Júma, 19 Shilde 2024
Bilgenge marjan 3074 4 pikir 2 Mausym, 2023 saghat 12:30

Ábilqayyr bahadýr – qazaqtyng agha hany (jalghasy)

Basy: Ábilqayyr bahadýr – qazaqtyng agha hany

Qazaq eline tútqiyldan shabuyl jasaghan jonghar әskerine Sevan Rabdannyng úldary Galdan Seren men Lauzan Shono jetekshilik etken bolatyn. Joryqqa әskery jabdyqtary jaqsy, zenbirek, oq-dәrili myltyq syndy qaru-jaraqtary mol, jauynger attary jeldey esken qalyng qosyndar qatysqan edi. Jeti tústan synalay kirgen jýz myng jauyngeri bar bes qaruy say armiya kýrsildetip zenbirek atyp, myltyqtan oq jaudyryp, Shu jәne Talas ózenderi angharynan bir-aq shyqty. Tasqyn seldey tasyp aghylghan basqynshynyng atty әskerine qarsy dәstýrli qylysh-nayzasymen batyl kóterilgen qazaq jasaqtary tosqauyl bola almady. Tosyn da joyqyn soqqydan qatty shyghyngha úshyrady. Halyqqa qorghan bola almay qaldy.  Qorqynyshty qatygezdikpen astasqan shabuyldan el esin jinay almay, beti aughan jaqqa ýdere kóshuge, tipti ýi-jayyn, dýniye-mýlkin, maldaryn tastay qashugha mәjbýr boldy. Jongharlar tez arada Tashkent, Sayram, Týrkistan, Sozaq, Qúmkent, Saudakent sekildi qazaq shaharlaryn, úzyn sany 25 qalany basyp aldy. (Anyzdarda basqynshylardyng talay rulardy tútasymen qyryp jibergeni aitylady. Qazaq halqynyng taghdyryndaghy osynau asa qasiretti kezen  tarihta «Aqtaban shúbyryndy, Alqakól súlama» degen atpen tanbalandy. El auzynda saqtalghan mynanday:  «Qarataudyng basynan kósh keledi, Kóshken sayyn bir taylaq bos keledi. Qaryndastan aiyrylghan qiyn eken, Qara kózden móldirep jas keledi. Myna zaman qay zaman, qysqan zaman, Basymyzdan baq-dәulet úshqan zaman. Shúbyrghanda izinnen shang boraydy, Qantardaghy qar jaughan qystan jaman. Myna zaman qay zaman, baghy zaman, Bayaghyday bola ma taghy zaman. Qaryndas pen qara oryn qalghannan son, Kózding jasyn kól qylyp aghyzamyn», – dep keletin  sheksiz qayghygha túnghan sózderi bar «Elim-ay» atty rekviyem-әnmen bederlendi). Basqynshylyq soghys qazaqtardyng toz-tozyn shyghardy. El tonaldy. Jayylym men egistik taptalyp, bosap qaldy, qolónershiler qanaldy, sauda toqyrady, mal basy kýrt kemidi. Júrt bas saughalap bosyp ketti. Qos úly su Ámu men Syr arasyndaghy otyryqshylar da aityp-jetkizgisiz kýizeliske úshyrady. Ashtyqtyng jaylaghany sonday, shejirelerde saqtalghan habarlargha qaraghanda, adamdar ólikterdi jerlemey, jeuge mәjbýr bolghan.  Bayyrghy Búhara, Hiua, Ferghana, Samarqan bosap qalghan. Áskerining soghys qimyldaryn sәtti jýrgizip jatqany haqynda  habar tiyisimen Sevan Rabdan Edil boyyndaghy oirat tuysqandaryna – Qalmaq handyghyna jaushy attandyrady. Ózining әskery joryghynyng nәtiyjesinde qazaqtardy birjola jenip, aldaghy uaqytta Jayyq pen Edilde Ayke hanmen birge jaylaugha shyghudan dәmelenetininen habardar etedi...

Basqynshylardyng qaraqúrym  әskeri ontýstik audandargha tóbeden jay týskendey basa-kóktey kirip, el-júrtty kól-kósir qayghy qasiretke dushar etken «Aqtaban shúbyryndy» tragediyasynyng alghashqy ailarynda qazaq әmirshileri qatty esengirep qalghan. Dúshpan qazaqtardyng basty sayasy ortalyghy Týrkistan shaharyn basyp aldy. Jeniliske úshyraghan el biyleushileri qandy shayqas barysynda  qalany tastap ketuge mәjbýr boldy. Astanada túratyn basqarushy elitanyng kóship ýlgermegen otbastary, solardyng ishinde agha han Ábilqayyr bahadýrding bәibishesi, ógey sheshesi, bauyrlarynyng әielderi tútqyngha alynyp, Jonghariyanyng ishki úlystaryna әketildi. Et-jaqyndarynan airylu óz aldyna, kýlliqazaq astanasy men ólkedegi oghan japsarlas otyryqshy eldi mekenderdin  basqynshy oirattardyng baqylauyna ótui  el aghalaryn qatty kýizeltti. Olardyng jaugha qarsylyq kýresti úiymdastyru mýmkindikterin tómendetip, jigerlerin jasytty. Mine osynday auyr jaghdayda solardyng ishinen tez es jiyp, jaghdaydy aiqyn saralay bilgen jәne tiyisinshe maqsatty is-әreket úiymdastyra alghan jalghyz ghana túlgha qazaqtyng agha hany Ábilqayyr bahadýr boldy. Azattyq ýshin arpalysudyng alghashqy kezeninde ol Aral manyndaghy ru-taypalardyng namysyn janyp, jonghar  agressiyasyn qaytkende keri qaghudy kózdeytin ahual tughyzdy. Ózin sodan bir mýshelden astam uaqyt búryn han kótergen qúmdy ónirdi meken etken barshany otan qorghau isine júmyldyra aldy.  Sondaghy el-júrtynyng qoldauymen qysqa merzim ishinde qazaq jәne qaraqalpaq jigitterinen jiyrma myng sarbazdan túratyn qol úiymdastyryp, jaraqtandyrdy. Áskery ónerge baulydy. Sheshimtal joryqqa dayyndady. Sosyn jer qayysqan qalyng jasaqtyng basyna ózi túryp, jaugha attandy. Biraq ontýstikti, ontýstiktegi qazaq elining bas qalasyn basyp alghan jonghargha emes, soltýstik-batystaghy qalmaq iyelikterine qaray shapty.

