Senbi, 20 Shilde 2024
Ádebiyet 2819 0 pikir 24 Qazan, 2023 saghat 14:42

Mamyttyng shoshqalary

(Etnografiyalyq әngimeler)

Mamyttyng shoshqalary degenimiz - akademik jazushy Ghabit Mýsirepovting әigili «Talpaq tanauynyn» ózi bolatyn. Áytse de úqsastyqtarynan góri ózgesheligi kóbirek ekeni de anyq.

Men 1962 jyly Shiynjiyang uniyversiytetining dayyndyq bólimin tәmamdap jazdyq demalysqa auylyma barghan edim, kóp ótpey Nýrәbdin degen sabaqtasymmen birge jaylaugha baryp, qymyz iship, jana oqu jylyna kýsh jinap, seruendeuge jolgha shyqqanbyz. Bizding elding jaylauy eki ýlken kezendi asyp baratyn Jylandy, Kóksay bolatyn. Biz Jylandydaghy jazyqqa keshtetip jetip edik. Shildening tolghan aiy býkil tau-dalany jarqyratyp keshki samal janyndy jadyratyp, erekshe bir kónil-kýy syilap túrghanday.

Jaylau, qazaqtyng jaylaugha degen mahabbaty men ansar armany qanday edi?! Jyl 12 aidyng tóresi mausym, shilde, tamyz qazaqtyng búl kýnderi әlemdi sharlap sanatoriya, kurort izdep sandalyp ketken újymaghyna belgisiz asa qasterli ailary edi. Bizding bala kýnimizde Jaylaugha kóshuding saltanaty men mashaqaty kóz aldymnan kólbep ótip jatty. Jaylaugha qazaqtan búryn onyng tórt týlik maly asygha malshylargha baghynbay qasha bastaghanda sonynan kósh ilesetin. Jaylaudyng tolghan, bolghan shaghyndaghy qúlpyrghan say-saladan bizder raughash izdep, әsirese toqpaqbas (әli japyraqtap ashyla qoymaghan)  balghyn raughashty jarysa, talasa, tyrmysa izdeuding ózi óz aldyna bir merekelik kórinistey edi. Qiya bette móldirep tizilgen qoy býldirgenderdi attan týse salyp, auyz toltyra asap ashylaushy edik. Al, qara joldyng jiyegindegi basbarmaqtay qonyr aralardyng balyn alu ýshin qiyaqtar men top shiyleuitterding týbin týrtip qalsang boldy osy kýngi shaqpaqty (Qazaqsatan) shokolady siyaqty taqtalanghan úyashyqtardyng ishindegi tandayyndy jaratyn qon baldar móldirep túratyn. Al, әigili Qas ózenine deyingi 10-15 shaqyoymdyq miday jazyqtaghy qolmen ekkendey samsyghan býldirgenderdi atpen keship ótkende attyng shashasy qyp-qyzyl bolyp qalushy edi. Sol baylyqtyng qadirin qazaq bilmey alghashqy saryghyn basysymen úmytyp ketetini búl kýnderi ózimizdi de tang qaldyrady.

Al, qaraghay, qayyng arasyndaghy badanaday tanquraylardy da kәdege jaratudyng bar shamasy toya jeumen ayaqtalady. Qysqa dayyndyq degen qazaqtyng esine kirip te shyqpaydy.

Sol bir әdemi jәili saparymyzdyng berekesin ketirgendey bir jabayy  búryn-sondy kóz kórip qúlaq estimegen qara ala shoshqalar qorsyldap atymyzdy ýrkite berdi. Joldyng eki shetindegi jayqalghan shópti jerding qorys-qopasyn shygharyp, attarymyzdy sýrindire bergeni óz aldyna myna, qara ala donyzdardy jatyrqap:

- Nýke-au, myna qaptaghan qara ala pәle búl jaqta bolyp kórmegen edi ghoy,- degenimde, ol qarqylday kýlip:

- Aleke, búl ózinning auyldasyng Mamyttyng shoshqalary ghoy. Mamyttyn  shoshqasy Mamyt ataluynyng tarihyn biletin shygharsyn, dedi.

Osy sóz mening esime búdan 10-15 jyl búrynghy bir qasiretti oqighalardy  esime týsirip qiyalgha berilip kettim.

