi eki qújatta oghan әueli ghylymy jetekshi bolyp professor M.Qarataev belgilense, ekinshisinde birden eki adam: filosofiya ghylymdarynyng doktory A.Qasymjanov pen filosofiya ghylymdarynyng doktory Q.Núrlanova bekitilgen. Biraq búl ghalymdardyng eshqaysysy bastapqy kelisiminde túrmay, keyin «minәiim» sebeptermen jetekshilikten bas tartqan.

Osynday tórt aigha sozylghan apparattyq-kenselik «oyyndardan» keyin diyrektor Zimanov Mәskeudegi әriptesine ótinishpen shyghady.

R.Sh.Qonaeva 1971 jyly Mәskeudegi aspiranturasyn tәmәmdaydy. Búl kezde S.Zimanov diyrektorlyqtan bosaghan. Jana diyrektor «pәleden» basyn aulaq salyp, kezinde institut oqugha jiberip, ýsh jyl boyy stiypendiya tólegen aspirantura týlegin júmysqa aludan bas tartqan.

Institut Mәskeuden kelgen jas mamandy Joghary jәne orta arnauly bilim ministrligining qaramaghyna jiberedi. Ministr de familiyasynan «at ýrketin» jas mamannyng ótinishin qaraugha «uaqyt tappay», orynbasary S.J.Kenjebaevqa siltegen. Ministrding orynbasary Jambyl tehnologiya instituty Almaty filialynyng diyrektory L.IY.Júmaghúlovanyng atyna arnayy hat jazyp,  KSRO Ghylym akademiyasy Filosofiya instituty aspiranturasynyng týlegi R.Qonaevany osy institutqa agha oqytushylyq qyzmetke qabyldau jóninde tapsyrma beredi. Agha oqytushylyq qyzmetke úsynylyp otyrghan aspirantura týlegi búl kezde әli kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn qorghap ýlgermegen edi. Ministrding orynbasary S.Kenjebaev búl mәselening de sheshimin tauyp: «KSRO GhA Filosofiya institutynyng ótinishi boyynsha ministrlik R.Qonaeva joldasqa dissertasiyasyn ayaqtau ýshin 1972 jyldyng mausym aiyna deyin Mәskeude túrugha rúhsat etedi», – dep tapsyrmany nyqtay týsedi. Hattyng kóshirmesi sol kezde Mәskeu qalasy, Profsongz kóshesi, 22-jataqhananyng 166-bólmesinde túryp jatqan R.Qonaevagha qosa joldanghan. Ministrlikting resmy blankasyna basylyp, S.J.Kenjebaev qol qoyghan búl hat 1971 jyldyng 20 qyrkýieginde tirkeuden ótken.

Osynday әli kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn qorghap ýlgermegen aspirantqa «ayryqsha» kómek kórsetkeni ýshin Úly Otan soghysynyng ardageri, filosofiya ghylymynyng doktory, professor Saghyndyq Jýnisúly da kóp úzamay qyzmetinen «ketuge» mәjbýr bolady. Ózderi bergen júmysyn «ózderi» alghangha qinalmay-aq ornyn bosatyp bergen Saghyndyq aghamyz 96 jas ómir sýrip, sonyna 150-den astam ghylymy enbek qaldyryp, bertinde, 2018 jyly dýnie saldy. Jaryqtyq «Mening adamdy qajytatyn apparat qyzmetinen erterek ketip, úzaq ómir sýruime sol qyzdyng paydasy kóp tiydi. Qaraghyma alghystan basqa aitarym joq», – dep jarqyldap kýlip otyrushy edi.

Sonymen Raisa Shayahmetqyzy Qonaeva 1972 jyldyng 21 qarashasynda kandidattyq dissertasiyasyn qorghap, 1973 jyly 23 nauryzda Býkilodaqtyq attestasiya komissiyasy bekitken «filosofiya ghylymynyng kandidaty» resmy qújatyn alyp elge oralady. Ómirining sonyna deyin Jambyl tehnologiya institutynyng Almaty filialynda (qazir Almaty tehnologiya instituty) agha oqytushy, dosent, professor mindetin atqarushy, kafedra mengerushisi qyzmetin atqaryp, sol jerden 2002 jyldyng 28 sәuirinde zeynetke shyghady (resmy týrde – óz erkimen qyzmetinen bosaydy).

Mәskeu aspiranturasynyng týlegi Raisa Qonaevanyng kuәligi

Býgin Raisa Shayahmetqyzynyng derekterin Qonaeva dep izdeseniz Akademiyadan basqa jerden taba qoiynyz qiyn. Ol 1975 jyly Qasymov Múhit Álmaghambetúly degen Qostanay oblysy Jangeldin audanynda tughan azamatqa túrmysqa shyghyp, tegin Qasymova dep ózgertedi. Tipti búl turaly institut diyrektorynyng atyna ýilengenderine ýsh jyl ótkende: «Júbayymnyng tegine kóshuime baylanysty R.Sh. Qonaeva atty búrynghy  familiyamdy R.Sh.Qasymova dep ózgertuinizdi súraymyn», – degen ótinish jazyp, familiyasynyng ózgergeni jóninde 1978 jyldyng 6 aqpanynda resmy búiryq ta shyghartyp alghan.

Raisa Qonaevanyng Almaty tehnologiya institutynda saqtalghan jeke isinde onyng Múhit Álmaghambetúly Qasymovpen nekesi Almaty qalasynda 1975 jyldyng 14 mamyrynda tirkelgeni jóninde kuәlikting kóshirmesi bar. Búl nekening qansha uaqytqa sozylghany bizge beymәlim. Óitkeni onyng keyingi toltyrghan qújattarynda júbayy turaly mәlimet mýlde keltirilmeydi.

M.Á.Qasymov – esimi respublika ghylymy júrtshylyghyna belgili azamat. Ol geologiya-miynerologiya ghylymynan kandidattyq dissertasiya qorghap, sonyna jýzden astam ghylymy enbek qaldyrdy. Geologiya salasynda ashqan janalyqtary ýshin Qazaq KSR Memleketik syilyghynyng iyegeri atanypty.

Óz qolymen 1989 jyly orys tilinde toltyrylghan ómirbayanynda Raisa Qonaeva 1977 jyly úldy bolyp, atyn Taylan qoyghany jazylghan, biraq onda kýieui turaly esh maghlúmat joq. Ómirbayanda ózining Ózbekstannyng Ándijan oblysy Ayym audanynda 1938 jyly tughanyn, 1946 jyly Taldyqorghan qalasyna kóship kelgenin, mektepti sonda bitirip, 1962 jyly Qyzdar pedagogikalyq institutyna týskenin jazady. Múraghat derekteri boyynsha búl kezde onyng familiyasy «Búghybaeva» bolghan. Institutty 1966 jyly bitirgen song bir jylday sonda arhivarius, kitaphanashy bolyp qyzmet istepti.

R.Qonaeva ózi shyqqan otbasy jaghdayyna kelgende onda 9 bala bolghanyn, ýlken aghasy Búghybaev Ghaliahmed 1926 jyly tuyp, 1944 jyly Úly Otan soghysynda erlikpen qaza tapqanyn kórsetken. Qalghan 7 bauyry týrli aurudan erterekte qaytys bolypty. Ákesi Shayahmet (әkesining familiyasy kórsetilmegen) te soghysqa qatysyp, auyr jaraqat alghan. Elge oralghan song 1944 jyly qaytys bolypty. Anasy turaly bir auyz sóz joq, tipti aty-jóni de kórsetilmegen.