Bahadýr han oirattardyng eki qiyrdaghy memleketteri arasynda jýrip jatqan baylanystardyng týpki maqsatyn ne ózining týisigimen boljap, ne barlau retimen jetken týrli habarlar men derekterdi saraptau nәtiyjesinde, aldyn-ala әbden bilip alghan bolatyn. Qalmaq hany Aiykening jonghar qontayshysy bop otyrghan kýieu balasyna kómektesuge tyrysatyny kýmәnsiz edi. Edilding tómengi aghysyndaghy qalmaq pen onyng Ertisting bastauyndaghy týp tuysy jonghar aralaryn alyp jatqan qazaqty baghyndyryp aludy Boshoqtudyng sonau arnayy zandar jinaghyn  qabyldap alghan zamanynan armandaytyn. Sevan Ravdannyng balalary ot-qaruly ýlken armiyasymen tútqiyldan basyp kirip, qazaq elin qansyratqan qazirgi jaghday kókeylerin tesken sol armandaryn jýzege asyrugha әbden qolayly sәt tughyzghan. Jonghardyng ontýstiktegi jenisin bayandy ete týsu ýshin teristikten qalmaqtyng shabuyldauy ghana qalghan. Ashyq dúshpanymen betpe-bet kelgen qazaqtyng tu syrtynan әne-mine soqqy berui yqtimal edi. Ábilqayyr han sonyng aldyn alugha úmtylghan.

Ol qatelespegen edi. Qyz berip, qyz alysyp túrghan búl eki handyqtyng әmirshileri arasynda jekjattyq alys-beris, әngime-súqbattar astarymen 1640 jyly barlyq oirat túqymdary qúryp túrghan handyqtardyng ókilderi qabyldaghan zannamalyq «Iky Saadjin Bichiyk» qújaty sóz bolatyn. Sonda negizdelgen úly jospar eske alynyp túratyn. Sol boyynsha  әskeriy-sayasy odaq qúru mәselesi qaralyp jýrgen. Al 1723 jyly kóktemgi sәtti soghys sony tiyanaqtaudy kýn tәrtibine shyghardy da, Sevan Ravdan Aikege arnayy jaushy jiberip, qazaqtargha qarsy birlesip әskery qimyl jýrgizudi úsyndy.  Ony Aike han yqylaspen qabyl aldy. Izinshe orys patshalyghyna da qolaysyzdyq tughyzyp jýrgen  qazaqtargha qarsy  joryq jasau ýshin ýkimetten ózine ot-qaruly jasaq bóluin ótingen. Alayda jongharlardyng qazaq jerindegi әskery jenisinen habardar reseylik biylik onyng búl soghysqa aralasuyn qoshtamady.  Sebebi Resey ýshin eki qiyrdaghy oirattyng tútasyp kýshenginen góri olardyng arasynda derbes kýsh retinde qazaqtardyng saqtala túruy tiyimdi-tin. Ótken jyly ghana Úly Petr qazaq dalasynyng ózderin shyghys elderine shygharatyn qaqpa ekenin, ony paydalaryna asyru qajettigin aitqan. Eger sol qaqpa zengorlardyng qolastyna týsse – orys ýshin jabylghanmen parapar edi. Sebebi sol shamada Sevan Ravdan ordasynan oralghan Unkovskiy onyng orys bodandyghyn qabyldamaytynyn, kytaymen shekarasyna qamaldar da salghyzbaytynyn jetkizgen. Demek, Aykening Sevan Ravdangha qosyluyna jol beruge bolmaydy. Sondyqtan da oghan búl soghysqa aralaspaghany jón degen sypayy kenes berildi.  Alayda qalmaq hany bәribir alghashqy niyetinen bastarta qoymaghan, óitkeni ol qazirgi jonghar soqqysynan qansyrap jatqan qazaq elin orystyng kómeginsiz-aq jaulap alatyn kýsh ózinde de bar dep biletin. Oirattardyng qanqúily  basqynshylyghy úshyratqan «Aqtaban shúbyryndy, Alqakól súlama» jaghdayynda ol, shynynda, Qazaq handyghyna  eleuli qauip  tóndirip túrghan. Osyny aiqyn ajyratqan Ábilqayyr han jedel de úshqyr jasaqtarymen Syrdyng orta aghysy túsynan Edil qalmaqtaryna qaray shúghyl attanghan edi.

Qazaq hanynyng ýlken qolmen Jayyqqa qaray jasaghan sheshimdi joryghy qalmaq әmirshilerin әbigerge saldy. Olar bitim jasau jolyn izdep, Ábilqayyrdyng aldynan elshi attandyrady. Alayda Aykening senimdi ókiline Ábilqayyr «qalmaqtar men orystargha qarsy soghysugha kele jatqany, jasaghynda qyryq myng sarbazy bary» jayynda ymyrasyz mәlimdemesin jariya etedi. Sonda, imperiyanyng týstiktegi qalqanynyng jaghdayy mýshkildigin paryqtaghan Astrahan gubernatory Ayke hangha kómekke artilleriya komandasy men alty eskadron soldat jiberedi. Biraq onysy ahualdy jaqsarta almaydy. Ábilqayyr hannyng iri әskery kýshi Jayyqqa jetken bette qarsy shyqqan qalmaqtardy alghashqy shayqasta-aq tas-talqan jenedi de, teristikke qaray terendey beredi. Qazaq jasaqtary jenisti sherulerin jalghastyra týsedi. Patsha ýkimeti sol jyldyng sonyna qaray Aykege «imperator úlylyghy mәrtebesimen araylanghan bizding qalalarymyz ben sening – bizding bodanymyzdyng úlystaryna kele jatqan» qazaqtar men qaraqalpaqtargha tosqauyl qoyyp, «qalalarymyz ben ýiezderimizdi talan-tarajgha týsiruge jol bermeudi» tapsyrady. Áriyne, tiyisti әskery jәrdemi de bolady. Nәtiyjesinde, qalmaqtardyng birikken әskerleri qazaqtardyng Jayyq boyyn týgel tazalaugha bet alghan qozghalysyn toqtatady.