Shamamen 1951 jyldyng kóktemi bolar, Tasqorghandaghy Shylby atam saldyrghan ýlken meshitting ong jaghyndaghy qoryqty jaghalay egilgen  aghashtardyng aghashyn arqanmen kermelep júma namazgha jan-jaqtan kelgen   adamdardyng jýzdegen attary baylanushy edi. Biz sol adamdardyng attaryn da, ózderin de tamashalap meshitting aldy-artynda jýgirip jýretinbiz. Júma namaz oqylyp bolghannan keyin arttaryna qaray jýnkiletin namazhandar búl joly oryndarynan qozghalmay otyrghan jerde otyra berdi. Sóitsek onyng mәnisi mynada ekenin sonynan estip bildik.

Ol kezde, qazaq otyryqtasa qoymaghan,  tau saghalap, kýngeyden jer toshala jasap, sonda qysty ótkizetin. Osy ónirdi mekendegen qyzaydyng Esenkeldi atasynan taraghan Maman, Qojabergen, Qazymbet, Amyrsana rulary kóbinshe qysty osylay ótkizetin. Al, biz es bilgen kezde jylqyshylar qysty kiyiz ýide ótkizip, kóktem shyghysymen jazyqqa jamyray qonystanatyn.

Kedey sharualar sol kezde aghayyndaryn saghalap, kókteu, jaylauda kórshilesip kóship-qonyp jýretin. Biz sóz etkeli otyrghan Mamyt Terektining kýngeyindegi jer kepesinde basqalardan úzaghyraq otyrady eken.

Namazgha jinalghan qazaqtar birden gu etip:

- Áne, alyp kele jatyr, qara jýzding ózi enirep jylap kele jatyr,- desip jatty.

Sonymen Mamytty meshitting aldyndaghy alangha aparyp mening atam Jýnis Álimahúnnyng aldyna jýginte otyrghyzdy. Qolyndaghy bir bumany jerge qoyyp, syrtqy oramdaryn sheshe bastady. Ishinen qobyrap qytaydyn  qyzylkýreng aqshalary shashylyp jatty. Sóitsek, isting jayy mynaday eken.

Mamyt óte kedey balaly-shaghaly adam bolghandyqtan angha túzaq qúryp, bala-shaghasyn asyraydy eken. Kýnderding bir kýninde onyng qúrghan qaqpanyna   әidik qaban týsip qalypty. Mamyt oilana kele, qabandy shoqparymen úryp óltirip, moynyna arqan salyp, sýiregen boyy tayaudaghy qytaydyng jana ghana qonystanghan dihanshylyqpen ainalysatyn 12-shi polktyng ashanasyna alyp baryp bergen aqshasyn dorbagha orap alghannan keyin ony qayda júmsaryn bilmey qatty oilanady.

Músylmandyq sharighat boyynsha jeuge búiyrmaghan haram donyzdyng aqshasyn júmsap bala-shaghasyna haram jegizuge dәti barmaydy. Bir buma aqshany qayda qoyaryn bilmey jer kepesine әkelip eshkimge kórsetpey tyghyp qoyady. Biraq, Mamyttan maza ketip búl haram aqshany qalay halaldaudyn  amalyn tappay bir tuysqandaryna aityp qoysa kerek. Ol tuysqannyng da ishine syimaghan haram aqshanyng әngimesi taghy bireulerge jetedi.

Eng ayaghynda búl әngime meshittegi Jýnis atamnyng ainalasyndaghy mәzimder men imamdargha jetkennen keyin biz aityp otyrghan júma kýngi namazgha jinalghan adamdar aldyna Mamytty әkelip, tergeudi úigharady.

Mamyt jylap enirep shyndyqty aitqannan keyin qasyna qosylghan adamdarmen baryp, jer kepedegi tyqqan jerinen alyp kelip, otyrghan kezi eken.

Sharighat ókimi dep, haram aqshany paydalanuyna bolmaydy dep, sol jerde órtep jiberedi de Mamytty dәret alghyzyp, qolyna Qúran ústatyp, qasam ishkizedi, sóitip Mamytty kýnәdan tazartyp, qaytadan músylman qylyp, óz qatarlaryna qosady.

Býgingi adamdargha kýlkili bolyp kórinetin osynau tragiyg-komediyaday  oqighanyng ol zamannyng adamdary ýshin óte auyr, asa ruhany kýizelisti jaghday ekenin eskeruimiz kerek.