Qonaeva-Qasymovanyng búl ómirbayanynda aldymyzdan búryn esimi esh jerde atalmaytyn onyng Búghybaev Ghaliahmed deytin aghasy shyghady. Ol Úly Otan soghysyna qatysqan azamat bolghan song Resey Qorghanys ministrligi múraghaty boyynsha izdestiru jýrgizdik.

Qatardaghy qyzylәsker 1926 jyly tughan Ghaliahmet (resmy qújatta esimining songhy qarpi Raisa kórsetkendey «d» emes, «t») Búghybaev Almaty oblysy Taldyqorghan audanynda tusa da, әskerge Ándijan oblysy Ayym audandyq әskery komissariatynan shaqyrylghan dep kórsetken. Soghan qaraghanda Búghybaevtar otbasy asharshylyq jyldary Ózbekstangha qonys audaruy mýmkin dep shamalaugha bolady. Gh.Búghybaev 1944 jyldyng 6 qazanynda Latviyanyng Riga uezi Dzenn derevnyasy ýshin bolghan úrysta qaza tauypty. Ata-anasy degen grafada «anasy Búghybaeva Huns» dep kórsetilgen. Ózge halyqtardyng esimin tirkeuge qyrsyzdau bolatyn orys aghayyndardyng «Huns» dep jazuyn biz «Húsni» boluy mýmkin dep shamaladyq.

Ghaliahmet Búghybaevqa qatysty ýsh qújattyng ekeuinde onyng әkesining tegi «Shayahmetúly» dep kórsetilgenimen, ata-anasy turaly baghanda tek anasynyng esimi ghana atalghan. Al әskery múraghattan Raisa «jaralanyp elge oraldy» degen әkesi Shayahmet Búghybaevtyng soghysqa qatysqany jóninde eshqanday qújat tabylmady.

Raisa Shayahmetqyzy ómirbayanynda ózin 1938 jyly Ándijan oblysynda tudym dep jazsa, onyng 1926 jylghy aghasynyng tughan jeri Almaty oblysy Taldyqorghan  audany dep kórsetilgen. Ekinshiden, Ghaliahmetting qújatynda esimi «Búghybaeva Huns» dep kórsetilgen Raisanyng anasy qyzynyng qolymen toltyrylghan búghan deyingi ómirbayandarynda mýlde atalmaydy.

Raisa Qasymovanyng Almaty tehnologiyalyq instituty múraghatynda saqtalghan taghy bir qújattary da týrli oilargha jeteleydi. Onyng alghashqysynda Qazaq memlekettik qyzdar pedagogika institutyn 1966 jyly 26 mausymda «orys tili men әdebiyeti» mamandyghy boyynsha bitirgen Búghybaeva Raisagha berilgen diplomnyng kóshirmesi jәne arada bir jyl ótkende 1967 jyly 11 tamyzda osy instituttyng komsomol úiymynyng hatshysy R.Qonaevagha berilgen anyqtama. Búl qújattar Búghybaevanyng institutqa әueli osynday familiyamen týsip, ony bitirgen song tegin «Qonaeva» dep ózgertkeninen habar beredi.

Raisa apamyz D.A.Qonaev respublika birinshi basshylyghy qyzmetinen ketken song – 1990 jyldyng 1 aqpanynda óz qolymen taghy bir esep kartochkasyn toltyrghan. Onyng «otbasy» degen túsyna 1977 jyly tughan úly Taylandy kórsetip, anasy degen grafada «Búghybaeva H.D.» dep kórsetken. Demek, onyng anasy 1990 jylgha deyin qyzynyng qolynda túrghan. Úzaq jasaghan, biraq ishtegi syryn jariya etudi jón kórmegen H.D.Búghybaeva apamyz kóp qúpiyany ózimen birge әketkeni anyq. Áriyne, búl kisining dýniyege kelgen kezinen bastap, ómirining sonyna deyingi derekterdi yjdahattylyqpen izdestirse, talay shyndyqqa qol jetkizuge bolar edi. Aldymyzgha múnday maqsat qoymaghandyqtan biz qolda bar maghlúmattarmen ghana shekteldik.

Raisa apamyz 2004 jyldyng 18 qarashasynda 65 jasynda jýrek talmasynan dýnie salypty. Dәtke de berik jan bolsa kerek, ol da biraz syrdy ózimen birge ala ketti. Bizding enbek akademik Salyq Zimanovqa qatysty bolghan song kóldeneng qosylghan taqyrypty ary qaray qazbalaudy artyq sanadyq.

IYә, múraghatta Raisa apamyzdyng eshbir týsindirmesiz-aq sóilep túrghan fotosureti saqtalghan. Kórgen jan ózi-aq qorytyndy jasar dep ony da jariyalaudy jón kórdik.

Surette: Raisa Qonaeva, 1990 jyl.

D.A.Qonaev – qazaq tarihynda óshpes iz qaldyrghan asa kórnekti memleket basshysy. Biz ýshin onyng ómirbayanynyng әrbir paraghy qymbat. Ol turaly әli talay kitaptar jazylyp, zertteuler jaryq kóretini anyq. Sol bolashaq zertteulerding kәdesine jarar dep ózimiz tapqan múraghattyq derekterding bir parasyn jariyalaudy jón kórdik. Ony tarata, tarqata jazamyn deushiler ýshin jogharydaghy múraghat derekteri septigin tiygizetin bolar dep esepteymin.

«Qonaevtyng qyzy» turaly әngimeni otyz jylgha juyq uaqyt boyyna etene aralasa jýrip, Salyq aghadan talay mәrte estidim. Ol esteliginde qyzdyng tolyq aty-jónin «Qonaeva Raisa Dinmúhamedqyzy» dep naqpa-naq jazady. Aghamyzdyng búlay jazuynyng astarynda mynanday oqigha bolypty.

Bir kýni Salyq aghanyng ýiine sol kezde Almaty qalalyq partiya komiytetining ekinshi hatshysy qyzmetin atqaratyn ejettes dosy Mihail Ivanovich (búl kisining shyn nyspysy – Hәkim, balalar ýiinde óskendikten tәrbiyeshileri esim-soyyn oryssha jazyp jibergen) Esenәliyev aghamyz keledi. Ol ejelden syralghy dosyna respublika basshysynyng azamattyq nekeden tughan qyzynyng aspiranturagha týsuine dabyrasyz qol úshyn berudi qúpiyalap jetkizedi.

Respublika basshysy búl mәsele boyynsha Mihail Ivanovichpen onasha aqyldasqanda ol syrgha da, sertke de berik Salyq aghanyng kandidaturasyn úsynghan eken. Zimanovtyng adaldyghy men tazalyghyn syrtynan jaqsy biletin Dimash agha ony maqúldap, búl mәseleni yn-shynsyz jýzege asyrudy Esenәliyevke tapsyrady. Búdan keyin bar jauapkershilikti moynyna alghan Salyq aghamyz ótinishti әskery tapsyrmaday búljytpay oryndap shyghady.

Mәskeu men Almaty arasynda talay mәrte tirkeu men tekseristen ótken qatynas qaghazdaryndaghy «qúpiya» birtindep Ýlken ýidegi jengemizge jetedi. Bala tappaghan әielding qyzghanyshy qiyn ghoy, onyng ýstine kýieui anau-mynau emes ýlken respublikanyng birinshi basshysy bolsa. Artyq-kem aitylghan sóz, partiyalyq jauapkershilik, t.b. argumentter de iske qosylghan siyaqty. Nәtiyjesinde nekesiz tughan qyzgha «qyzmet babyn asyra» kómek kórsetkeni ýshin esimi respublikagha mәshhýr akademiyk-diyrektor men onyng syilas dosy ministrding orynbasary qyzmetinen ketuge mәjbýr bolady. Áriyne, zan-zakondy bes sausaghynday biletin Salyq Zimanov búghan kelispey, qarsy shyghuyna da bolatyn edi. Onda búl isting qúpiyasy ashylyp, oghan qatysty ózge azamattar da japa shegui mýmkin edi. Múny qalamaghan qos azamat eshbir dabyrasyz qyzmetterin bosatyp bergen.

