Júma, 12 Shilde 2024
Alashorda 9196 1 pikir 20 Qarasha, 2015 saghat 22:38

ABAY JAZGhAN ZANNYNG QADIRENE QAShAN JETEMIZ?

Eng alghash qoldanyla bastaghan qazaq qauymy ókilderining óz zerdesinen tughan túnghysh zang núsqasy – Tәuke hannyng jeti jarghysy sanalyp keledi. Dese de qazaq dalasynda túnghysh jaryq kórgen pravolyq qújat 73 baptan túratyn «Ereje» dep atalatyn zang núsqasyn Abay jazyp, Semey oblysynyng Qaramola deytin jerinde bes duan elining biyleri sezinde qabyldanyp, bekitilgenin bilsek te, terendep, dendep zerttey almay kelemiz. 

Semey guberniyasyna qarasty bes oyazdyng biy-bolystary, el biyleushi aqsaqaldary bas qosqan Qaramola jәrmenkesinde, 1885 jyldyng mamyr aiynda ótken tótenshe sezine biyl 130 jyl tolyp otyr. Qazaq handyghynyng 550 jyldyq mereytoyyna túspa-tús kelse de, Úly aqynnyng 170 jyldyq mereytoyy qarsanynda  taqyrypqa súranyp túrghan búl aituly shara turaly eshqaysysy tis jarmady. Qazaq handyghy, qazaq tarihy jayly ne bir telearnalar, basylym betteri túshymdy habar bere almady. Qazaqstan boyynsha joghary oqu oryndary men arnauly oqu oryndary Abaydyng 170 jyldyq mereytoyy qarsanynda әrtýrli is-sharalar ótkizip jatqanymen qazaq tarihynda oiyp ornyn alatyn mereyli Qaramolada jazylghan ereje jayly jaq ashpady. 

Qazir kez kelgen oqu ordalarynda zang fakulitetteri men arnayy zang turaly ghana bilim beretin jetekshi oqu oryndary  da ýndemedi.  Qazaq tarihynda Sherbeshnay sezi, Shar sezi, Qaramola sezi siyaqty birneshe ataugha ie tarihy oqigha býgingi tәuelsiz Qazaqstanda óz baghasyn aluy zandylyq qoy. Diplom júmysy kezinde, ghylymy zertteu júmystaryn jýrgizu kezinde taqyryp taba almaytyndar búl jóninde bilmeytin de shyghar. Áytpese Sәken Ózbekov, Salyq Zimanov syndy birer ghalymnan keyin nazardan tys qalghan Abaydyng qayratkerlik qyzmetindegi júlyndy salasy osy «Qaramola erejesi». Búl «Erejenin» 1886 jyly Qazaq uniyversiytetining baspahanasynda arab әrpimen basylyp shygharylghan múqiyat týptelgen shaghyn kitapsha týrindegi bir danasyn belgili jazushy Ghabit Mýsirepov ghúmyrynyng songhy kezinde Qazaqstan Ortalyq memlekettik arhiyvine tabys etken. Qújatpen birge belgili qalamger Sapar Bayjanovqa tómendegidey hat joldaydy: «Sapar, 1885 jyly Qaramolada bes duannyng sezinde qabyldanghan erejeni berip jiberdim.

  1. Eskishe biletin biletin bireuge týgel jana alfavitpen kóshirtip alarsyng da bastyryp shyghararsyng (kóshirmesin múqiyat qarau kerek bolar)
  2. Ereje әueli oryssha basylghan, Qazaq uniyversiytetining arhiyvinen sol týpnúsqasyn da aldyrghanyng dúrys bolar.
  3. Búl óte maghynaly nәrse ghoy, eki tilde de basylyp shyqqany ýlken enbek bolar edi. (Basqa kórshiles bauyrlarymyzda búnday zang qabyldanbaghan ghoy).

Abay aryzyn aldym. Rahmet.

Ghabit Mýsirepov. 21.11.85.

R.S. Kóshirgende tatarsha teksting ózin qazaqshalaghan dúrys bolatyn shyghar.Gh.M.» Ótken ghasyrdyng ayaghynda Qazaq qalasynda arab әrpimen basylyp shyqqan qazaq tilindegi túnghysh pravolyq qújat Qazaqstan Ortalyq arhiyvining qyzmetkerleri B.Bayghaliyev pen J.Ahmadiyevting kýshimen qazirgi qazaq әrpi men әdeby tiline iykemdey kóshirilip, 1992 jylghy Abay jurnalynyng №3 sanynda túnghysh ret jariyalandy.