1723 jyldan 1724 jylgha qarayghy qys ailarynda eleuli әskery qimyl jasalghan joq, biraq, kóktem kele (1724 jylghy aqpanda Aike han dýnie salady),   Ábilqayyr bahadýr men onyng Eset jәne basqa da batyrlary bastaghan jasaqtar Edil qalmaqtaryna shabuyldaryn janghyrtty. Qalmaqtar Eset batyrdyng jasaghyn patsha ókimeti bergen zenbirekterden atqylay otyryp jendi. Sodan keyin Ábilqayyr hannyng batyrlary qalmaq-orys jerine odan әri joryq jasauyn doghardy. Degenmen, eki jyl boyy oryn alyp túrghan irili-úsaqty әskery qaqtyghystar óz jemisin berdi.1724 jyldyng ortasyna qaray qalmaq handyghy búdan әri qazaq eline búrynghyday qater tóndiruge qauqary jetpeytin kýige týsken edi. Osylay, soltýstik-batys aimaqqa jasaghan joryghy nәtiyjesinde Ábilqayyr han elding teristik jaqtaghy shekarasyn qauipsizdendirip aldy da, shapshang qimyldap daghdylanghan jauynger jasaqtaryn birden Týrkistan qalasy baghytyna búrdy. Úzaq sherude jolshybay kezikken jonghardyng alghy sheptegi beketterin búzyp-jara úrys salyp, kýzde Týrkistangha jetti.  Jau qolyndaghy qalagha birden  tikeley shturm jasap, tez azat etti.  Qazaq әskerining quatty  shabuyly barysynda jonghar qontayshysynyng balasy, tәjiriybeli qolbasshy Lauzan Shono qalany tastay qashyp, Qaratau qoynauyna sheginuge mәjbýr boldy. Al Ábilqayyr qazaq astanasyn bosatysymen, jenisti sheruin kýlli ónirde jalghastyrdy.   Qaharman sarbazdarymen  Tashkentti jәne sol aimaqtaghy dúshpan basyp alghan ózge de qalalardy týgel azat etip, jarty jyldan astam óz qarauynda ústap túrdy. Alayda qazaq jerindegi  jonghar әskerine kóp úzamay qosymsha kýsh kelip qosylghan. Sóitip ólkede basqynshy kýshi basymdyq etken. Sol sebepti, birqatar qantógisti shayqastardan son, 1725 jyldyng kókteminde  Ábilqayyr bahadýr búl aimaqty tastap ketuge mәjbýr boldy. Batyrlarymen birge әueli Búhara handyghy aumaghyna, odan teristikke qaray auysty. Ol sheginisimen, Syr boyy qalalaryn, Jetisudy jyldam jongharlar basyp aldy. Úly jýz biyleushisi Jolbarys hannyng iyeliginde esepteletin ólke Sevan Ravdan qontayshynyng qolastyna qaytadan týsti.  Qazaqtyng Úly jýzining halqy mekendeytin aimaq tәueldilik jaghdayda, jonghar noyondarynyng baqylauynda qaldy.

Búl shaqta teristiktegi jer-su qatynastary taghy da shiyelenisken edi. Soghan baylanysty  Ábilqayyr han 1726 jyly Orta jýz hany Sәmekemen birlesip, on myng jigitten qúralghan qaruly jasaqpen jana joryqqa attandy. Qalmaq tayshylaryn úlystarymen Jayyq boyynan kýshpen quugha tyrysty (jalpy, Ábilqayyr bahadýr qyryq jylgha tarta uaqytqa sozylghan jauyngerlik, qolbasylyq, el biyleushilik  qyzmetinde qazaq memleketining teristik-batys shegin qorghauda jan ayamay shayqasqan, orys patshasy ókimetine «qazaqtar Jayyqtan suy sarqylghansha aiyrylmaydy» dep, esh búljymay, tabandy  týrde әlimdegen kýresker). Jayyqtyng sol jaghalauynda qazaq әskeri jenisti úrysta jýrgizgen edi, alayda ong jaghalauda sany da basym, qaru-jaraghy da ozyq qalmaqtardyng ýsh jaqtan shýilikken shabuyly astynda qaldy. Qorshaugha týsken qazaq jasaqtary tórt kýn boyy jan alyp, jan berise shayqasty. Aqyry jaghdaymen sanasugha tura keldi. Kelissózder jýrgizilip, qos tarap ózara bitimge kelisti. Ábilqayyr han qalmaq jaghyna amanatqa Tama Eset batyr, Tabyn Bókenbay batyr  bastaghan ondaghan sarbazyn berdi. Ras, bitim aldaghy uaqyttarda eki jaqtan da әlsin-әlsin búzylyp túrady, kiykiljindi retteu ýshin odan keyingi jyldarda Sәmeke han qalmaqtarmen jana kelisimder jasaydy. Degenmen,  taraptardyng búdan bylay shekara búzbay, beybit qatar ómir sýru jayynda qol jetkizgen alghashqy uaghdalastyghy arqasynda qazaq әmirshileri sol shaqtaghy jalpy el jaghdayyna naqtyraq kónil bóluge mýmkindik aldy. Ábilqayyr bahadýr qalmaqtarmen eki arada 1726 jylghy kelisimge qol jetkizisimen, Jayyq aimaghyndaghy әskeriy-sayasy qyzmetin ontýstikti jaylap alghan basqynshy jongharlargha qarsy kýresu mәselesine audardy. Otan qorghaugha býkil halyqty júmyldyru qajet edi...

Ábilqayyr han Sevan Rabdannyng qolbasshy úldary bastaghan jonghar әskerining 1723 jylghy qanqúily shapqynshylyghy ekpinine tótep bere almaghanyn eske týsirdi. Keskilesken shayqas barysynda kýlli ontýstik jazirany qazaq elining astanasy Týrkistanmen, sol ónirdegi barsha qalalarymen jau qolyna qaldyrugha mәjbýr bolghanyn, jasaghynyng aman qalghan bóligimen  Qaraqúm aumaghyna auysqanyn esine týsirdi. Sol aimaqtaghy jigitterden jana qol qúryp, teristik-batysqa attanghanyn oiyna aldy. Qansyrap jatqan qazaq elin teristikten shabugha dayyndalghan, sonysymen ontýstik aimaqty basyp alghan jonghar basqynshylarymen tútasuy yqtimal qalmaq shabuylynyng aldyn alghanyn oilady.  Sol әskery sharasynan keyin, 1724 jyly Úly dalany týstik-shyghys baghytynda úshqyr jasaghymen kóktey kesip ótkenin, jolda beket salyp tastaghan jongharlarmen qiyan-keski úrys sala otyryp ontýstikke aimaqqa jaryp kirgenin esine aldy. Ol bir qaharmandyqqa túnghan shaq edi. Agha han bolghaly ordasy tórt qys tórinde ornalasqan qazaq astanasyn jauynger jasaqtarymen sonda jaudan birden tazartqan. Ólkening astana ainalasyndaghy basqynshy ayaghy astynda qalghan ózge qalalaryn, barsha jer-sudy, úzyn sany otyz eki úlysty azat etken.  Biraq aimaqtaghy osynau jenimpaz sheruin, ónirdi qaytaryp alghan qandy shayqastardyng saltanatty nәtiyjesin bayandy ete almady. Alty-jeti aidan keyin,  1725 jyly aimaqty qayta tastap ketuge mәjbýr boldy. Solardy eske týsirip saralay kele, ordasy ornalasqan Týrkistan shaharyn, kýlli qazaq jer-suyn azat etken qalpy túraqty ústap  túra almauynyng sebebin izdedi. Sol sebepti jong jolyn paryqtady.