Shyntuaytqa kelgende, 1969 jyly Salyq Zimanovtyng abyroy bedeli de, ol basqarghan instituttyng jaghdayy da óte joghary dengeyde edi. Búl kezde ol respublikadaghy zang ghylymy boyynsha jalghyz akademiyk, 1943 jyldan beri kommunist әri institut ornalasqan Frunze audandyq partiya komiytetining buro mýshesi. Onyng ýstine institut júmysy erekshe maqtalyp, onyng aty qaladaghy Panfilovshylar parkinde ornalasqan Qúrmet taqtasyna ilingen. Akademiya preziydenti Shahmardan Esenov osy qyzmetke kelgennen bastap-aq Salyq Zimanovqa erekshe qúrmet kórsetip, onyng jana institut ashu turaly bastamasyna qyzu qoldau kórsete bastaghan. Salyq aghamyz institut júmysyna kuratorlyq jasaytyn Akademiyanyng qoghamdyq ghylymdar boyynsha viyse-preziydenti, zanger ghalym basqaratyn mekemening tikeley kuratory, akademik Aqay Nýsipbekovpen erekshe qarym-qatynas ornatyp, tipti otbasylyq dengeyde jaqyn aralasatyn dostar bolghan.

Zimanovtyng A.Nýsipbekovke arnalghan esteliginde aitylghanday, ózining qyzmetten bosatylatyny jónindegi habardy oghan qalay «estirtudi» bilmey dal bolghan Shahmardan Esenov ony aqyr sonynda orynbasaryna tapsyrypty. Aqay aghamyz keshqúrym Salyq dosynyng ýiine kelip, mәselening jay-japsaryn júqalap jetkizedi. Oq pen ottyng ortasynda jýrip, «meni kózdep atyndar!» – dep búiryq bergen has batyr «partiyalyq sheshimdi» de qasqaya qarsy alyp, qalaghan aryzdaryn jazyp, qyzmetimen kýlip túryp qoshtasady. Salyq agha búl esteliginde de ózining qyzmetten bosau sebebi jóninde: «Keyinirek mening taban astynda Institut diyrektory qyzmetinen bosatyluymnyng syry asqan dәldikpen anyqtaldy», – dey kelip, onyng jas ghalym Qonaeva Raisa Dinmúhamedqyzyn (әkesining tegin osylay jazghan) Mәskeu aspiranturasyna jibergenimen baylanysty ekendigin ashyp kórsetedi.

Býginde azamattyq nekede bolu tosyn janalyq, ózgeshe oqigha boludan qalghan. Býkil tarihy partiya ynghayyna qaray jasalghan súrqiya sayasattardan túratyn kommunistik zamanda búl respublika partiya basshysy ýshin ýlken «kýnә» bolatyn. Múnday jaghday partbiyletpen qoshtasugha deyin alyp keletin. Onyng sony nemen bitetini beseneden belgili.

«Mahabbatsyz dýnie bos, hayuangha ony qosyndar» deydi danyshpan Abay. Ýsh-tórt әiel alyp, olardan perzent sýi Q.Sәtbaev, M.Áuezov siyaqty qazaqtyng úly túlghalarynyng basynan da ótken.

Múhtar Áuezov ýsh ret resmy nekede, tórtinshi qosaghy Fatima Ghabiytqyzymen býgingi tilmen aitqanda, azamattyq nekede bolghan. Odan tughan úly Múratqa esimin de, familiyasyn da bergen, ómirge kelgennen bastap әkelik qamqorlyghyn ayamaghan. Dýniyeden óter aldynda Mәskeu auruhanasynda jatyp, Múrattyng taghdyryna qatysty eldegi aghayyndargha hat jazghan. Sol Múrat Múhtarúly Áuezov әke senimin tolyghymen aqtady. Últ mәdeniyetine ýlken olja salyp, úly jazushynyng erkek kindikten taraghan úrpaqtaryn jalghastyryp keledi.

Danyshpan Qanysh Sәtbaevtyng eki mәrte resmy nekede bolghanyn júrtshylyq jaqsy biledi. Ol ýshinshi zayyby Kәmila Dosqyzy Ótegenovamen azamattyq nekede bolyp, odan 1948 jyly Jәmila esimdi qyz sýidi. Kәmila apamyz keyin qazaq qyzdary arasynan alghashqylardyng biri bolyp, 1955 jyly medisina ghylymynyng doktory, professor atandy, otandyq medisinanyng damuyna zor ýles qosty. Qanysh Imantayúlyna da, ghylymgha da adaldyghyn saqtap, dýniyeden ótti. Onyng Qanysh aghadan tughan qyzy Jәmila Mәskeu memlekettik halyqaralyq qatynastar institutyn qytay tili mamandyghy boyynsha tәmamdaydy. Keyin KSRO Ghylym akademiyasynyng Memleket jәne qúqyq institutynyng aspiranturasyn, Pekin Halyqaralyq baylanystar institutynyng doktoranturasyn da bitirip, qytay derektemelerindegi qazaq tarihyna qatysty qúndy enbekter jazghan  ýlken ghalym atandy.

Boyy da, oiy da biyik, symbaty da, syry da kelisti Dinmúhamed Ahmetúly siyaqty el maqtaghan azamatty talay qazaqtyng qyz-kelinshekteri de jaqtaghanyna eshkimning kýmәni joq bolar. Eger onyng zayyby erining jas kezde jasaghan bir «erkeligine» ong týsinik tanytyp, oghan da, qyzyna da jyly jýzin búrsa, olardyng keyingi taghdyry qalay bolar edi? Búl súraqqa jauap tabu qiyn...

Búhardaghy qazaqtar men Hiuadaghy handar

«Dýnie bir qisyq jol búrandaghan» deydi halyq әnderining birinde. Key azamattyng basynan baq tayghanda saryuayymgha salynyp, kýirek jolgha týsedi, al ruhy myqty jan órshelene órge tartyp, maqsat-múratyna jetpey toqtamaydy. Salyq agha songhylardyng soyynan edi.

Zimanov diyrektorlyqtan ketse de, ózi qúrghan instituttaghy memleket pen qúqyq teoriyasy jәne tarihy bólimining mengerushisi qyzmetin jalghastyra berdi. Búl kezende onyng qalamynan shyqqan ghylymy júmystardyng taqyryby kýn ótken sayyn keneye, auqymdana týsti.

Alpysynshy jyldary S.Zimanov otandyq zang ghylymy tarihynda túnghysh ret Abaydyng qúqyqtyq kózqarasy, biyligi taqyrybyna týren salyp, alghashqy zertteulerin jariyalaydy. Qazaq últtyq uniyversiytetinde arnayy leksiyalar kursyn ótkizip, bayandama jasaydy. Solardy jýielep, 1971 jyly «Abay y obychnoe pravo kazahov» atty enbegin jariyalaydy. Akademik ózining keyingi shygharmashylyghynda búl taqyrypqa birneshe ret oralyp, ómirining sonyna deyin ony ýnemi tolyqtyryp, jana qyrynan ashyp otyrdy.

