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Almaty qalasynyng jer silkinisi tarihy turaly

Kollaj: Aikyn.kz

JER SILKINISI DEGENIMIZ NE?

Jer silkinisi – jer betinde ýnemi bolyp túratyn qúbylys. Ol kezde jer kenetten vertikaldy jәne gorizantaldy terbeliske týsip, jer betindegi taulardy qúlatady, ýilerdi qiratady, adam ómirine qauip tóndiredi. Jer betinde jylyna quaty 5 balldan joghary 1000-nan astam jer silkinisi tirkeledi. Al, arnayy qúraldar jylyna 100 mynnan asa әlsiz terbelis signaldaryn tirkeydi eken. Sonyng ishinde jer sharynda jylyna quaty 7 balldan asatyn 100-ge juyq iri jer silkinisteri oryn aluda.

Jer silkinisi jer astynda 10 000 metr (10 km.) terendikte jatqan jerasty qatty qabattarynyng (plitalar) qozghalysynan payda bolady. (Keyde búl terendik 700 km‑ge deyin jetui mýmkin). Al, qabattardyn  qaqtyghysu nýktesin «epiysentr» dep ataydy. Jer betindegi eng qatty silkinis epiysentr ýstinde ótedi. Eger ol 10 ball bolsa, odan 20 km qashyqtyqta silkinis kýshi 7 ballgha deyin tómendeydi eken. Sondyqtan, geologiyalyq zertteuler nәtiyjesinde jer qabattarynyng qaqtyghys aimaqtaryn «jer silkinisi bar qauipti amaqtar» dep begileydi. Búl – jer betindegi qúrylystar saluda, basqa da qazba júmystary, ne, gidrokeshenderi qúrylystarynda normativter boyynsha eskeriledi. Mysaly, ol normalar boyynsha Almaty qalasyndaghy ýilerding jobasy  7‑9 balldyq kórsetkishterge eseptelip salynyp, ol әkimshilik tarapynan qatang baqylauda boluy tiyis. Al, ol búzylghan jaghdayda, barlyq jauapkershilikti taraptardyng zang aldynda jauap beruine tura keledi.

ALMATYNYNG JER SILKINISI TARIHYNAN DEREKTER

1887 jyldyng 27 mamyry kýni týninde búrynghy Vernyy qalasynyng (qazirgi Almaty) túrghyndary kóktemning songhy kýnderinde taudan soqqan salqyn samalgha rahattanyp, shyrt úiqygha ketedi. Olardyng qaperinde esh alandaushylyq bolmady – kýndelikti tirlikting nobayy osy. Sodan, úiqynyng eng qatty shaghy – «tang úiqysy» bastalghan sәtte, 28 mamyrda tanghy saghat 04:35-te joyqyn kýsh jerding astan‑kestenin shygharady. Úiqydaghy qalyng júrt ne bolyp jatqanyn úgha qoymady. Eki jýzden astam adam qatty jaraqattandy. Qalada 1799 kirpish ýy men 839 aghash jәne saman ýiler qirap qaldy. Jalpy qiraghan audan 2000 kv. km bolghan.  Jer silkinis oshaghy Vernyy qalasynan 12 shaqyrym Alatau bókterinde 60 shaqyrym terendikte oryn aldy. Búl apatta qaladan jәne qala manynan  568 adam  úiqydan oyanbaghan kýii qaza tapty. Sonyng ishinde jýzden astam bala ólimi tirkelgen. Búl – Almaty qalasynyng jer silkinisi tragediyalyq tarihynyng eng auyr bir paraghy.

Osydan keyin, búl jer silkinisining sebepterin anyqtaugha Peterburg tau‑ken institutynyng professory Ivan Vasilievich Mushketov Vernyigha shaqyrylady. Ol osynda kelip, ózining janyna belgili arhiytektor P.M.Zenkovty, Almatydaghy әigili baudyng negizin qalaghan E.O.Baumdy jәne  K.A.Larionovty qosyp, zertteu júmystaryn bastaydy. Almatydaghy alghashqy seysmograf qúraly 1989 jyly satyp alynady.

Sodan keyingi ýsh jylda – 1890 jylgha deyin qazirgi Almaty aumaghynda 600-den astam orta jәne kishigirim jer silkinisi bolghan eken. Osynyng bәrin esepke ala kele ghalymdar  «Jer silkinisine tótep bere alatyn ghimarattar saludy ghylymy tәjiriybege negizdeu Erejesin» 1888 jyly Jetisu oblystyq Basqarmasynda qabyldatady. Osy Erejege say barlyq qúrylys júmystarynda jer silkinisi qauipsizdigi basshylyqqa alynady. Ol ózin ózi aqtady: 1889 jyly 1 shildede bolghan Shelek jer silkinisi kezinde, 1910 jyly 22 jeltoqsanda bolghan Kemin jer silkinisinde – qala oghan tótep berdi.

«Shelek jer silkinisi» ‑ sonau Pavlodar qalasyna deyin jetti. Vernyida taghy da ýiler qirady. Al, odan keyingi bolghan «Kemin jer silkinisi» (1910) tipten joyqyn boldy. Onyng quaty Peterburg GhA akademiygi, geofizik B.B.Golisinnyng anyqtaynda Rihter shkalasy boyynsha 8,2 balldy qúraghan. Búl endi naghyz joyqyn silkinis! Biraq, osyghan deyingi qúrylys erejesin saqtaghandyqtan, búl joly qaladaghy qirau әldeqayda az bolghan eken. Ol jer silkinisinde 452 adam qaza tauyp, 74 adam jaraqat alghan. 1094 ýy qiraghan, al tauly aimaqtaghy qazaqy auyldarda 4545 qazaq ýy qúlaghan jәne 13 000 bas mal basy shyghyn bolghan. Sol jer silkinisinen aman qalghan jarqyn eskertkishting biri retinde býgindegi Almaty qalasynyng kórkin keltirip túrghan Zenkov Kafedralinyy Soboryn (Voznesenskiy sobor) aitsaq bolady.

1910 jylghy jer silkisinen keyin A.P.Zenkov bylay dep jazdy:

«Men óz qalamnyng bolashaghy ýshin, sonyng ishinde Jetisu ónirinin  seysmikalyq bolashaghy ýshin qoryqpaymyn. Men  oghan senemin. Men jaqyn bolashaqta bizding әsem qalada birneshe qabatty tastan, betonnan jәne basqa berik materialdardan kórikti ghimarattar salynyp, qalagha kórik beretinine esh kýmәndanbaymyn».

Býgingi Almaty qalasynyng kólemi men ondaghy qúrylys masshtabyn búrynghymen salystyru esh mýmkin emes. Qazir Almaty ýlken megapoliske ainalghan. Túrghyndar sany әldeqashan eki millionnan asyp jyghyldy. Álemdik tәjiriybe osynday alyp qalalardaghy jer silkinisteri auyr zardap әkeletinin kóretude. Oghan Qytaydaghy, Týrkiyadaghy, ótken ghasyrdaghy Qarabahtaghy jәne t.t. jer silkinisteri kuә bola alady.

Sondyqtan,  Qazaqstan Ýkimeti Almaty qalasy әkimdigimen birlese otyryp, Almaty qalasynyng túrghyndarynyng qauipsizdigi turaly arnayy Baghdarlama jasauy kerek dep sanaymyz. Sóitip, Almaty qalasy әlemdegi jer silkinisi men onyng zardaby, adamdardy qútqaru jóninen jinaqtalghan barlyq seysmologiyalyq ozyq tәjiriybeni elge әkelip, ózine endirui qajet dep sanaymyz.

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