Dýisenbi, 15 Shilde 2024
Bilgenge marjan 3432 5 pikir 22 Tamyz, 2023 saghat 12:55

Tatar da, monghol da beytarap elder

Úly daladaghy alyp imperiyalardy qúruda olardyng eshqanday  qatysy joq.

Juyqta Ukraina elining tanymal ghalymy, tarihshy Bobrovskiy Timur Anatolievichtin, kezindegi Altyn Orda imperiyasy turaly bergen súhbat -  maqalasyn oqyp shyqtym. Sony, bizding qazaq oqyrmandary bilsin degen maqsatpen, keybir tústaryn audarmay, sizderding nazarlarynyzgha úsynyp  otyrmyn.

– 750 let nazad, byl proveden Talasskiy kurultay, na nyneshney territoriy Kazahstana, po rezulitatam kotorogo Ulus Joshy (Zolotaya Orda) obrela polnuy nezavisimosti. Etot istoricheskiy kurultay byl proveden v 1269 godu v doliyne reky Talas, gde-to na styke sovremennogo Kazahstana y Kyrgyzstana. Tam praviytely ulusov Joshy (Jolshy), Chagataya (Shaghatay) y Ugedeya (Ýkitay) – a iymenno Mengu-TimurBorakiy Haydu – priznaly drug druga suverennymy praviytelyami, zakluchiv soiz protiv velikogo hana Hubilaya (Qúbylay) na tot sluchay, esly on ne priznaet ih samostoyatelinosti.

IYmenno, poetomu Talasskiy kurultay 1269 goda, inogda nazyvait «Belovejskoy pushey» XIII veka: po ego itogam prekratila svoe sushestvovanie edinaya imperiya Chingishana, kogda-to obrazovavshayasya  na territoriy nyneshnego Kazahstana. IYmenno togda Djuchiyev ulus (on je Ulug Ulus – Velikiy Ulus, on je Zolotaya Orda) okonchatelino stal nezavisimym gosudarstvom.

Krome togo, v Atyrauskoy oblasty nahoditsya gorodiyshe Sarayshyk - odna iz stolis Zolotoy Ordy, gde byly pohoroneny ordynskie hany Tohta y Azi Janiybek, a pozje – kazahskie hany Janiybek y Kasym. Eto, kstati, toje vesima simvolichno. Y sam gorod Atyrau mestnye jiytely eshe v sovetskoe vremya nazyvaly ne «Guriev», a Uyshiyk (Ýishik). Tak nazyvalsya drevniy zolotoordynskiy gorod nepodaleku, iz kirpichey kotorogo yaiskie kazaky potom postroily Guriev.

 V dobavok, eshe hotelosi by skazati chto, Kazahskoe hanstvo, 550-letie kotorogo my otmetily v 2015 godu, ne obrazovalosi «na pustom meste», a vyshlo iz edinoy «matrisy» Zolotoy Ordy – vmeste s   Astrahanskiym, Sibirskiym, Krymskim hanstvamy y Nogayskoy ordoy.

Odnako delo ne toliko v dinas­ticheskoy preemstvennosti. Po mnenii ryada vedushih spesia­listov, etnogenez kazahskogo naroda v osnovnom sostoyalsya kak raz v zolotoordynskiy period, y na moment raspada Ordy nedostavalo toliko sovremennogo nazvaniya «qazaq», kotoroe poyavilosi pozje, v svyazy s ryadom politicheskih obstoyatelistv.

Odnako uje togda sushestvoval praktichesky edinyy kochevoy narod Desht-iy-Kipchaka, ot kotorogo napryamui proishodyat sovremennye kazahi, nogaysy y karakalpaky – try etnosa, vo vseh otnosheniyah chrezvychayno blizkie drug drugu. 