Kandidattyq, doktorlyq dissertasiyasyn jazu barysynda Leningrad múraghattarynan tapqan qazaqtyng túnghysh joghary bilimdi zangeri, Memlekettik duma mýshesi Baqytjan Qarataevtyng ómirine qatysty «B.B.Qarataev vo vtoroy Gosudarstvennoy Dume» atty enbegin shygharady. Onyng júmys josparynda shәkirti M.Ysmaghúlovpen birge súltan B.Qarataev turaly irgeli ghylymy enbek jazu da bolghan, biraq iydeologiyalyq shekteulikterge baylanysty búl oiyn jýzege asyra almaydy. Biraq onyng qazaqtyng asa kórnekti zangeri әri ziyaly túlghasy turaly osy maqalasynyng ózi-aq búghan deyin sire múz bolyp qatqan taqyryptyng senin búzyp, keyingi zertteushilerge jol ashty.

Akademik S.Zimanov – ózining ghylymy iydeyalaryn shәkirtterimen jomarttyqpen bólise bilgen jan. Ol alpysynshy jyldary әueli ózi, keyin talantty shәkirti Arystanbek Átishevpen birge Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng iydeyalyq, sayasi, qúqyqtyq kózqarastary turaly zertteulerding tútas seriyasyn jariyalaydy.

Bókey ordasynyng tarihy, ondaghy «Han kenesinin» qyzmeti turaly taqyrypty zertteu barysynda qazaqtyng dәstýrli qúqyghy men ata zandaryna erekshe nazar audaryp, birtindep búl taqyrypty shәkirtterimen birlese zertteydi. Arab qarpimen jazylghan eskilikti qoljazbalardy oqu jәne ony orta ghasyrlarda arab tilinde jazylghan islam oishyldarynyng enbekterimen salystyra zertteu ýshin búl iske shyghystanushy ghalym, arab tilining mamany Núraly Óserovti tartyp, oghan Tәuke hannyng «Jeti jarghysyn» kandidattyq dissertasiya etip bekitedi. Jetpisinshi jyldar ortasynda shәkirtimen birge «Jeti jarghygha» baylanysty birneshe ghylymy maqalalar seriyasyn jariyalaydy.

Ústaz ben shәkirtting taghylymdy tandemi keyin jarasty jalghastyghyn tauyp, ol 1997 jyly N.Óserovting otandyq zang ghylymy tarihynda «músylmandyq qúqyq» taqyrybyna qorghalghan túnghysh doktorlyq dissertasiya – «Qazaqtyng әdet-ghúryp zandaryna sharighattyng әserine»  úlasty. Bizben dos-jar qatynasta bolghan Núraly aghamyz toqsanynshy jyldary taqyryp ayasyn keneytip, joghary oqu oryndary studentteri men oqytushylaryna arnalghan «Músylmandyq qúqyq», «Músylmandyq qaghidalary», «Músylmandyq neke» atty tamasha enbekter jariyalap, qasiyetti «Qúrannyn» bes tomdyq audarmasyn jariyalady.

Taqyryptan sәl ozynqyrap aitatyn bolsaq, Salyq agha sekseninshi jyldary taghy bir últjandy shәkirti Qabdesh Ydyrysovty Alash ardagerlerine seriktes bolyp, qazaq dalasynda azattyq iydeyasyn taratugha, sayasi, qúqyqtyq oi-sana qalyptastyrugha zor enbek sinirgen «Ayqap» jurnalynyng shygharushysy әri bas redaktory Múhamedjan Seralinning qoghamdyq-sayasy kózqarasyn zertteu isine tartyp, ghylymy tanymy zor tútas maqalalar tizbegin jariyalaydy. Ydyrysovtyng osy taqyrypta 1986 jyly qorghalghan kandidattyq dissertasiyasy men sonyng izin ala jaryq kórgen monografiyasy «Ayqap» jurnalynda jaryq kórgen ózge qazaq ziyalylarynyng ómiri men shygharmashylyq múrasyn zertteuge baghyt-baghdar siltedi.

Jeti jylgha sozylghan búlghaq kezenning sonyna qaray – 1976 jyly akademik Salyq Zimanovtyng qalamynan «Ot osvobodiytelinyh iydey k sovetskoy gosudarstvennosty v Buhare y Hiyve» atty qazaq qana emes, Orta Aziya halyqtarynyng qily tarihyna arnalghan klassikalyq monografiyasy jaryq kórdi. Akademik Súltan Sartaevtyng agha-dosyna arnalghan «Ghalym turaly odasynda»: «Búhara men Hiuagha, kózdi salmay qalmadyq. Bostandyq oiyn eki eldin, ghylymy týrde taldadyq», – deytin joldar osy enbekti menzep túr.

Býkil shygharmashylyghyn qazaq taqyrybyna arnaghan ýlken oqymysty nelikten kórshi elder tarihyna bardy? Áueli osy súraqqa jauap izdep kóreyik.

Qazaq handyghy dýniyege kelgen kezden bastap ontýstiktegi eng iri memleket – Búhar handyghymen ýzdiksiz kýres jýrgizdi. Sonyng nәtiyjesinde Samarqand, Tashkent, Týrkistan, Syrdariya boyyndaghy ýlkendi-kishili qalalar jiyi-jii qoldan qolgha ótip otyrdy. Búhar handyghyn úzaq jyldar boyy Shynghys hannyng nemeresi, Joshynyng úly әigili Batu hannyng tughan bauyry – Shiban (key derekterde Sheyban dep te atalady) hannyng úrpaqtary basqardy.

Búhar handyghyndaghy Shiban әuleti biyligin ornatqan Múhammed Sheybany kóshpeli ózbekter memleketin qúrghan Ábilqayyr hannyng nemeresi edi. Ol Qazaq handyghynyng negizin salushylar – Kerey men Jәnibek hannan taraghan qazaq biyleushilerimen kóp soghysty. Áueli Kereyding úly Búryndyq hanmen Otyrar, Týrkistan ýshin shayqasyp, birshama ilgerileuge qol jetkizedi. Búl Jetisuda biylik jýrgizip túrghan Qasym súltannyng namysyna tiyip, ol qalyng qolmen Qarataudyng eteginde Sheybany qolymen soghysady. 1510 jyly Syghanaq qalasynyng týbinde bolghan shayqasta Sheybany qoly tas-talqan jenilip, Samarqandqa qashugha mәjbýr bolady.

Kelesi 1511 jyly Qasym súltan Qazaq handyghynyng taghyna otyrady. Ol biylik qúrghan 17 jyl ishinde Qazaqstannyng ontýstiktegi shekarasy keneyip, irgesi beky týsedi, biraq Sheybany hannyng múragerleri men Qazaq handary arasyndaghy kýres tolastaghan joq. Búhar handyghy qúramynda basym bóligi Qazaq handyghynda ómir sýretin qazaqtyng qypshaq, nayman, qonyrat, jalayyr jәne «alshyn» degen ortaq ataumen belgili bolghan Kishi jýz rulary ómir sýrdi. Olardyng ishinde asa iri qolbasy, Samarqand әmiri dәrejesine deyin jetken Kishi jýzdegi alty ata әlimge kiretin tórtqara ruynan shyqqan Jalantós bahadýr de boldy.

Jalantós bahadýr turaly alghashqy derekti Alash ardageri Halel Dosmúhamedov jazdy. Búl enbekpen jas kezinde-aq tanys Salyq Zimanovtyng Búhara men Samarqand tarihyna qyzyghushylyghy erteden oyanghan-dy.

Búharagha qatysty taghy bir qyzghylyqty derek Múhtar Maghauinning әigili «Alasapyran» romanynda keltiriledi. Onda 1594 jyly Tәuekel hannyng Qúl-Múhammed bastaghan elshisi orys patshasyna qapyda qolgha týsken Orazmúhamedti alu ýshin elshilikke kelgende qazaqtyng qalyng qoly Búhardy qorshauda ústap túrghandyghy jazylghan.