1885 jyly Qaramola degen jәrmenkede birneshe duan elding ol kýndegi әdeti boyynsha bas qosatyn Sherbeshnay sezi bolady. Osyghan Abay da keledi. Semey oblysyna qarasty bes uezding sezine Abay by emes, Shynghys bolysynyng «Qúrmetti qazaghy» retinde shaqyrylghan. Búghan atalghan sezdi qabyldaghan Erejening sonyna jazylghan tizimdegi aty-jóni dәlel bolady. Orayy kelgende aita ketuimiz kerek, ghalym Beysenbay Baghaliyev «Abay ómirbayany arhiv derekterinde» atty kitabynda: «Qúrmetti qazaq» el úghymyndaghy auyldyng syily aqsaqaly, kez kelgen bedeldi adamy emes, jergilikti әkimshilik tarapynan úsynylyp, Dala gubernatory bekitetin – ataq-dәreje. Búl dәreje ókimet aldynda erekshe enbegimen kózge týsken qazaqtargha ghana berilgen» – deydi. Búl uaqytta Tobyqty ishinde Abaygha jau bolyp shyqqan kisiler, ózderin ishtey niyettes, tilektes bolatyn kisilerdi basqa elderden de tauyp alghan bolady. Búryn Abaydyng ózge syrt eldegi dostary kóp bolsa, sol dostarynyng qarsysynda jýrgen jaularynyng barlyghy da endi Tobyqty ishi jiktelip alghanda shúrqyrasyp kelip, op-onay Abaydyng Tobyqty ishindegi jaularymen tabysyp, solardyng qarasyn kóbeytip, tabyn molaytady.

Sherbeshnaygha jiylghan toptyng ishinde osy siyaqty Abaygha qastyq niyet oilaytyn kisilerding barlyghy Qaramolagha keletin jandaraldan Abaydy jazalaytyn qattylyqty kýtedi. Abay aidalar dep te ýmit qylatyndar bolady. Sonymen Jandaral kelip tobyqty ishindegi kisilerin jaghalay jýrip, әrqaysysymen tanysyp kele jatyp, Abaygha kelgende; «Partiyashyl, el býldirgish  Qúnanbaev senbisin?» deydi. Abay «men» depti. «Nege partiya qylasyn?» degende; «Jalghyz men partiya qylmaymyn, dýnie týgel partiya, jandy-jansyz maqúlyqtyng barlyghy da alys-tartyspen tirshilik etedi. Dýniyedegi tirshilik kýres, partiya tirshiligi, әueli óziniz de partiya qylasyz» deydi. «Seni el nege kóp jamandaydy?» degende: «El kóp, men jalghyzbyn, kóp әrqashan tentek, búzyq, búzyq kóppen alysqan jalghyz jamanatty bolmay túrmaydy. Qay qauymdy alsanyz da, jaqsysynan jamany kóp emes pe? Biraq, kóp eken dep jamannyng sózin maqúldau kerek pe?» depti.

Osy sózderden keyin «Abaydy ne qylar eken» dep antalasyp,  asyghyp kýtip túrghan elding barlyghynyng kózinshe jandaral Abaydy ózine tikken ýige ertip jýrip, úzaq әngimelesip otyryp qalady. Azdan son, shay iship shyqqanda elge «sezdi jaqsy ótkizinder, úryda aqysy ketkenderding aqysyn әperinder, sezdi jaqsy ótkizu ýshin Abay siyaqty kisini tóbe by saylanyzdar» dep, ózi Abaydy Sherbeshnaydyng tóbe bii qylyp qaytyp ketedi. Sóitip, Semey gubernasiyasyna qaraytyn 5 uezding 100-den astam biy-bolystary bas qosqan tótenshe  sezde Abay tóbe by bolyp saylanady.

Búl oqigha Abaydyng bilimdiligi, jýiiriktigi arqasynda múnymen alysqan kisilerding әrqashan teng týse almay, úlyq aldyna kelgende jenilip shyghatynyny dәleldeydi.