Pervyy sobstvenno kazahskiy istoriyk, kak izvestno, Kadyrgaly Jalairi. Ego kniga «Jamigat-tavariyh» – pervyy kazahskiy istoricheskiy trud, eto ocheni zolotoordynskaya kniga po soderjanii: ona pokazyvaet pryamui svyazi Kazahskogo hanstva y Zolotoy Ordy, daet vnutrenniy vzglyad na ee istorii.

Otdelino stoit upomyanuti mavzoley Joshy-hana v Ulytau. Tak «sluchayno», no vesima simvolichesky poluchilosi, chto on nahoditsya v samom geografiches­kom sentre Kazahstana.

Nastoyashee istoricheskoe nazvanie etogo velikogo evraziyskogo gosudarstva – Úlyq Úlys, Ulug Ulus (Velikiy Ulus). IYmenno tak ono iymenuetsya vo vseh turkskih pisimennyh istochnikah – kak sobstvenno ordynskiyh, tak y vneshniyh. Ya polnostiu soglasen s mneniyem teh spesialistov, kotorye schitait, chto u nas predpochtiytelino ispolizovati iymenno eto nazvanie – Ulug Ulus (Velikiy Ulus ily Velikoe Gosudarstvo).

Nauchnaya obrabotka y izdanie pamyatnikov zolotoordynskoy liyteratury, a takje populyarizasiya ordynskogo kuliturnogo naslediya na mejdunarodnoy arene – dve kluchevye zadachi. IYmenno tak my mojem razbiti staratelino sozdannyy v svoe vremya stereotiyp, soglasno kotoromu Zolotaya Orda byla yakoby «varvarskiym» gosudarstvom («paraziticheskiym», po opredelenii Iosifa Stalina), kotoroe nichego ne sozdavalo, a lishi razrushalo.

Eto gluboko lojnoe predstavleniye, dlya razrusheniya kotorogo neobhodimo prosto informirovati obshestvo o realinoy istoriy y bogatoy kuliture Velikogo Ulusa – blago materiala predostatochno.

Esly je seriezno, to vse dannye foliklora, etnografii, arheologii, politicheskoy istoriy y daje genetiky odno­znachno y ubediytelino pokazyvaiyt, chto kluchevym formativnym periodom v istoriy kazahskogo etnosa byla iymenno epoha Zolotoy Ordy.

IYmenno Zolotaya Orda yavlyaetsya promejutochnym skreplyaIYshim zvenom mejdu istoriey Kazahskogo hanstva y bolee drevnimy plastamy nashey istoriy – kipchakskiym, drevneturkskiym, hunnskiym…

V sovetskiy period iymenno iskusstvennoe iziyatie etogo zvena porodilo selyy ryad teoreticheskih problem v kazahstanskoy istoriografiy – prejde vsego lishiv ee selostnosti, prevrativ v «razbitoe zerkalo».

Maqala, naqty tarihy derekterge negizdelip, tereng jazylghan. Sonymen  qatar, Úly imperiyalardyng shyqqan aumaghyn jәne uaqytyn asa dәldikpen  kórsetken. Sonday-aq, kóp tarihy mәlimetterdi, qarapayym tilmen, tigisin  jazyp, qatardaghy oqyrmandar týsinetindey saraptap, taldap, jetkizgen.

Al endi, Edil men Kama ózeni aralyghyn mekendegen kezindegi Bulgar, qazirgi   tatarlargha keleyik.

«Úly adamnyng kólenkesine, beyshara qúmar keledi!», - deydi aghylshyn  maqaly.  