«Aqtaban shúbyryndy»  saldarynan qalyptasqan jaghdayda eldi, jer-sudy saqtau jәne qorghaugha baylanysty ózining tarihy missiyasyn Ábilqayyr han adal atqaryp kele jatqan. Qaramaghyndaghy әskery kýshting jaujýrektiginde, soghysu ónerine jaqsy mashyqtanghanynda, ondyq, jýzdik, myndyq toptardan jasaqtalghan qúrylymynyng ýilese әreket ete alghanynda kýmәni joq. Ol jauynger sarbazdary men sardarlaryna kinә arta almaydy. Solarmen birge  sauyt sheshpey, attan týspey, jalpaq qazaq dalasyn teristik-batysy men ontýstik-shyghysy aralyghynda әrili-berili kóktey ótip әldeneshe әskery joryqtar jasaghan. Sol jenisti joryqtary barysynda el-júrtqa ózining agha han mәrtebesin is jýzinde moyyndatqan. Endi ol qazaq memleketining basshysy, agha hany retinde, eldi jaudan tútastay azat etu sharasyn jasaugha tiyis bolatyn.  Al búl sharany jýzege asyrudyng kilti dýley basqynshygha qarsy býkil halyqty kóterude jatyr edi. Jenisterin bayandy ete almauynyng sebebi men syry sol kiltti ózining jәne ózimen qosa barsha әmirshilerding uaqytynda dúrys paydalana almaghandyqtarynda jatqan.

Demek, jaugha qarsy bir jaghadan bas, bir jennen qol shygharyp shayqasu mәselesin túnghysh ret halyq ortasyna salghan, ózin aq kiyizge otyrghyzyp han kótergen 1710 jylghy Qaraqúm qúryltayy ispetti jana basqosu úiymdastyru kezek kýttirmeytin shara bolugha kerek.  Agha hannyng múnday kózqarasyn batys pen soltýstiktegi jer-su kiykiljinderin ózimen birge sheshuge atsalysyp jýrgen Sәmeke han birden qoldaydy. Alayda Qazaq handyghynyng ontýstik aumaghy jәne Jetisu ólkesi tolyghymen jongharlar qolastynda jatqan. Sol basqynshy әkimshilikke bodan retinde  týrli alym-salyghyn berip, Tashkent syndy shaharda tәueldilik ahualda kýn kórip otyrghan Úly jýz biyleushisi Jolbarys hangha osy toqtamdy tez jetkizu kerek. Ábilqayyr bahadýr han bekem sheshim jasady. Janghyz oghan emes, eng aldymen eldegi jýzder biylerine (ordabiylerge), aimaqtardaghy barlyq bi, batyr, rubasy, bas adamdargha jәne aqsaqaldargha shúghyl týrde jaushylar attandyryldy...

Ábilqayyr bahadýr elding agha hany lauazymymen qazaq astanasy Týrkistangha ornyqqanynda, batys ólkedegi Kishi jýzge qarasty el-júrt ishinen kóp auyl onyng ordasymen birge sol aumaqqa kóship kelip qonystanghan. Jaz ailarynda agha hannyng kóshpeli ordasy solardyng arasyna – Arys suynyng salasy Badam ózenining alqabyna tigiletin. Sol sebepti de sondaghy Ordabasy atalatyn jerdi 1710 jyldan keyingi jana býkilhalyqtyq qúryltay ótetin oryn etip belgiledi. Sóitip, Ábilqayyrdyng jazghy stavkasy qonys teuip jýrgen Ordabasy biyiginde 18-shi ghasyrdyng alghashqy shiyreginen óte bere, 1726 jylghy qara kýzde, basqynshy jonghargha qarsy kýrespek halyqtyng ahlaqy ruhyn nyghaytqan, tiyisinshe, otan soghysyn jeniske jetkizu ýshin ýsh jýzding birikken qolyn qúrugha bekem baylam jasaghan әigili mәjilis ótti.