Býkil memlekettik biylikti qolyna alghan qytay kommunisteri osyghan deyin kózi kórip, qúlaghy estimegen sauatsyz qazaqtar «Kompartiya, kommunist, sosializm, tap kýresi, ateizm» deytin ýgit-nasihat úrandaryna eltip, auyl auylda birneshe adamdyq partiya úiymyna mýshe bolyp, biylikke aralasa bastady. Dәl sol tústa kompartiya mýshesi bolghan Oqas, Mәjit qatarly úr da jyq belsendilerge «Partiyalyq tapsyrma, kommunisterding oryndamasa bolmaytyn mindeti» dep tórt týlik maldy bes týlikke ainaldyru ýshin  kommunister bas bolyp shoshqa ósirudi jolgha qoi kerek bolady. Biraq ol shoshqany qaydan, qalay әkelip, kim baghady degenge kelgende sholaq belsendi kommunisterding eshqaysysy auzyn asha almay bir-birine kózining astymen sýze qarap daghdarady. Uaqyt zyrlap ótip jatyr, jogharydaghy kommunist basshylar búlardy qyspaqqa alyp «Eger partiyalyq tapsyrma oryndalmaytyn bolsa, partiyadan quylyp, zang boyynsha jazalanasyndar» degen zildi eskertpening tegeurinine tótep bere almay, әr nәrseni bir aita kele  auyl bastyghy Oqas auylnay qatyny úl tapqanday qasyndaghy eki-ýsh kommunisterge:

- Oi, aghayyndar, men onyng amalyn taptym, tek qisynyn tauyp, iske kirisu kerek Búl shoshqany qolymen ústap, saudalaghan Mamyt aghamyz bar ghoy, sol kisige barlyq jaghdaydy týsindirip, bizdi myna qiyametting qyl kópirindey bolghan pәleden qútqarugha kómektesse, oghan barlyq jaghdaydy jasap, elden onasha  myna Aqtastyng etegindegi nu toghayly Sulysaydyng eteginen ýy salyp beremiz. Bizge baghugha beriletin on toraydy sol Sulysaygha aparyp qoya beremiz, Mamyt shoshqa baqqan bolyp, sol Sulysaydyng auzynda otyra beredi. Auyldyq ókimetten tiyisti jalaqysyn beretin bolamyz, sóitip ógiz de ólmeydi, arba da synbaydy. Jogharghy basshylar da tynysh, biz de tynysh bolamyz.

Sonymen, Mamytpen atalas, rulas Oqas bastaghan kommunister momyn Mamytty aitqanyna kóndirip, kónilderi jәy tabady. Sulysaydyng etegindegi shúrayly jazyqqa ózining janashyr aghayyndaryn asarlatyp eki bólmeli qorjyn tam salyp berip, Mamytty kóshirip aparghannan keyin Kýnes ózenining arghy betindegi Qytaydyng «12-shi polk» ósirip jatqan shoshqanyng erkek, ýrghashy aralas 10 torayyn 10 qapqa salyp, polkting bir arbakesh әskerimen  Sulysaygha alyp keledi de, qaptan toraylardy shygharyp qoya beredi. Sonymen kompartiyanyng tapsyrmasy oryndalghan sholaq belsendiler partiyalyq tapsyrmany mýltiksiz atqarghan bolyp, kónilderi jәy tabady. Bir qyzyghy, Mamyt aqsaqal ol toraylardy sodan keyin baqpaq týgil qarasyn da kórmepti. Nuly, suly  shúrayly jerge tez ýirengen toraylar ósip-ónip kóbeye kele say-salany qualap, býkil jaylaugha jayylyp, jabayy shoshqalarmen budandasyp kóbeygen shoshqalar biz kórgen qara ala shoshqalar, sol on toraydan taralghan maqúlyqtar eken.

Solay bolsa da búl donyzdar, Mamyttyng shoshqasy, Mamyttyng qorasy, Mamyttyng shoshqa baqqan jeri atalyp, el auzynda qaldy. Sol bir haram donyzdyng zardaby momyn Mamyt pen onyng otbasyna adam nanghysyz qayghy-qasiret әkelgeni, ol tek Mamytqa ghana emes, barlyq qazaqtargha qatysty qasiret bolatyn.