Tәuekel han Búhardy qorshau kezindegi qyrghyn úrysta qaza tapsa da, Qazaq handyghy týstiktegi shekarasyn keneytip, mol oljagha keneledi. Búl turaly 5 tomdyq «Qazaqstan tarihynda»: «Tәuekel az uaqyt ishinde Týrkistandy, Tashkentti, Ferghanany aldy. Tәuekel ózining Orta Aziyagha joryghyn jasaghanda bir ghana qarudyng týrine ýmit artqan joq: ol Orta Aziya halqynyng belgili bir әleumettik toptaryna sýiendi, olar qajet bolghan kezde oghan qoldau kórsetuge tiyis edi jәne olar shynynda da qoldau kórsetti», – dep jazady (A., 1998 jyl, 3-tom, 417-18-better).

Avtordyng múndaghy isharalap otyrghany Búhar handyghy qúramyndaghy qazaq rulary men rubasylary jәne olardan shyqqan әskerbasylar edi.

Búhardyng qazaqqa qonys bolghandyghy tarihy derektermen qatar qazaq aqyn-jyraularynyng shygharmalarynan da kórinis tapqan. Áygili Dulat Babatayúlynyng «Áuelgi qazaq degen júrt» atty tolghauyndaghy: «Emin-erkin en jaylap, ósip eding Búharda» degen joldary osyny menzeydi. Shaghatay tilindegi ortaghasyrlyq avtorlar enbekterinen oqyghan-toqyghany mol Dulat jyrau búl taqyrypqa terendey týsip: «Sen Búharda kezinde, bәtua bar sózinde. Keleli biying senimdi, qara bir halqyng kónimdi. Tynysh edi elimiz... Búhar-ay shәri deytúghyn, Ósken, óngen jeriniz», – dep tolghaydy.

Búhardyng qazaqqa qatystylyghy turaly derekter ózge de qazaq jyraularynyng tolghau jyrlarynda da az kezdespeydi.

Sheybany әuletining handyqqa kelgendegi ataq-danqy dәuirlep túrsa da onyng úrpaqtarynyng da, negizin salghan Búqar handyghynyng da ómiri qysqa boldy, 1785 jyly handyq tarqatylyp, onyng ornyna Búhar әmirligi qúryldy. Resey imperiyasy 1868 jyly óz protektoratyna ainaldyrghan búl әmirlik 1920 jylgha deyin ómir sýrdi. Biraq ony Sheybany hannyng túqymdary emes, manghyt әmirleri biyledi. Sol sebepti memleket «handyq» emes «әmirlik» dep ataldy.

Surette: Búhardyng songhy әmiri Seit Álim han

Akademik Salyq Zimanov ýsh birdey memlekettik qúrylymdy (әmirlik, Búhar kenestik sosialistik respublikasy, Ózbek KSR-i) bastan ótkergen, qazaq tarihymen tamyrlas әmirlikting XIX ghasyrdyng sony men XX ghasyr basyndaghy sayasy tarihyn ghylymy zertteu nysanasy etip alady.

Akademikti erekshe qyzyqtyrghan mәsele: kindik Aziyada eki myng jyldan astam memlekettilik qúrghan Búhar men Hiuadaghy handyq biylikting 20-ghasyr basyna deyin saqtaluy boldy. Búl turaly ol monografiyanyng kirispe bóliminde: «tipichnaya sredneaziatskaya hanskaya vlasti so mnogimy atributamy sohranilasi toliko v Buhare y Hiyve», – dep naqtylay jazdy.

Hiua handyghy әlem tarihyna Horezm patshalyghy degen atpen Eskendir Zúlqarnayyn zamanynan beri belgili memleketting zandy múrageri edi. Keyin XIII ghasyrda baylyq pen biylikten basy ainalyp, meymanasy tasyghan Horezmshah Ala ad-Din Múhammed Shynghys han elshiligin qyryp salady. Horezmshahtyng búl astamshylyghy Shynghys hannyng Ortalyq Aziyagha joryq jasauyna әkep soqtyryp, sol zamandaghy órkeniyet kóshining basynda túrghan gýldengen ólkening kóptegen qalalary jermen-jeksen bolady.

Horezm memleketining bastapqy astanasy Joshy talqandaudan saqtap qalghan Ýrgenish qalasy bolghan, XVI ghasyr sonynda qalanyng irgesinen aghatyn Ámudariya arnasynan auyp ketkende astana Hiuagha kóshirilip, ol osy mәrtebesin XX ghasyr basyna deyin saqtap qalady. Orys tarihshylary búl memleketti keyingi astanasy Hiuanyng atymen «Hiua handyghy» dep atasa da, olardyng ózderi ýshin sol bayaghy Horezm bolyp qala berdi. Múnda da qyzyl tónkeris jeniske jetip, Hiua handyghy kelmeske ketip, onyng ornyna dýniyege kelgen jas memleket ejelgi atauymen Horezm Kenestik Sosialistik Respublikasy dep ataldy.

Aqiqatyn aitar bolsaq, Hiuagha da qazaqtyng talasy bar. Búl memleketti әueli Joshynyng úrpaghy – Arabshah hannyng túqymdary biyledi. Áuletten shyqqan handardyng sony sanalatyn Sherghazy han Hiuany 14 jyl (1714-28) biylep, sonyna jaqsy ataq qaldyrady. (Keybir zertteushiler ony Ábilqayyr hannyng nemeresi, Kishi jýzge 16 jyl han bolghan (1812-28) Sherghazy Ayshuaqúlymen shatastyrady, búl jansaq pikir).

Hiualyq Sherghazy han dýnie salghan kezde Kishi jýzde Ábilqayyr hannyng ataq-danqy dәuirlep túrdy. Hiuanyng Syrdariya, Aral ónirimen shektes ólkelerde túratyn Kishi jýz rulary men qaraqalpaqtar Ábilqayyr handy ózderining zor qamqory sanady. Sherghazy óliminen keyin dәl osy Ábilqayyr úsynysymen Hiua taghyna onyng nemere inisi, qazaq handyghynyng negizin salghan Jәnibek hannyng túqymy Elbarys otyrady.

Elbarys qolbasshylyghymen danqy shyghyp, 12 jyl Hiuany ashsa alaqany, júmsa júdyryghynda ústaydy.

Ábilqayyr 1731 jyly oryspen kelisimge kelgen song Elbarysqa da osy shartqa qosylugha úsynys jasaydy. Ol qarsylyq bildirgennen keyin ekeuining arasyna syzat týsedi. Nәdir shahtyng Hiua handyghyna qarsy soghysy kezinde Elbarys qaza tabady. Kóp úzamay onyng ornyna Nәdir shah qoyghan Tahir han óz halqyna jasaghan jauyzdyqtary ýshin óltirilip, Ábilqayyrdyng ýlken úly Núraly súltan han taghyna otyrady. Arada eki jyl ótkende sol bayaghy Nәdir shahtyng aralasuymen Núraly da taqtan taydyrylyp, biylikke Elbarys hannyng úly Ábilghazy ekinshi keledi.

Búl kezde Ábilqayyr hannyng әskery quaty Hiua handyghyn tas-talqan etip, ózine birjolata qaratugha erkin jetetin edi, biraq onyng búl oiynan Nәdir shahpen diplomatiyalyq oiyndardy bastap ketken Resey imperiyasy ainytady. Tek 1747 jyly Nәdir shah dýnie salghan song Ábilqayyr hannyng baqtalasy sanalatyn Batyr súltannyng úly Qayyp han Hiua taghyna otyryp, on jyldan astam uaqyt boyyna el basqarady.