Qazaq halqynyng basqynshygha qarsy sheshimdi týrde otan soghysyna shyghuyna baylanysty Tóle bi, Qazybek bi, Áyteke by syndy ýsh úly biyimizding esimderi erekshe qúrmetpen aitylatyny mәlim.  Olar barlyq qazaq ru-taypalaryn jongharlargha qarsy biriktiru mәselesin qarau ýshin Ordabasy qúryltayyn shaqyrdy delinedi. Qalyng búqaramen tyghyz baylanysta boludyng joly retinde, biylikke qara qazaq ókilderin tartu qajettigi Esim hannyng kezinen bastap moyyndalghany belgili. Onyng «Eski jol» atalghan zannamasynyng týpki mәni de sol bolatyn. Sony basshylyqqa alghan Tәuke hannyng túsynda belgili biyler eldi basqaru jәne zandardy sonau «Esim hannyng Eski joly» ýlgisimen jetildiru júmystaryna belsene qatystyryldy. Áygili «Jeti jarghy» osy ýsh jýz biylerining belsene atsalysuymen qabyldanghan. Mine  solar  el basyna kýn tughan kýrdeli tarihy kezende jonghar shapqynshylyghyna el bop birigip qarsy túru úranyn kóterdi.  El sanasyna solay singen. Úly jýzdegi on bir taypany, Orta jýzdegi alty taypany, Kishi jýzdegi jiyrma bes taypany biriktiretin ýsh taypalyq odaqty ortaq mýddege  úiystyrudaghy búl asa kórnekti túlghalarymyzdyng enbegin joghary baghalay otyryp, olardyng úly kenesti ótkizude bas әmirshining bastamasyna say solay әreket etkenin әdilettilik túrghysynan qisyndy kóretinimizdi biz jasyrmaymyz. XVIII ghasyrda sodan búrynghy kezderdegidey daghdymen, býkilhalyqtyq mәjilister men kenester asa joghary dәrejeli biyleushilerding ordalarynda jýrgizilip jýrgenin tarihshylar moyyndaydy. Múnday jiyndardaghy biylerding sózi qashanda ótimdi keletin, biyler ózge shonjarlardan әrdayym basym týsetin. Esim han zamanynan beri han biyligining ózi sol biyler kenesining sheshimine tәueldi bolatyn.    «Aqtaban shúbyryndy» qasireti kezinde әsker bastap qazaq elining teristigine de, týstigine de  azattyq joryqtaryn jasaghan Ábilqayyr hannyng azattyq jolyndaghy kýresti óristetu ýshin kýlli el azamattaryn biriktirudi kózdegende, osynau ataqty biylerding kómegine sýiengeni tarihy shyndyqqa әbden say keledi. Jýzderding handary, jekelegen ru-taypalar men qalalardy basqaratyn kishi handar, súltandar, rubasylar, aimaqtardaghy biyler, aqsaqaldar, ózge de bas adamdar jәne, әriyne, batyrlar bas qosqan qúryltay basqynshydan otandy azat etu ýshin jalpaq el ishinen birikken qol jiidy birauyzdan qoldady. Qazaq birikken әskerining bas qolbasshysy  mindetin agha han Ábilqayyr bahadýrge jýktedi.

Qazirgi qalyptasqan kózqaras boyynsha – qúryltay Kishi jýz hany Ábilqayyrdy agha han lauazymyna emes, bas qolbasshy etip qana saylady delinedi. Múnday kózqarastaghylar qazaqtyng búl kezdegi agha hany Bolat han bolatyn dep sanaydy. Alayda bayypty ghylymy zertteuler Bolat hannyn, birinshiden, agha han emes, Orta jýz hany bolghanyn, ekinshiden, ol «Aqtaban shúbyryndy» bastalghanda dýnie salghanyn aitady. Demek, Bas qolbasshy retinde tandalghan  Ábilqayyr bahadýrdi Ordabasy qúryltayynda agha han mәrtebesine saylaudyng qajeti joq edi, ol búl mәrtebege Tәuke hannyng izbasary Qayyp han qaza tapqannan beri, 1719 jyldan ie bolatyn.  1724 jyldan Orta jýz hany Sәmeke men 1720 jyldan Úly jýz hany Jolbarys ony ózderinen barlyq jaghynan joghary bolghandyqtan da moyyndaghan, kóne meritokratiyalyq tәrtipti basshylyqqa alghan biyler kenesi qoldaghan. Osylay ol jeti jyldan beri agha han sanalatyn. Eger búl bastapqy kezende zaty emes, tek aty ghana bar lauazym sanalsa, sondyqtan da ony júrt tek Kishi jýz hany dep qana qabyldaghan bolsa da, jonghardyng joyqyn shapqynshylyghynan bermengi kýlli qazaq dalasyn sharlap kórsetken jauyngerlik, qolbasylyq enbegi men erligi onyng is jýzinde agha han ekenin dәleldegen edi. Qazaq handyghynda taqta otyrghan әmirshi әdette әskerding de bas qolbasshysy bolatyn, demek, Ábilqayyrgha bas qolbasshylyqty beru – onyng agha han ekenin moyyndaghandyqtan, el ýshin janyn otqa da, sugha da salghan janqiyarlyghyn baghalaghandyqtan jasalghan shara. 1710 jylghy Qaraqúm qúryltayynda da, 1726 jylghy Ordabasy qúryltayynda da ol ózine kórsetilgen senimdi aqtap, han dәrejesi mindetteytin qolbasylyqty adal atqardy.

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Ábilqayyr han ýsh jýzden jinalghan әigili batyrlarmen әskery kenes ótkizip, shúghyl sarbaz jinau, olardy soghys ónerine tezdetip ýiretu, sosyn eldi birtindep dúshpan ezgisinen azat etu josparyn qúrdy. Birinshi kezekte byltyrghy jenisti sheruden keyin qaytadan jau qolynda qalghan astanadan bastap aimaqtaghy barlyq qalalardy jonghar biyliginen qútqaru mәselesi kýn tәrtibine shyqty.  «Ýlken orda qonghan», «Kishi orda qonghan» degen jer ataulary Ábilqayyr bahadýr han men onyng kómekshilerining sol kezdegi azattyq soghysyn basqarghanda әreket etken ortalyqtaryn anghartsa kerek. Birikken qazaq armiyasy atalmysh ordalarda jasalghan soghys josparlaryna say úrystar jýrgizip, ontýstiktegi qalalardy birinen song birin azat ete bastady. Otan ýshin jan alyp, jan beruge beldi bekem bughan sarbazdar azattyq soghysynda talay jenisterge jetti.

Jongharlar qazaq jerining shyghysy men Jetisudy jәne Syrdariyanyng orta aghysy ónirin basyp alghannan son  Úlytaugha qaray bet búrghan. Ordabasy qúryltayy jigerlendirgen birikken qazaq әskerleri Ábilqayyr hannyng qolbasshylyghymen Týrkistan–Tashkent alqabyndaghy ondaghan qazaq qalasyn qaytadan jaudan tazartyp, elding ortalyq aimaghyna bettegen jonghar qolyna sheshushi soqqy beruge әzirlendi. Qazaq batyrlary 1726 jyldyng sonynda jәne 1727 jyly әskery qimyldardy ýilesimdi әri útymdy jýrgize otyryp, Torghay dalasynyng ontýstik-shyghys bóliginde Bas qolbasshy Ábilqayyr hannyng basshylyghymen iri jenisterge qol jetkizdi.  Úlytau manyndaghy Búlanty men Bileuti ózenderining jaghalarynda ótken shayqas el aibynyn erekshe asqaqtatty. Qazaq jasaqtary jongharlarmen әueli Qarsaqpay qyrattarynan bastalatyn sol qos ózen qúiyp jatqan Shúbar-Teniz kóli manayynda soghysqan. Talqandalghan basqynshylar kólden әrmen qashqanda, atalghan eki ózen aralyghyndaghy Qarasiyr (ony «shoqy» maghynasyn beretin Qarasiyre dep te ataydy) jazyghynda olargha qatty soqqy berip, tamasha jeniske jetti. Dúshpan oisyray útylghan búl úrys tariyhqa Búlanty-Bileuti shayqasy degen atpen endi. Osy iri jenis nәtiyjesinde qazaq jasaqtary jonghar kýshin Úlytaugha jetkizbey toqtatty. Shayqasta Qanjyghaly Bó­genbay, Qarakerey Qabanbay, Shaqshaq Jәnibek, Tama Eset, Bәsentiyin Malaysary, Taraqty Bayghozy, Taylaq, Sanyryq, Qabanbay, Derbisaly, Satay, Eset, Jәnibek, Tileuli syndy kórnekti qolbasshylar men kóptegen batyrlar, barsha sarbazdar kózsiz erlik kórsetti. Jongharlar zor shyghyngha úshyrap, keri qashty.