1950 jyldan bylay qaray Shyghys Týrkistandaghy barlyq biylikti óz qoldaryna alghan, jýz myndaghan qaruly qyzyl armiya men jýz myndyq gomiyndandyq qytay armiyasyn qarusyzdandyryp, «óndiris qúrylys armiyasy» arqyly baqylauyna alghan qytay kommunisteri Ospan batyr qozghalysyn janyshtaghannan keyin, endi jergilikti halyqty qalay basqaru kerek degendi arnayy talqylap, qúpiya qauly qabyldap, jer jerdegi qytay basshylaryna «óte qúpiya» degen belgisi bar qújattar taratady, ondaghy eki mәselening basyn asha aitu «Mamyttyng shoshqasynyn» bar qúpiyasyn ashyp bergendey bolady.

Qúpiya qújatta birinshi, jergilikti halyqqa araq ishkizip, temeki tartqyzudy atalghan óndiris qúrylys armiyasynyng araq zavodtarynda óndirilgen araq-syralardy óte arzan baghamen kadrlargha, jastargha satyp, boyyn ýiretu, ekinshi, Qytay kompartiyasy arnayy úiymdastyrghan «birlik sap» (Nazarbaev jalaulatqan Qazaqstan Halyq assambleyasy tәrizdi) atty mekeme arqyly baylar men qoja, tórelerdi moldalar men óner adamdaryn basqartyp jylyna bir, ne eki ret eki-ýsh ailap audan, oblys avtonom rayon ortalyqtaryna sayasy ýirenu deytin tergeu, tekseru isimen ainalystyratyn .

Ár jyly olargha sol kezdegi qol jete bermeytin sóknә, barqyt, shibarqyt, torghyn-torqa, shaqpaq qant, shәy salynghan qaltanyng qaq ortasyna eki bótelke araq qosyp syilyq beretin jәne qansha ekeni esimde joq, ailyq retinde aqsha tólep túratyn. Mening Jýnis atama berilgen sonday bir syilyqtyng arasyndaghy araqty kórip, shoshynghanynan ne isterin bilmey, aqyry kishi әieli Býbishke ózenge aparyp tasta myna pәleni, eshkim kórmesin degenine kuә bolyp edim. Qytaydyng ejelden bergi elbasylaryn qymbat tauarlarmen paralap, hanshalarymen arbap, aldarqatu sayasatyn kommunistik Qytayda jalghastyryp jatqandyghynyng bir dәleli edi.

Qúpiya qújattyng taghy bir súmdyghy, auyl-qystaqtarda kishigirim dýkenderdi  kóptep salyp, araq-sharap saudasyn qyzdyra otyryp, «dinge erkindik» beremiz dep, shaghyn meshitterdi salugha  rúqsat beru arqyly ýlkender, dindarlar meshitke baryp qayta bersin. Al, araq sharapqa toyghan jastar ýide olarmen jaghalasyp, aitysyp it rәsua bolyp jata bersin. Kәriler ólip bitedi, meshitke barar adam da qalmaydy, al jastar oiyna kelgenin istep, aghayyngershilikten ketedi. Ókimet sonda búl halyqty myltyqsyz-aq basqaryp, aitqanyn istetetin bolady,- dep atap kórsetilgen.

Men búl pәleli qújattyng mazmúnyn sol tústa asa belsendi bolyp, kompartiya ýshin qyzmet etken bir adamnyng aituynan estip janym týrshikken edi. Men kuә bolghan 50-60 jyldardaghy qazaqtarymnyng dinnen, dilden, tilden ajyrap it rәsuamen ómir sýrip azyp-tozghanyn jaqsy bilemin.

Mamyt aqsaqaldyng 5-6 úl, qyzy bolushy edi. Olar bayaghy 57 jylghy Aqtastyng bauyryndaghy qorjyn tamda  elden oqshau ómir sýrip, 1958 jyly jappay újymdastyru nauqanynan keyin de shoshqasy Mamytqa taghayyndalghan jalaqymen ómir sýrip, 70-shi jyldary sol qorjyn tamda dertke shaldyghyp, úldary araqqa berilip, irip-shirip ólip tausylghandyghyn aityp júrt jaghasyn ústaghanyna talay ret kuә boldyq.