Tek XVIII ghasyrdyng ózinde Hiua taghyna Joshy әuletinen shyqqan onnan astam qazaq súltandary otyrypty. Onyng ishinde qastandyqpen kózi joyylghan,  týrli aila-sharghymen taqtan taydyrylghan, «attan qúlap óldi» degen syltaumen saray oiyndarynyng qúrbany bolghan quyrshaq handar da bar-dy. Qalay degenmen de olardyng bәri qazaq tarihyna tikeley qatysty túlghalar edi. Akademik Zimanovty Hiua tarihy sol ýshin de qyzyqtyrghan.

Orayy kelgende aita keteyik: Tónkeriske deyin Ózbekstan aumaghynda ýsh handyq bolghan. Ekeuin jogharyda aittyq. Ýshinshisi – qazaqtarmen jii soghysatyn Qoqan handyghy. Qazaqta sol kezennen: «Bylay barsang Qoqan bar, qoqandaghan әkeng bar», – degen mәtel qalghan. Qoqandy 1876 jyly Resey imperiyasy birjolata jaulaydy.

Osy eski Qoqannyng ornyna 1917 jyly 28 qarashada Qoqan avtonomiyasy jariyalanghanda onyng alghashqy jәne songhy tóraghalary eki qazaq – Múhamedjan Tynyshbaev pen Mústafa Shoqay boldy. Sondyqtan Qoqangha da qazaqtyng talasy bar dep aita alamyz.

Hiua handyghynyng XVIII-XIX ghasyrdaghy tarihy qazaq tarihymen taghdyrlas, tamyrlas edi. Áueli Persiya, keyin 1873 jyly Resey imperiyasynyng protektoraty bolsa da, búl ólke handyq biyligin 1918 jylgha deyin saqtap qaldy. Búl Zimanov siyaqty memleket tarihyn zertteushi ghalymgha ony Bókey handyghymen salystyra zertteu ýshin asa manyzdy taqyryp boldy.

Resey imperiyasy 19-ghasyrdyng alghashqy jartysyna deyin qazaq jerining batys, soltýstik jәne ortalyq bóligin otarlaudy ayaqtap, Almatygha kelip taban tiredi. Osy kezde Arqa sýier bauyrlarynan qol ýzip qalghan ontýstiktegi qazaq rulary Qoqan handyghyna kiriptar bolady. Búl kezde Qoqandy ar-úyattyng bәrin jiyp qoyyp, ógey sheshesine ýilengen arsyz biyleushi Mәdeli han basqardy. Búhar әmiri Nasyrolla 1842 jyly kýlli músylman qauymyn jerge qaratqan jeksúryn hannyng basyn alyp, Qoqanda alasapyran kezeng bastalady. Qazaqtyng bahadýr hany Kenesary osyny paydalanyp, talaugha týsken qazaq pen qyrghyzdy Qoqan biyliginen bólip aludy kózdeydi. Onyng búl maqsatynyng sәtsizdikpen ayaqtalghanyn biz keyingi tarihtan jaqsy bilemiz.

Qoqan handyghy, Búhar әmirligi men Hiua handyghynyng arghy-bergi tarihy ghana emes, halqynyng qúramy, biyleushilerining shyqqan tegine, dinine, tiline, tipti ómir saltyna deyingi úqsastyqtar akademik Zimanovtyng zor qyzyghushylyghyn tudyrghan.

Jalpy, Ortalyq Aziyany meken etken týrli halyqtardyng shyghu tegi bir kezderi Qiyr Shyghystan bastap, Shyghys Europagha deyingi aralyqta alyp imperiya qúrghan Týrik qaghanatynan bastau aldy. Sol sebepti bayyrghy týrik rulary Orta Aziyadaghy halyqtarda shashyray ornalasty.

Qaghanat qúrghan 6 ghasyrgha deyingi týrik halyqtarynyng tarihy irilenu, tútastanu dәuiri bolsa, ol ekige jarylghan 7 ghasyrdan keyingi kezeng ydyrau, bólshektenu tarihyna ainaldy. Nәtiyjesinde XX ghasyrgha deyin jer betindegi jalpy sany 300 millionnan asatyn týrik halyqtary 30-dan astam últ pen úlysqa bólinip ketti. Bir ghajaby solardyng bәri derlik Kýltegin men Tonykók jazbalaryn eshbir audarmashysyz týsine alatyn.

Áueli Bókey ordasy, Kishi jýz handyghy, Qazaq handyghynyng sayasiy-әleumettik, memlekettik jәne qúqyqtyq tarihyna qatysty materialdardy jinastyra jýrip, S.Zimanov ejelden japsarlas ólke, aralas halyq, kórshi memleketter sanalatyn Búhar әmirligi men Hiua handyghyna baylanysty derekterdi qosa zerttegen. Mine, sol mol maghlúmattar monografiyanyng ózegine ainalghan.

Enbekting kirispe bóliginde avtor kenestik tarih ghylymynda qalyptasqan dәstýrge say Búhar men Hiuanyng ótken tarihyn, «mesheuligin» jamandamaydy. Kerisinshe, onyng Orta Aziya músylmandary ýshin bilim-ghylym, ruhaniyat ortalyghy bolghandyghyn erekshe baghalay kelip: «Búl handyqtarda(әsirese Búharda) músylman dinbasylarynyng yqpaly kýshti boldy. Múnda islam úiymdarynyng asa quatty, halyqqa keng taraghan, júmysy jaqsy ýilestirilgen jýiesi boldy. Olar halyqty bilim, qúqyq, zandylyq, adamgershilik-etikalyq tәrbie men iydeologiyalyq túrghydan mengerudi óz qoldaryna ústady», – dep jazady.

Avtor qos memleketting jer kólemi, halqynyng sany, últtyq qúramy, qalalary, sharuashylyghy, salyq jýiesi turaly jan-jaqty mәlimet keltiredi. Salystyru ýshin: XX ghasyr basynda eki handyqtyng halqyn qosyp eseptegende, olarda shamamen 2 million 600 mynday adam bolghan. Dәl osy kezde Dala ólkesindegi qazaqtardyng sany 6 millionnan erkin asatyn.

Avtor Búhar qalasynyng ózinde 80 myngha juyq halyq túratynyn, onyng tórtten biri, yaghny 20 myngha juyq týrli oqu oryndarynda oqityn jastar ekendigine basa nazar audarady. XIX ghasyr sonynda Búharda 365 meshit pen 103 medrese, al Hiuada 100-ge juyq diny oqu oryndary bolypty. Búl kýlli músylman júrty «Búhara shәrip» dep airyqsha qúrmettegen qalanyng shyn mәninde islamy ruhaniyat ortalyqtarynyng biri bolghandyghyn dәleldeydi.

Avtor alghashqy taraudyng ýsh bólimin ózine etene jaqyn ruhaniyat, ghylym-bilim, aghartushylyq iydeyalary men janashyldyq ýrdisterding ornyghuy mәselelerine arnaydy.

Monografiyada Búhar men Hiuada Týrkiya, Persiya jәne Reseydegi aghartushylyq jana iydeyalardyng negizinde payda bolghan «jәdidshildik» (janashyldyq) mektep ókilderining qoghamdyq oi-sana damuyna tiygizgen әseri naqty mysaldar negizinde taldanady. Avtor múnday ruhany ózgeristerding bastauynda bolghan Búhar әmirliginen shyqqan tәjik tildi filosof, aghartushy ghalym Ahmed Donish bolghandyghyn jәne onyng keyin tәjik әdebiyetining klassiygi atanghan Sadriddin Ayny siyaqty jastardyng ruhani, mәdeny jaghynan jetiluine qosqan zor ýlesin airyqsha baghalaydy.