Búlanty-Bileuti shayqasynyng tarihtaghy manyzy erekshe. Óitkeni ata jaudy talqandaghan osynau úrys halyqtyng ensesin kóterip, azattyq ýshin, otan ýshin  kýreske bir jaghadan bas, bir jennen bilek shygharyp  kóteriluge jigerlendire týsti. Qazaq sarbazdary búdan keyin ahlaqy jәne ruhany ýstemdikke ie bolyp, jongharlar basyp alghan jer-sularyn birinen song birin azat ete bastady. Búl 1727 jyl edi. (Sol jenisten keyin jazyqtyng ortalyghyndaghy maydan kindigi bolghan tóbe «Qalmaq qyrylghan» dep atalyp ketti. Búlanty alqabyndaghy býginde «Ýitas» dep atalatyn, qabyrghalary­nyng qalyndyghy qos qúlashtay, kýmbezdep órilgen tóbesi qúlaghan qúrylys osy aituly jenis qúrmetine kezinde salynghan eskertkish bolghan desedi.)  Osy jyly kenetten qontayshy Sevan Rabdan (Syban Raptan) dýnie saldy da, jongharlardyng qazaq jerindegi kýshterine arttarynan qosymsha kómek kelmey qaldy. Búl jaghday belgili dәrejede ruhy kýsheye týsken qazaq jasaqtarynyng jenisti sheruining sәtimen jalghasa beruine qolayly jaghday tughyzghan bolatyn.

Sevan Rabdannyng ólimi handyq ishinde dýrbeleng tughyzdy. Taqqa onyng ýlken úly Galdan Seren (Qaldan Seren) otyrghan. Ol әkesining oida joqta dýniyeden ketuin ógey sheshesi – han taghyna talasuy yqtimal inisi Lauzan Shononyng tughan anasy Seterjab pen sol shaqta Qalmaq handyghynan kelgen elshilerden kórdi. Qatygezdikpen jazalaular jýrgizdi. Sosyn handyqtyng shyghys shekarasyna  nazar audarugha mәjbýr boldy. Onda Siyn-Qytay әmirshileri boghdyhan auysqan (imperator Kansy qaytys bolyp, taqqa Yunchjen otyrghan)  kezdegi uaghdalastyqty jiyp qoyyp, elge qaytadan qauip tóndire bastaghan edi. Soghan baylanysty  Galdan Seren әskerining negizgi kýshin sol jaqqa shoghyrlandyrugha kiristi. Sodan kóp úzamay qytaylyqtarmen qarym-qatynas shiyelenisti de, jongharlar olarmen jana soghysty bastady. Osynday jaghdayda Galdan Seren qazaq jerindegi jasaqtarynyng biraz bóligin jonghar elining shyghysyndaghy maydangha salu ýshin keri shaqyryp alghan.  Búl ahualdy qazaq elining Qaratau óniri men ontýstigindegi jer-sudy basqynshydan tazartu kýresinde jýrgen Ábilqayyr han múqiyat saralaghan da, 1730 jyldyng kókteminde jaugha Anyraqay dalasynda sheshushi soqqy bergen bolatyn. Anyraqay shayqasy qazaq halqynyng XVIII ghasyrda jonghar basqynshylaryna qarsy jýrgizgen Otan soghysynyng eng eleuli belesi, ruhty kóterip, bolashaqqa degen senimdi bekitken jenisti shyny retinde óte oryndy týrde maqtan tútylady.

Júrtshylyq sanasyna sinirilgen mәlimet boyynsha – shartaraptan jinalghan sarbazdardan birikken otyz myndyq qazaq qoly qyryq myndyq jau әskerimen bir-bir jarym aiday uaqyt boyy soghysyp jeniske jetken. Alayda jenimpaz qazaq jasaqtary jýrgizgen shayqastar sonymen dogharylghan, qazaqtar búl soghysty әri qaray damyta almaghan, sebebi «shayqas sonynda Bolat han jaralanyp, qaytys bolghannan keyin» (taghy bir kóp taralghan qisyn boyynsha – «dimkәs Bolat han nauqasynan dýnie salghan son»)  bastalghan «taq ýshin talas» oghan kedergi keltiripti-mis, kópshilik «Bolat hannyng balasy jas Ábilmәmbetti qoldaghan» da, «búghan narazy bolghan Ábilqayyr maydan dalasyn tastap, Kishi jýzding qolyn batysqa,  Orta jýz qolyn Sәmeke han soltýstikke» alyp ketipti-mis. Ghylymy zertteuler búl úigharymdardyng jansaqtyghyn kórsetedi. Birinshiden, jogharyda aitqanymyzday, Bolat han 1723 jylghy «Aqtaban shúbyryndy» bastalghan kezende ómirden ótken. Anyraqay shayqasynan keyin (1730) han saylauyn jasaugha qajettilik tughan joq. Óitkeni soghysty jenisti shynyna jetkizgen bas qolbasshy Ábilqayyr bahadýr әri agha han da bolatyn, onyng ýstine,  Ábilqayyrmen taq talasyna týsip bәsekelesetindey dәreje jas jaghynan da, bedel jaghynan da eshbir kishi handa bolghan emes.  Ekinshiden, «Ábilqayyr men Sәmekening maydan dalasyn tastap» ketui mýldem ózge sipatta jәne basqa jaghdaygha baylanysty oryn alghan.