Búl ataqty aghylshyn maqalyn ne ýshin keltirip otyrmyz? Bizding aitayyq degen oi-pikirimiz ótken ghasyrdan beri, qazirgi tatar eli (bulgarlar) men monghol júrty (buryattar) Shynghys han men onyng úrpaqtarynyng óz uaqytynda qúrghan Úly qaghanattary men Altyn Orda imperiyasynyng daqpyrtyna ne ýshin qyzyghady jәne nelikten talasady?! Kezinde, Europalyq ataqty  sayahatshylar men saudagerlerding jazyp qaldyrghan múralaryndaghy ketken qatelikterin sezse de, nege týzetuge, shyndyqty orynyna keltiruge  úmtylmaydy? Sebebi nede?! Álde, búl  últtardyng ishinen, osy әlemdik  taqyryptardy tereng zertteytin, bilimdi, sauatty, payymy ken, nening ne ekenin shynayy anyqtay alatyn, óreli, ghalymdardyng shyqpaghany ma? Óz elderine aqiqatty anyqtap, týsindiretin, ketken qatelikting mәn-maghynasyn ashyp aitatyn, shyndyqty moyyndaytyn, daryndy ghalym, jazushylardyn,   túlghalardyng bolmaghany ma?

Aldaghy kezenderde bolmasa, qazirgi uaqytqa deyin shynymen de bolmaghany ghoy! IYә, shynynda da solay sekildi. Tatarlar, týrki elderi bolyp  sanalghanymen, Resey elindegi bashqyr men yakuttargha qaraghanda, әperbaqan,  ózgening jetistigin kóre almaytyn, óte qyzghansha el. Áriyne, jamandap, kir  jaqqyng kelmeydi, degenmen, shyndyqty búrmalap, aqiqatty joqqa  shygharatyndyghy, adamnyng kóniline kirbing týsiredi.

Áytpese, qazirgi tatar eli, kóne zamannan bulgarlar ghoy! Búl pikirimizdi naqtylau ýshin, myna bir dәlelderdi keltire keteyik:

Búlardyng tarihyna qarasan, osy tatarlar, sonau, 1753 jәne 1755 jyldary býkil Kama boyynda, ózining kóneden kele jatqan últtyq atauyn qaytaryp alu jóninde, orys imperiyasynan talap etken, kóterilister úiymdastyrady. Alayda, eshqanday nәtiyje shyqpady. 1922 jyly shyqqan M.Hudyakovtyng «Musulimanskaya kulitura v Srednem Povoljie» atty kitabynda «Massa sovremennyh kazanskih musuliman y v nastoyashee vremya ne schitaet sebya tatarami, a zavet sebya bolgaramiy»,- dep jazypty.

Sonday-aq, 1926 jyly býkil odaqtyq sanaq kezinde, sol kezenderde bir jarym millionday bolatyn osy kýngi tatar eli  ózderin bolgarlarmyz dep kórsetken eken. Degenmen, sol tústaghy tong moyyn Kenes Odaghy olardyng talap-tilegin, ótinishi men súranysyn qanaghattandyrmady.

Tipti, 1552 jyly Ivan Groznyy Qazan qalasyn jaulap alghan kezde de, qazirgi  Edil jәne Kamalyq tatarlar Bulgar júrty dep atalynghan eken. Ony, A.Bushkov «Chingishan, neizvestnaya Aziya» atty kitabynda bylay deydi:  «...Posle zavoevaniya Kazany Ivan Groznyy prisoedinil k dlinnomu spisku svoih titulov eshe y «knyazi Bolgarskiy» - ne «tatarskiy», a iymenno chto bolgarskiy».

Kórdinizbe, Altyn Orda imperiyasynyng jaulap aluy kezinen keyin de, ghasyr ótse de, búlar әli de bolgarlar, nemese bulgarlar dep atalynghan. Al endi, qazirgi kýnderi, búl Povoljielik el, búrynghy ózining kiyeli, tarihy atauy bulgarlardan aiynyp, tatar sózine jabysyp qalghan. Tipti, keybir ghalymdary (aty-jónin keltirmey-aq qoyayyn)  bizding qazaqtargha qaratyp: «Esly vy skajiyte, chto Zolotaya Orda nasha,  to poluchiyte moshnyy udar» - deydi kýshenip. Netken aqymaqtyq. Al,  búlar talay ghasyrlar boyy, orystyng bodandyghynda jýrip (bes ghasyrdan asa) elimizge óstip kýsh kórsetedi. Býitip kýshengenshe,  odansha ózderining tәuelsizdigin alyp alsyn.