Hiuada bolghan múnday ózgeristerge músylmandyq ortadaghy reformatorlyq baghytty ústanghan «úsúly jәdiyt» mektebining nasihattaushysy, tatar mesenaty, Orynbordan shyqqan Abdulghanibay  Husainov úiytqy bolghanyn keltiredi. Onyng qarjylandyruymen Hiuada alghashqy jәditshe mektep 1889 jyldyng ózinde-aq ashylypty. Avtor belgili shyghystanushy A.Samoylovichting derekterine silteme jasay otyryp, múnday mektepting sany 1908 jyly tórteu bolghanyn jazady.

Salyq Zimanov Búhara men Hiuadaghy jaghdaydy zertteu barysynda qazaq taqyrybyn da úmytpay, údayy salystyrmaly taldaular jýrgizedi. Ol 1917 jyly Qazaqstanda 100-den astam jәditshil baghyttaghy mektepter bolghany jayly maghlúmatty algha tartady. Monografiyadaghy derekter boyynsha Manghystau týbegi qaraghan Zakaspiy oblysynda 1910 jyly júmys istegen 557 mektep pen 56 medresening tek bireui ghana jәditshe bolypty.

Ghylymy enbekting bizding nazarymyzdy erekshe audarghan taghy bir túsy – ózbek jәditshilerining atasy, ýlken ensiklopediyashy ghalym jәne osy halyqtan shyqqan túnghysh professor, últtyq әdebiyet klassiygi Abdurauf Fitrattyng shygharmashylyghyna mol oryn berilui.

Panislamshyl, pantýrkshil degen aiyptaularmen 1938 jyly atylyp ketken Fitrattyng esimin kenes zamanynda Ózbekstanda siyrek eske alatyn. Ataghan kýnning ózinde bәz-bayaghy qonyrauly «ataqtary» qosa keltiriletin. Ózbek aghayyndar onyng muzeyin tek tәuelsizdik alghannan keyin – 1996 jyly ghana ashugha mýmkindik aldy. Zimanov aghartushy ghalymnyng enbekterin talday kelip: «Jәditshilderding asa iri iydeology bolghan Fitrattyng shygharmalary revolusiyagha deyingi Búhara men býkil Týrkistan ólkesinde óte tanymal boldy», – degen әdil qorytyndy jasaydy.

Avtor atap kórsetkendey, Búhara men Hiuada XX ghasyr basynda Resey músylmandary arasynda oryn alghan oqu-bilimge, batys órkeniyetine, europalyq mәdeniyetke úmtylys ýderisi qansha vassal bolsa da, ishki biyligi ózinde bolghan qos memlekette ýlken kedergilermen jýzege asypty. Jergilikti jastardyng orys tili men mәdeniyetine úmtylysyn  Búhar men Hiuada ornalasqan orys otarshyldyq apparaty qyzmetkerleri airyqsha qoldap otyrghan.

Búl jyldary Reseyding asa iri uniyversiytetterinde, Europa júrtynda, Týrkiyada bilim alghan jastar Europa men Aziyanyn, Amerikanyng ahualynan, tipti Meydzy restavrasiyasyna qyzu kirisip ketken japon elinde bolyp jatqan janalyqtardan tolyq  habardar boldy. Olar ózderining bilimi men qayratyn sayasy kýreske arnay bastady. Múzday qarulanghan Resey imperiyasy ekspansiyasynan qaruly kóterilister emes, sayasy kýrespen ghana qútylugha bolatynyn erte týsindi. Múny taza músylmansha bilim alyp, dәstýrli diny ortada tәrbiyelengen, biraq Sankt-Peterburg pen Mәskeuge әmir delegasiyasy qúramynda ýsh ret bolghan Ahmed Donish siyaqty tәjik últynyng kósemi de, Stambul uniyversiytetinde bilim alsa da, Reseyding Qazan, Mәskeu t.b. iri qalalarynda bolghan ózbek jәditshilerining jetekshisi Abdurauf Fitrat ta jaqsy bildi.

Sayasy kýreske tartylghan jergilikti ziyaly qauym ókilderi Resey ghylym-bilimining paydasymen qatar alyp imperiya qos memleketti ayausyz talap otyrghanyn da anyq anghardy.

Tónkeriske deyin bir ghana Búharadaghy Reseyding 8 memlekettik jәne 7 jekemenshik bankteri býkil handyqtyng ekonomikalyq damuyn óz baqylauynda ústady. Tek 1905-15 jyldar arasynda Búhardan Reseyge tasymaldanatyn maqtanyng mólsheri 2 esege, al Hiuadan Reseyge jetkizilgen maqta mólsheri 1896-1916 jyldar aralyghynda 4 esege ósken.

Akademik Zimanov ózine deyin Búhar, Hiua tarihymen ainalysqan ózbekting asa kórnekti ghalymdary IY.Muminov, A.Ishanov, H.Tursunov jәne tәjikting әigili tarihshysy B.Ghafurovtyng jәditshiler qanshalyqty progressivti iydeyalardy ústansa da, jergilikti burjuaziyanyng ókilderi edi degen pikirlerin negizinen qoldasa da, olardyng enbegine: «múnyng bәri últtyq burjuaziyanyng erekshelikterinen tuyndady. Olar Búhara men Hiua handyghyndaghy jana әleumettik top edi», – degen tiyanaqty qorytyndy jasaydy.

Qazaq akademiygi búdan ary óz pikirin jәditshiler jergilikti burjuaziya ókilderin qoldaudyng ornyna olardy syngha alyp, halyqty despotiyamen kýreske shaqyrdy. Sondyqtan olardy Týrkiyadaghy janashyldyq kýresting avangardy bolghan Atatýrik bastaghan «jastýriktermen» salystyryp, «jasbúharlyqtar» jәne «jashiualyqtar» dep ataudy úsynady.

Qyp-qyzyl kommunistik iydeologiya men kenestik senzura sharyqtau sheginde túrghan 1976 jyly jaryq kórgen monografiya ýshin búl óte batyl baylam edi.

XIX ghasyr sony men XX ghasyr basyndaghy Búhara men Hiuada qalyptasqan sayasiy-әleumettik, ekonomikalyq jaghday eki týrli edi. Jasbúharlyqtardyng belsendi әreketine qaramastan әmir biylikti berik ústady, al Hiuadaghy biylik kóbinese sonda ornalasqan reseylik әskeriyleri men otarshyl apparat sheneunikterining yqpalynda boldy. Búghan Hiua halqynyng týrkmen, ózbek, qaraqalpaq, qazaq siyaqty týbi bir tuysqan bolsa da, dәstýr-salty bólek aluan últtyng ókilderinen túratyny da әser etti.

Búhar әmiri zamana lebin, ýlken sayasy ózgerister kele jatqanyn sezbedi. Qazan tónkerisinen keyin kórshi Qoqan men irgedegi Tashkent qyzyl biylikting qolyna kóshkenine qaramastan, Búhar әmiri 1918 jyldyng nauryzynda ózine qarsy shyqqan 3000-gha juyq jasbúharlyqtarmen qatar, olardy qoldaghan 1600 orys, evrey, armyandardy qyryp saldy. Búl halyqtyng ashu-yzasyn tughyzyp, әmir biyligine qarsy kýresti odan әri órshitip jiberedi.