Qúramyna tarihshy, geolog-geomorfolog, etnograf, arheograf, paleoklimatolog, shyghystanushy, palinolog, geograf ghalymdar engen zertteushiler toby 2005–2007 jyldary Shu-Ile aimaghynyng ortanghy bóligine birneshe ret ekspedisiyagha shyqqan.   Jasaghan dalalyq zertteuleri men izdenisterining nәtiyjelerin birneshe salalyq ghylymy institut qyzmetkerleri qatysuymen óndegen. Sóitip,  ataqty shayqas ótken Anyraqay ónirine keshendi týrde  jýrgizgen arnayy zertteu nәtiyjelerin syndarly ghylymy tilmen enbekterinde bayan qylyp, keybir qalyptasqan pikirlerge syn kózben qaraugha mәjbýr etetin qorytyndylar jasaghan bolatyn. Ekspedisiyalar kezinde tarihy oqigha aimaghy jer betinen, sonday-aq biyikten (úshaqtan) suretke týsirildi, aumaqtaghy negizgi tabighy jәne әleumettik-ekonomikalyq obektilerdi geografiyalyq, geometriyalyq túrghyda kórsetetin ghylymy syzbalar jasaldy. Jer bederi men su kózderining qazirgi syrt keskinine ghylymy zertteuler men esepteuler jýrgizilip, olardyng ýsh ghasyrgha jete-ghabyl uaqyt úshyratqan ózgeristerden búrynghy keypi elestetildi. Jer men meken-jaydyng tarihy ataulary, әr kezgi geografiyalyq kartalar, ólkeni mekendegen taypalardyng túrmystyq jәne mәdeny erekshelikteri, olardyng tirshiligi men qyzmetining bizding zamanymyzgha jetken materialdyq qaldyqtary, búrynghy Anyraqay auyly túrghyndarynyng ekspedisiya mýshelerine bergen aqparattary qarastyryldy.  Solardyng bәrin ólkening әskeriy-sayasy tarihymen tyghyz baylanysta zerttey otyryp, aimaqtyng 1730 jylghy tabighaty men jorymaly beynesin jәne tarihy shayqastyng bas-ayaghy men ótu retin ghylymy әdispen qalpyna keltiru әreketi jasaldy.

Qysqasy, ghalymdar zertteuge alynghan ónirding topografiyasyn, geomorfologiyasyn, landshafyn, paleoklimatyn, arheologiyasyn, tarihy toponimikasyn, kartografiyasy men etnografiyasyn, sol tústa oryn alghan sayasat pen jaugershilikter shejiresin jan-jaqty taldap, zerttey kele, alynghan derekterding pәnaralyq sintezi negizinde, Anyraqay shayqasynyng naqty bolghan jerin, dәl uaqytyn jәne sondaghy oqighalardyng qanday retpen ótkenin,  qazaq әskery jasaqtarynyng Anyraqay tauy audanynda jongharlargha qarsy ústanghan shabuyldau strategiyasy men taktikasynyng ózindik erekshelikterin anyqtaghan. Irgeles ghylymdar ókilderin tarta otyryp  ýilesimdi sipatta jasalghan zertteuler nәtiyjesinde otan tarihyn biluge qúmartushylar tanymynyng kókjiyegin keneyte týsetin tyng janalyqtar ashyldy, solardyng ishindegi biregeyi  Anyraqay shayqasyna qatysty edi. Foliklorlyq derek kózderine qaraghanda, Otan soghysynyng sheshushi shayqasy bolghan  tarihy maydan dalasy Anyraqay jotalary men Alakól jazyghy aralyghynda, yaghniy,  Anyraqay alqabynyng soltýstik-shyghys bóliginde jatyr. Osyny negizge alghan zertteushiler  Anyraqay shayqasynyng tabighy shekarasy ontýstik-batysta – su bóletin sala men Anyraqay (kóne kartalarda – Kýmisti) jotalarynyng soltýstik-shyghys shoqylaryn, batysynda – Qopaly ózeni men Qarakemerding tarmaqtaryn, soltýstik-shyghysta – Beskól alqabyn, al shyghysta – Sarybúlaq ózenining angharyn alyp jatqan 210 sharshy shaqyrymdyq  aumaq dep tapty. Qazaqtardyng jonghar basqynshylaryna kórsetken jalpyhalyqtyq qarsylyghynyng qorytyndy kezenindegi basty әskery qimyldar osy audanda ótti. Áygili shayqas dalasy aiqyn ýshbúrysh týrin elestetetini anyqtalghan. Ýshbúryshtyng tabanynda Anyraqay qyrqalarynyng soltýstik-shyghys baurayy, al qos qanatynda – biyik jarqabaqty Qopaly jәne Sarybúlaq ózenderi jatyr. Eki su ortasyndaghy Beskól alqabynda barlyq qorghanys sharalary eskerilip salynghan myqty bekinisti qamal (qazirgi Qalmaqtóbe) boy kótergen.  (Jetisudaghy osy Qalmaqtóbe kesheni ondaghy qorghanys qamaly men óz әskerining úrys jýrgizuin jenildetudi, al dúshpannyng әreketin qiyndatudy kózdeytin barlyq fortifikasiyalyq qúrylysymen jәne oghan jәrdemin tiygizetin nysandarymen birge túnghysh ret 2005–2007 jyldary tarihshy Irina Erofeevanyng basshylyghymen ashylyp, ishinara zertteldi). «Qalmaqtóbe» jonghardyng ontýstik-shyghys shekaradaghy eng iri qarauyl beketi edi. Ony 1653–1666 jyldary belgili oirat noyony (Salqam Jәngirdi jekpe-jekte jengen delinetin) Galdamba  saldyrghan bolatyn. Osy bekinis pen ýsh taraptaghy tabighy shekaralar sol aumaqty  mekendeushi basqynshylardy qazaqtardyng yqtimal shabuylynan senimdi týrde qorghap túrghan. Tek soltýstik-shyghys jaghy (Qopaly, Qarakemer jәne Sarybúlaq alqaptarynyng eng tómen әri jazyq bólikteri ghana) birshama ashyq, yaghny syrtqy qaruly jasaqtardyng sol jerden ghana  kire aluy yqtimal edi. Bekinisting shyghysynan 8–10 shaqyrymday  jerden Ýlken Qalmaq  joly ótetin. Osynau kósh jәne keruen joly Shu-Ile aimaghynyng ontýstik bóliginen Qazaq dalasynyng batys aimaghy men soltýstik-batysyna qaray sozylyp, Jonghariyany Edil-Jayyq aralyghyndaghy Qalmaq handyghymen  baylanystyryp jatatyn.   Sondyqtan da onyng qazaq ýshin de, qalmaq  ýshin de ýlken әskeriy-strategiyalyq manyzy bar bolatyn.