***

Mening Jýnis atam diny sauaty óte joghary dindar adam edi. Minezi óte júmsaq, eshkimge dauys kóterip, aighaylaghanyn estimegen ekenmin, al biraq sharighat josyndaryna qighash keletin әrqanday әreketke jol bermeuge baryn salatyn. Mamyttyng shoshqasyna baylanysty qatang ókim shygharghany siyaqty bayaghy ataman Dutovtan qalghan aq orystardyng bizding auyldyng tómengi jaghyndaghy toghaydan shoshqa aulap, auyl syrtyndaghy qara jolmen alyp qaytqanyn kórgennen keyin, qatty nazalanyp, ýlken-kishi, bala-shaghagha quray tergizip, orystar ótken qara jolgha shashqyzyp, «alastaymyn» dep ot qoyyp, ol órtke ainala jazdap jabylyp, әreng óshirgenimiz esimde.

Jýnis atamnyng qatty ashulanghanynyng taghy bir kuәsi esimde qalypty. Biz kishkentay balalar otau ýy men bizding ýiding arasyndaghy shaghyn alanqayda balshyqtan kerim tam túrghyzyp, ýy salyp, soqamen jer jyrtqansyp oinap jýrgenimizde Jýnis atam «týie keri at» dep atalghan atymen qasymyzgha kelip qalghanyn oiyn qyzyghymen bayqamappyz.

- Áy, myna nәisaptar, ne súmdyq bastap jatyr, mynau ne súmdyq, mynau onbaghandar nege mal baghyp, atqa minip oinamay, jer shúqylap, qaydaghy jaman yrymdy qaydan, kimnen ýirengen. Jer shúqylap qalasyndar, jer shúqylap, balalardyng oiyny qanday bolsa, olardyng bolashaghy dәl sonday bolady deushi edi, - dep atymen bizding oiynshyq ýilerimizdi taptap, qol jetken bir-ekeuimizding arqamyzdan osqylap kete bardy.

Shynynda, balalardyng qanday oiyn oinauy, olardyng bolashaqta qalay ómir sýruining nyshany ekenine  búryn da, býgin de kuә bolyp kele jatqanymyz shyndyq qoy. Býgingi balalardyng aluan týrli atys qarularymen qarulanyp, atysyp-shabysyp jatqanyn kórgen sayyn Jýnis atam esime týsip, endigi ertenimizding qalay bolaryn oilaghanda janym týrshigip, shoshynamyn.

***

Men songhy ret 1965 jyly ózimizding bayyrghy jaylauymyzgha shyghyp, on shaqty kýn el aralap, jer aralap «halyq kommunasy» malshylarynyng arasynda bolyp edim sonda bir tang qalghanym kók jaylauymyzdyng say salasynda Mamyttyng jortyp jýrgen qaraala da, kókala da shoshqalaryn kóre almadym. Qasymdaghy adamdardan:

- Mamyttyng shoshqalary qayda ketken, kórinbeydi ghoy degenimde olar maghan tang qalghanday:

- Oi, Aleke, Mamyttyng shoshqasy kóp pa, ishki Qytaydan kelgen qara napos ash, aryq qytay kóp pe? Bәrin solar tauysty ghoy. Ol, ol ma Qarasulardaghy týni boyy shulap jatatyn qyzylqoltyq baqalar da, ózenderdegi balyqtar da, sauysqannan basqa qústar da joq bolugha ainaldy ghoy, - dep qynjyla aitqandary esimde.

***

Men 1961 jyly audan ortalyghy Bestóbedegi orta mektepti bitirip, oqugha attanarda audan ortalyghyndaghy partiya, ókimet oryndarynda júmys isteytin sanuly qytay kadrlarynan basqa qytaylar bolmaghan edi. 1988 jyly aragha 21 jyl salyp elge barghanymda Kýnes audanynda 115 myng qazaq, 135 myng qytay azamattary túratyndyghyn estip, qayran qalghanymda Mamyttyng shoshqalary men an-qústyng joq bolyp bara jatqanynyng sebebin anyq bildim. Al, odan bergi 40 jylgha tayau uaqyttaghy qazaqtarymnyng qanday ortada, qalay ómir sýrip jatqanyn kóz aldyma elestetsem janym týrshigedi, amal ne? «Kóp qorqytady, tereng batyrady» degen ataly sózding búljymas aqiqatyn moyyndaugha mәjbýrsin.

(Jalghasy bar)

Álimghazy Dәulethan

Jazushylar Odaghynyng mýshesi

Abai.kz

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