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Alashorda 16456 4 pikir 13 Shilde, 2015 saghat 18:50

QAZAQ PEN QALPAQ BIR TUGhAN

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Qaraqalpaq (Tolaghay) halqy qazaqtarmen san myndaghan jyldar boyy bir tuys, bir tudyng astyndaghy halyq. Olar qazaq eli qúramynan, Kenester odaghy kezinde Stalinning búiryghymen alynyp, Ózbekstangha kýni keshe ghana (1936 jyly) berildi. Sonau tarih týpkirinen beri qaraqalpaq pen qazaqtyng atamekenderi Aral tenizining jaghalaulary, Amudariya men Syrdariya ózenderining tómengi jaghy bolyp tabylady. Qaraqalpaq halqyn qúraytyn taypalardyng qúramy da qazaqtarmen birdey: ýisin, qanly, kypshaq, arghyn, kerey, nayman, alshyn, qonyrat t.b. bolyp tabylady. Tilderi de bizben birdey. Qaraqalpaqtyng belgili aqyny Berdaq ózining «Shejire» atty dastanynda eki elding tuys ekendigin bylaysha jyrlapty:

 «Anes, Maliyk-ikky kishiy,

Payghambardyng sahabasy,

Anes qazaqtyng balasy,

Shunnan «Alash» bolghan eken.

Malikting uly Razy haq,

Yashlyghynda qoydy gulpak,

Kiygen eken karakalpak,

Shunnan «kalpak» bolgan eken». Búl jyrdyng maghynasy «Anes pen Mәlik, ekeui de qazaqtyng balasy. Mәlikting balasy Razynyng bas kiyimining atauyna baylanysty, onyng úrpaqtary «qaraqalpaq» atalghan» deydi.

Núrym aqyn:

«Bir tughan Qazaq, Sozaqty

Qazaq pen Qaraqalpaghyn

Birge tughan ar jaghyn» — dep týiedi. (Ó.Ozghanbay «Úly Besin» Almaty 2010 268 b.)

«Týmennen Ayyrqalpaq-ty,

Ayyrdan Qazaq, Sozaq-ty,

Sozaqtan Qaraqalpaghyn,

Qazaq penen Qalpaghyn

Tumalas bolad arjaghy» (Úzaqbay Qazjanúly (1897-1976)

«Syban menen Ózbek-ti,

Sybannan tughan er Qalpaq

Er Qalpaq úlyn súrasan,

Qazaq penen Sozaq-ty.

Sozaqtan tughan jarandar

Qara mynau Qalpaqty,

Qazaq penen bir tuyp,

Horezmde qalam dep,

Ózi izdeydi azapty (Ábubәkir Kerderi. «Joldas bolsang jaqsygha mәrtebege jetesin» Aqtóbe-2011. 161 bet).

«Mayqy biyding balasy,

Jiyen menen Ózbekti.

…Balasy sol jiyenning qazaq, sozaq,

Sozaqtan jeke tudy aiyrqalpaq,

Balasy Ayyrqalpaqtyng Qaraqalpaq:

O daghy birtalay el jatqan jalpaq.

Qaraqalpaq balasy ýsheu eken:

Qonyrat, Manghyt, Keneges» (Ybyray Aqún Qúlbayúly «Altyndy Orda qonghan jer» Aqtóbe-1994. 12 bet).

«Tuypty Qazaq penen Sozaq birge

Ákesi Ayyrqalpaq bir deydi ana.

Sozaqtan Tolaghay men Sýiir tuyp,

Mekeni atalady eken «bes qala»,

Ýrgenish, Tórtkýl, Shymbay, Taqtakópir,

Qonysy Tolaghaydyng tap sol ara.

Tolaghay әuelde aty bolghanymen,

Atanghan Qaraqalpaq bara-bara (Sh. Júbanúlynyng shejiresi. Hamit Madanov «Kishi jýz shejiresi». Almaty, 1994. 13 bet).

Qazaqtyng ejelgi anyz, ertegi, shejirelerindegi kóp aitylatyn әigili Tolaghay (alyp) batyrdyng eli (úrpaqtary) osylar.

Jalpy qaraqalpaq halqy bizben tuys, kezinde san ghasyrlar boyy, tipti kýni keshegi 1936 jylgha deyin olar qazaq qúramynda boldy.   Olar qonyrat, on tórt ru degen birlestikterden túrady. Qonyrat birlestigi óz kezeginde shuulyq (9-8 ru) jәne jauynger (7 ru) bolyp bólinedi. On tórt ru da eki topqa bólinedi: birinshisi qytay men qypshaq (qytay-qypshaq), ekinshisi – keneges pen manghyt (keneges-manghyt).

Búl jerde noghay men qaraqalpaqtyng úqsastyghy ekeu — qypshaq pen keneges, sonday-aq manghyt rulary. Sol siyaqty qazaq-qaraqalpaq úqsastyghy da ekeu – qypshaq, qonyrat, sonday-aq qonyrat ishindegi manghyt pen qytaydyng qosyndysy – manghytay.

Qazirgi Qaraqalpaq jerindegi Ámudariyanyng bir salasy Qazaqdariya dep atalsa, Qazanketken   atty eldi meken, Qarabauyr, Qarajar, Qaraózen atty mikrotoponimder bar.