Dәl osynday alasapyran zamanda Hiua hany qolyndaghy biylikting әbden qojyrap, әlsiregenin sezgen týrikmenning jaumyt ruynan shyqqan Jóneyt batyr Hiuadaghy basshylyqty óz qolyna alyp, Asfandiyar handy óltiredi. Ejelgi dәstýrdi saqtaghansyp, taqqa hannyng aghasy Said Abdollany otyrghyzghanymen, biylik tútqasy Jóneytting qolynda boldy. Kóp úzamay bolishevikter Hiuany alghanda Said Abdolla han taqtan taydyrylyp, Reseyge jer audarylady. Onyng búdan keyingi ómiri joqshylyq, qayyrshylyqpen ótip, 1933 jyldyng asharshylyghynda Krivoy Rogta qaytys bolypty. Úrpaqtarynyng taghdyry da óte ayanyshty ayaqtalypty.

Surette: Hiuanyng songhy biyleushisi Said Abdolla han

Búhar әmiri Said Álimhan qolynda bar 10.000-gha juyq jasaghymen qanshylyqty qarsylassa da 1920 jyly tamyz aiynyng sonynda taqty da, astanasyn da tastap, Aughanstangha qashugha mәjbýr bolady. Kezinde Ortalyq Aziyanyng eng bay adamy sanalghan, Sankt-Peterburgte әli kýnge deyin túrghan әdemi meshit saldyryp, arab, parsy, orys, týrik tilderin bilgen ol da púshayman halge týsedi. Ámirding qisapsyz mol qarjy-qarajatynyng basym bóligi Resey bolishevikterining qolynda qaldy. Biraq onyng taghdyry Hiua hanynyng taghdyrynan góri tәuirirek ayaqtalyp, bertinde – 1944 jyly Aughanstanda ýrim-bútaghynyng kóz aldynda aq ólimmen kóz júmypty.

IYә, adamzat tarihynda bizding dәuirimizge deyingi zamannan belgili bolghan Horezm patshalyghynyng zandy múrageri – Hiua handyghy men Ortalyq Aziyadaghy eng iri memleket – Búhar әmirligi osylay qúlady. Kelesi jyly Europa, Aziya jәne Soltýstik Afrikada alyp memleket qúrghan Osman imperiyasy da kelmeske ketip, «kók aspan, qara jer jaralghanda» onyng ortasynda erkin ómir sýrip, alyp qaghanattar qúrghan týrik halyqtarynan tek týrik bauyrlar ghana óz tәuelsizdigin saqtap qaldy.

Mәskeude otyrghan shalasauatty bolishevikter Orta Aziyany mekendegen últtar men úlystardyng jay-kýiinen, ózindik erekshelikterinen, ondaghy rular men taypalardyng ornalasu retinen, shekaralyq jikteluining jay-kýiinen habary shamaly edi. Búhar әmirligi men Hiua handyghynyng ornyna avtonomiya emes, odaqtas respublika dengeyinde Búhara Kenestik Sosialistik Respublikasy men Horezm Kenestik Sosialistik Respublikasyn jariyalaydy. Keyinirek artyqtau ketkenin sezgen song 1924 jyly olardyng ekeuin de Ózbek KSR-ining qúramyna engizedi.

Akademik Salyq Zimanovtyng ejelgi týrki júrtynyng ishinde islamy ózgeristerge týsse de, arghy babalardan jetken handyq biylikting býkil jón-joralghysyn XX ghasyrdyng basyna deyin saqtap qalghan Búhar әmirligi men Hiua handyghy memlekettiligining tarihyna arnalghan irgeli enbegin qazaq jәne ózbek ghylymy júrtshylyghy birauyzdan moyyndasa da, resmy bagha beruge asyqpady. Búrynghysynsha qoldau, quattau baghytyndaghy maqala,  resenziyalar jazylghan joq. Tek mәskeulik zanger, professor E.A.Skripiylev odaqtyq dengeydegi abyroyly basylym «Sovetskoe gosudarstvo y pravo» jurnalynda monografiyanyng Ortalyq Aziya memleketterining tarihyn tanugha qosylghan zor ýles ekendigin atap ótip: «Enbek qaynarkózderding keninen qamtyluymen erekshelenedi, múraghattyq derekter mol kezdesedi, orys, ózbek, qazaq jәne týrik-tatar tilindegi merzimdi baspasóz jan-jaqty zerdelengen», – dep joghary bagha berdi. («Sovetskoe gosudarstvo y pravo», 1977 jyl, №5, 145-bet).

Búhara men Hiuagha baylanysty monografiyagha resmy biylik salqyndyq tanytqanymen enbek akademik Salyq Zimanovtyng danqyn Qazaqstan shenberinen asyryp, Odaq biyigine kóterdi. Búghan deyin qazaq memlekettiligi men tarihynyng iri mamany retinde tanylghan akademik S.Zimanov endigi jerde Orta Aziya memleketteri tarihynyng da ýlken zertteushisi retinde moyyndaldy. Dәl osy jyly ony әriptesteri KSRO Ghylym akademiyasynyng korrespondent-mýsheligine úsyndy. Búl kezge deyin qoghamdyq ghylymdar salasynda birde bir qazaq ghalymy múnday ataqty iyelenbegen edi. Biraq eski dәuirdin, handyq biylikting ata zandarynyng joqshysy S.Zimanovqa búl mәrtebe búiyrmady. Arada 5 jyl ótkende búl ataqqa «Torjestvo leninskih iydey sosialisticheskogo preobrazovaniya seliskogo hozyaystva v Sredney Aziy y Kazahstane» atty monografiyasynyng avtory B.A.Tólepbaev ie boldy. Biraq búl bólek әngime...

***

Ýlken oqymysty, ghúlama ghalym, akademik Salyq Zimanov el egemendigining elen-alang shaghynda últtyq zannamagha berik irgetas bolghan zandardyng qabyldanuyna aqylman abyzday sheshimdi sózin aityp, kesimdi tóreligin jasady. Ol 1990 jyldyng 25 qazanynda qabyldanghan Memlekettik Egemendik Deklarasiyasyn dayarlau jónindegi komissiyagha tóraghalyq etip, alty saghat boyy tribunada tapjylmastan qasqaya qarsy túryp,  alpystan astam deputattyng kýpti kónilden shyqqan kýlbilte súraqtaryna ýlken bilimdarlyqpen jauap qaytardy (búl turaly osy joldar avtorynyng «Egemen Qazaqstan» gazetinin  №203,204 nómirlerindegi «Akademik Zimanov jәne egemendik deklarasiyasy» degen maqalasynan oqugha bolady).

Osy tústa Zimanov basqarghan komissiya qúramynda qyzmet istegen deputat, qazaq filosofiya ghylymynyng patriarhy, akademik Jabayhan Ábdildin aghamyzdyn: «Salyq Zimanov Memleketting egemendigi turaly deklarasiyanyng jasaluy men qabyldanuynyng qaynar bastauynda túrdy. Onyng prinsipshildigi әrdayym erjýrektilikpen úshtasushy edi. Ol oiyndaghysyn eshqashan irikpeytin. Iri oqymysty, adal azamat retinde deputattardyng sapaly zandar qabyldauyna kepil bola bildi. Asa kórnekti ghalym әri memleketshil túlgha, akademik Salyq Zimanovtyng esimin Qanysh Sәtbaev pen Múhtar Áuezov siyaqty úly adamdar qataryna qosugha әbden bolady», – degen pikirin biz de tolyq quattaymyz.

IYә, bizding buyngha Sәtbaev pen Áuezov siyaqty últ úlylaryna qyzmet kórsetu jazbaghan eken. Solarmen bir qatarda túrghan Salyq Zimanovtay aqsaraghat túlghanyng atyn erttep, saf altyngha malynghan ýzengisinen ústau mәrtebesi búiyrdy. Bile bilgen adamgha búl da bir mandaygha jazylghan zor baqyt eken...

Múhtar Qúl-Múhammed

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