Qos kenistikti birneshe ghasyr bodandyqta ústap túrghan Altyn Orda imperiyasynyng iyesi biz degendey kýpsinedi. Al, sóz arasynda aitar bolsaq, «tatarlar» degen sózdi, óz kezinde Kәri qúrlyqtyng Úly dalany mekendegen kóshpeli qypshaq taypalaryna qaratyp aitqany belgili.  Ózining myndaghan jyldyq tarihy bar, kóneden kele jatqan bulgar atauy, búlar ýshin týkke túrghysyz bolyp qaldy. Osynday da el bolady eken-au dep oilaysyn. Olardyng tatardan búryn, tek qana  bulgar ekendigin, Altyn Ordanyng olargha eshqanday qatysy joq ekendigin, qazirgi kezde sauaty bar, (dýmbilezder ghana bolmasa) kóp nәrseni ajyrata bastaghan ainaladaghy elderding kópshiligi biledi.  

Sol sekildi, ózi shókimdey ghana monghol júrty, Reseyding buryat elimen tútas bir últ. Ony, orystyng zertteushi ghalymy, akademik V.A.Fedorov ózining enbekterinde bylay deydi: «V sovremennoy Mongolii, hotya oni  nazyvait sebya mongolami, faktichesky ony prinadlejat narodam Buryatii. Kogda-to russkiye  ustanovily granisu, narod buryat raskololsya na dve chasti, lesnye y stepnye (qazirgi  Halhalyqtardy aitady). U nih obshie tradisii, obychai, yazyk y daje odinakovaya odejda. Oba naroda very buddy. Ih naselenie ocheni malochislenno, - dep keltiredi. Qazirgi monghol aumaghynda óz uaqytynda Qytay elinin  birneshe korolidikteri men úzaq ghasyrlar boyy jaghalasyp kele jatqan soltýstik qalmaq handyghy, keyinnen olardan qyrghyn tapqan son, bos qalghan dalagha birtindep kelgen buryat malshylary. Búlar, osy aumaqqa  on besinshi ghasyrdyng ortasynan bastap kele bastaghan. Olardyn  «monghol» ataluy mýlde bólek oqigha jәne tarihta ketken qatelik.  Osylardy týpkilikti ajyratyp alu kerek.

Bizding aitarymyz, býkil әlem moyyndaghan, Úly daladaghy azuly  qaghanattar men imperiyalar Ortalyq Aziya elderinin, әsirese, qazaqtardyng ata-babalarynyng altyn tarihy ekendigin týsinuimiz jәne  úmytpaumyz kerek. Búl  shynayy shyndyq. Tek, elimizding biyligi, Resey  men Qytaygha jaltaqtay bermey, Shynghys han imperiyasynan bastap, Úlyq Úlys - Altyn Orda imperiyasyn resmy týrde moyyndap, sheshim  shygharuy qajet-aq. 

Anau, qasymyzdaghy ózbek aghayyndar, osydan talay jyl búryn,  Shaghatay men Ámir Temir imperiyasyn, halqymyzdyng altyn tarihy dep moyyndap, shyndyqqa jaqyn kelmese de, qauyly qabyldap, әlem  elderine jar salghanyn bilemiz. Men osy kýnge deyin, eshbir әlem  ghalymdarynyn, Shaghatay men Ámir Temirding Úly qaghanatyn, tek qana  ózbektiki degenin osy kýnge deyin kórgen de, oqyghan da joqpyn.   Osylardy kórip jýrip, elimizding qadirmendi biyligi! Osy uaqytqa deyin  nege sheginshektey beretindigin shynymen de týsinbedim. 

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