Búdan shyghatyn qorytyndy qazaghy da, noghayy da, qaraqalpaghy da bәri bir halyq, Shynghys han odan da arghy san myndaghan jyldar búryn qúrylghan qazaq memlekettigine qaraghan elder.

«Qaraqalpaq halqynyng qúramyndaghy qazaqtyng beldi rulary ýisin, balghaly jәne qayshyly (jalayyr), qanly, qaramoyyn (qypshaq), ashamayly jәne shereushi (kerey), baghanaly, teristamghaly, qara-kerey jәne sadyr (tórteui de naymandar), baybaqty, aday, sumúryn, berish jәne taz ( beseui de alshyn)» (M.Tynyshbaev «Qazaq halqynyng tarihyna qatysty materialdar» Tashkent-1925. 27 bet).

«Ózimizden airylghan qaraqalpaq degen el bar. Ol tipti qazaq atanghan song airylghan. Olar Syrdariyagha baryp, ornyghyp, búrynghy sart atanyp túrghandarmen birge sart atanghan» (Sh.Qúdayberdiúly «Týrik, Qyrghyz, qazaq hәm handar shejiresi» Orynbor-1911. 65 bet).

Jalpy týrik halyqtarynyng tegi (týbi) bir ekendigin jәne olardyng bәri Manghystaudan bastau alatyndyghyn aighaqtaytyn basty derekterding biri «Alpamys batyr» dastany bolyp tabylady. Jyrda aitylatyn oqigha jelisi Manghystauda bolyp ótken. Soghan sәikes jyrdyng dýniyege kelgen jeri de osy Manghystau. Jyrdaghy attary atalghan jer, su, tau, eldi meken ataulary әli sol búrynghy kýiinde Manghystauda saqtalghan. Búl jyrdy (epos pen ertegiler sikli) Qazaqtar men qaraqalpaqtar «Alpamys», ozbekter «Alpamysh», bashqúrttar «Alpamypi pen Barsyn Hyluu», tatarlar «Alpamsha», altaylyqtar «Alyy Manash», qyrghyzdar «Manas» dep ataydy. Búl epostyng barlyq (oghyz, qonyrat, qypshaq) núsqalarynda da, olardyng payda bolghan uaqyty aitylmaydy. Alayda jyrdyng Deshti Qypshaq dalasynda payda bolyp, damyghany anyq angharylady.

Alpamystyng qonyrat taypasynan shyqqany eposta aiqyn kórsetilgen, tipti batyr shyqqan Laqay ruy da kórsetiledi. Eposta Qonyrat taypasynyng Orta jýzge jatatyny, sonday-aq osy taypagha birikken rular sany otyz eki («otyz eki ata qonyrat») ekeni de aitylady. Epostaghy mәlimetterge sәikes, Alpamystyng shyqqan tegin bylay dep esepteuge bolady. Eposta Arystan bab turaly aitylady, anyzdargha sәikes, ol músylmandar dýniyesinde ataghy mәlim, әuliyelik jәne dindarlyq qyzmetimen әigili Qoja Ahmet Iassauiyding ruhany ústazy bolghan. Eskerte ketetin jaghday ekeui de bir ónirde, yaghny Núq payghambardyng kemesi toqtaghan jerde ghúmyr keshkenderimen aralaryn birneshe ghasyrlar, tipti mynjyldyqtar bólip jatyr.

Onyng kesenesi (búryshtarynda tórt múnarasy bar eki kýmbezdi) Ontýstik Qazaqstan oblysynyng Qyzylqúm audanyndaghy Qogham selosynyng manynda, Arys ózenining Syrdariyagha qúyar saghasynda ornalasqan. Eposqa qaraghanda, balasy joq Baybórige úly Alpamys pen qyzy Qarlyghashtyng dýniyege kelui turaly basqa әuliye-әnbiyelermen birge Arystan bab ta ayan bergen.

«1936 jyly bolishevikter (Moskva) Qaraqalpaq Avtonomiyalyq Respublikasyn (165 myng kv. km) Qazaq SSR-inen eshqanday negizsiz, zansyz tartyp alyp ózbekterge qosty. Olar qaraqalpaq halqynyng búl jayly ne oilaytynymen sanasqanda joq. Al, bizder ózbekke emes, qazaqqa tuys halyqpyz. 14 jeltoqsan 1990 jyly Qaraqalpaq ASSR-y Jogharghy Kenesining sessiyasy «Tәuelsizdik Deklarasiyasyn» jariyalady. Biraq bizdi Tashkent zorlyqpen ústap otyr. (Ernazar Konyratov. Press sekretari Partiy nasionalinogo vozrojdeniya Karakalpakstana» Erkin Karakalpakstan». freekarakalpakstan@gmail.com 15.03.2008).

«Ózbek óristes el,

Qyrghyz qonystas el,

Qaraqalpaq qaryndas el,

Týrikpen tamyrlas el». Halyq sózinen.

Qaraqalpaqtar Kenestik Mәskeu biyligining zorlyghymen qazaqtan bólingen eng songhy tuys el.

 

Múhambetkәrim Qojyrbayúly,

Manghystau

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