Jalpy, Shu men Talas ózenderi alabynan  Shu-Ile taulary audanyna deyingi  geografiyalyq kenistikte oirattardyng 19 әskeriy-qorghanys beketi ornalasqan, olar XVII ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynan XVIII ghasyrdyng alghashqy shiyregindegi Jonghar handyghynyng shekaralyq aimaghyn  belgilep, oirat kóshterining negizgi bóligin Qazaq handyghynyng halqy ornalasqan aumaqtardan qorghap túrghan. (Ábilqayyr han basqarghan azattyq shayqastary nәtiyjesinde jongharlardyng alghy shepterindegi әskeriy-qorghanys beketteri alynyp, ónirler dúshpannan tazartylghan, alghys sezimine bólengen qazaq halqy eldi azat etushi bas qolbasshygha rizashylyq bildirip, osy ónirlerdegi talay jer-su attaryn Ábilqayyr esimimen atap ketti). Qazaq jerine salynghan jonghar bekinisterindegi qaruly jasaqtargha әskerbasy etip qontayshy Galdan Seren ózining kýieu balasy Laszan Serendi 1728 jyldyng ortasynda taghayyndaghan. Birikken qazaq әskeri Otan soghysynyng Anyraqay maydanynda sol tәjiriybeli jonghar qolbasshysy basqarghan basqynshylargha qarsy sheshushi shayqasqa shyqty. Jogharyda aitqanymyzday, qytay-jonghar qatynasy qayta shiyelenisip, 1729 jyly Sin imperiyasy  Jonghar handyghyna qarsy jana soghys ashqan. Sondyqtan handyqtyng әmirshisi Galdan Seren (Qaldan Seren) qontayshy 1730 jyldyng basynda qazaq aimaghyn meken etken halqy ishinen  soghysugha qabiletti oirattardyng kóbin asyghys týrde ontýstik maydangha shaqyrugha mәjbýr boldy. Jetisudaghy әskeriy-qorghanys beketterinde sany shaghyn qarauyl jasaqtaryn ghana qaldyrdy. Osynshama qolayly ahualdy qazaq elining ontýstiginde azattyq kýresin jýrgizip jýrgen Ábilqayyr han paydalanyp qalugha tyrysty. Ayaldamastan, әskery kýshterin Shu-Talas ózenderi aralyghynan Ontýstik-Batys Balqash many audanyna baghyttady. Sóitip, 1730 jylghy sәuirding basynda, jonghardyng qazaq jerindegi әskeriy-sayasy jýiesining Beskól (Qalmaqtóbe) forpostyna qazaqtardyng birikken qoly sol kezgi әskery ilim-bilimning  ozyq tәsilin qoldana otyryp shabuyl jasady.

Qazaq jasaqtary Anyraqay ýshbúryshyna soltýstiktegi basty danghyl bolyp tabylatyn Ýlken qalmaq jolymen emes, qarama-qarsy eki baghyttan (Balqashtyng ontýstik-batys jaghasy men Shu alqabynan) keldi. Shabuyldyng negizgi maqsaty  Anyraqaydyng soltýstik-shyghys búryshyndaghy Qalmaqtóbe bekinisine shoghyrlanghan 5-6 myndyq jonghar әskerin qorshap alyp, joyyp jiberu bolatyn. Bas qolbasshy Ábilqayyr han sheshushi shabuylda qoldanghan әdisinde halyqtyng kópghasyrlyq dәstýri bar «dala soghysy» orayyndaghy әskery oigha, onyng «andy jan-jaghynan qaumalap aulau» tәsiline sýiengen-tin. Jauyngerlik soghys qimyldaryn әigili qazaq qolbasylary men batyrlary qatysqan ýsh atty jasaq jýzege asyrdy. Olardyng ekeui  Sarybúlaq pen Qopalydaghy jaugha ótkel boluy yqtimal jazyq tústardy torydy әri Qalmaqtóbe bekinisin shabuyldady. Shaqpaqty, bilteli myltyqtarmen atqylay otyryp,  әueli dúshpannyng qamalyn  basyp aldy, sosyn bekinisting manyna toptasqan jәne ony tastap shyqqan oirattardy tyqsyra quyp, taugha qashugha mәjbýr etti. Qashqan jaudy Anyraqaydyng ortalyq shatqaldaryna bekingen sadaqshylar qarsy aldy...

Búl 1723 jylghy «Aqtaban shúbyryndygha» úryndyrghan joyqyn shapqynshylyqtan beri tynymsyz jýrip kele jatqan, 1726 jylghy Ordabasy qúryltayynan keyin airyqsha serpin alghan Otan soghysyndaghy sheshushi shayqas boldy. Osy aumaqta qazaq halqy, qazaqtyng ýsh jýzining sarbazdarynan qúralghan halyq jasaghy basqynshy-jongharlardy birjolata jendi.  Bayyrghy kýshti de qaharly qarsylasyn osyghan deyin jaulap alghan qazaq jerinen quyp shyqty. Sóitip, azattyq jolyndaghy qiyndyghy mol kýrdeli qaharmandyq dastandy is jýzinde saltanatty jenispen ayaqtady. Iri jenisti bayandy etu ýshin birikken qazaq әskerining bas qolbasshysy Ábilqayyr han 1730 jylghy sәuirding sonynda jonghar qontayshysy Galdan Serenmen beybit kelisimshart jasady. Sol aktimen «Aqtaban shúbyryndy» qasiretinen beri órshy ýsken qantógisti azattyq kýresining shyrqau shynyna ainalghan Anyraqay shayqasyn qorytyndylap, 1723–1730 jyldarghy Otan soghysyna jenisti nýkte qoydy.  Búl jenis qazaq halqynyng jauyngerlik ruhyn nyghaytty, halyqtyng etnostyq birligin, tútastyq sezimin jәne óz eline degen sýiispenshiligin, jýzder, ru-taypalar arasyndaghy auyzbirshilikting manyzyn  arttyrdy.

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