Sezdi Semeyding general-gubernatory, general Seklinskiy basqarady. Búl jәrmenkede ótken sezde Semey qazaqtary ýshin qylmysty isterge qarsy arnayy zang erejesin qabyldaudy úigharady. Seklinskiy Abaymen jolyqqanda, Abay jalpy qazaq dalasyn orys zandarymen ghana basqarugha bolmaytynyn, búl elding ózining erekshelikteri bar ekenin, atadan balagha ghasyrlar boyy miras bolyp kele jatqan әdet-ghúrpy, zandary barlyghyn, kóp mәselelerdi qazaq ishinde osy zandar negizinde sheshuge bolatyndyghyn aitady. Búl kezde Abaydyng basyna qara búlt ýiirilip, keybir atqaminerler Abaydy osy jiynda qúrtamyz dep kelgen edi. Kerisinshe, Abaydyng patsha úlyqtarymen jolyqqannan keyin onyng zerek, tereng bilimdi adam ekenine kózderi jetip, eshqanday qiyanatqa barmaytynyn týsingennen keyin әlgi adamdar Abaydy tóbe by etip saylaydy. Abay Shar boyynda ýsh kýnning ishinde janyna birneshe adamdy ghana alyp, 100-den artyq baptan túratyn zandy jasaydy. Abay qazaqtyng búrynghy zandaryn jetik biletindigin, sonymen qosa orys zandaryn da tereng biletindigin kórsetip, osylardyng barlyghyn ýilestire otyryp, ózi ómir sýrip otyrghan dәuirdegi qazaq qoghamyna qajetti zandardy jazyp shyghady. Abay qazaq elining әdet-saltyn, jete zerttey otyryp, adam qúqyn jan-jaqty qorghaugha belsene qatysady. Osylaysha ýsh kýn, ýsh týn ishinde Qaramola sezine arnayy zang erejesi jasalyp, biyler talqysynan ótedi. Abay jazghan qazaqtyng jana zang erejesi (74 statiya) qabaldanady.  Abaymen birge Qaramolada bolghan Mýsirәlining kuәligi boyynsha Abay tizgen ereje baby jýzden asady. Shamasy kelgenshe kópshilik ýshin әdilet izdegen Abay úrlyq, qylmys pen әiel mәselesine arnap eki jana ereje aitady.

Abaydyng el biyleuding әdilettik, qúqyqtyq jýiesine say  zang normalaryn zaman talabyna say janartady.  Búl qazaq qauymynda ejelden qalyptasqan kertartpa әdet-ghúryp zandaryna da, patsha ókimetining halyqty qanaushylyqqa, zorlyq-zombylyqqa negizdelgen zanyna da úqsamaytyn, ózgeshe qújat edi. Abay qazaq qoghamynda әdilettilik pen túraqtylyqtyng belgisindey bolghan, ejelden kele jatqan biyler institutynyng adamgershilikti hәm qúqyqtyq múrasyn barynsha iygerdi. Sonau HIII ghasyrda biyler atasy atanghan Mónke biyding tәjiriybesin, «Qasym hannyng qasqa jolyn», «Esim hannyng eski jolyn», Tәuke han túsyndaghy úly biyler Tóle, Qazybek, Áytekeler dayyndaghan «Jeti jarghydan» ruhany susyndady. Múnyng bәri Abaydy by retinde erte tanyluyna yqpal etti.

Búghan deyin Respublikalyq «Abay» jurnalynyng 1992 jylghy №3 sanynda jariyalanghan Sapar Bayjanovtyng núsqasyn jariyalap otyrmyz.

Semey oblysynyng bes duanynyng barsha halqynyng saylanmysh adamdarynyng 1885 jyly may aiynda Shar boyynda Qaramola sezinde jazylghan EREJE»

1-BAP.  Bolystyq sezde daular ýlkendigine qaray, somasyna qaray bitiledi. Tótenshe sezderde úlyqtardyng әmiri boyynsha bir oyaz bir oyazben kezektesip bitiledi, әr oyazdyng barsha biylerimen emes.

2-BAP. Daulasqan әr eki tarap qalaghan biylerin tandap alady. Biraq, by esebin ereje boyynsha ereje boyynsha úlyqtar shygharady. Súraymyz, әr taraptan ýsh biyden artyq bolmasa eken. By sheshimin shygharmas búryn ýshtik biymen jarasady. Eger daugerler ýshtik by bitimen bitpeymin dese hәm bitim bolmasa, sonda jogharyda aitylmysh boyynsha biyler tandap shygharady. Eki jaghynyng biyleri talasyp, júp bolsa, tómende aitylmysh ret boyynsha bitiredi. Ár oyazdyng halqy ortalarynan bir tóbe basy by shygharady. Búghan qyzmettegi hәm qyzmetsiz de qúrmetti kisiler saylanugha mýmkin. Eger biylerding bitimi talas bolsa, saylanghandar eki tóbe by shyghartyp alady, tiyisti oyaz halqynan. Eger búlardyng arasynda talas bolsa, qalghan oyazdardyng tóbe basyna jerebe salynyp, shyqqan kisi bitimderine aralasyp, sol kisining aughan jaghynyng bitimi ornyghyp, maqúl bolady. Osy ret boyynsha oyazdyq tótenshe siezderde eki jaghy teng talas bolsa, tóbe basy by bir jaghyna auyp toqtatady.

3-BAP. Jauapkerding shaqyru boyynsha kelmegendikterin starshyn men bolystar kuәlandyryp, kelmegendigining maqúl yaky emesin biyler tekseredi. Egerde kelmegen  sebebi tekseru boyynsha syiymdy bolsa, syrtynan biylik shygharylady. Bir biyding yaky sezdegi biylerding syrtynan qylghan biylikteri taghayynsyz bolmaq. Biylik kóshirmesi starshyndar yaky bolys arqyly maqúldanady. Egerde jauapker razy bolsa, biylik taghayyndy bolyp, búzylmaydy. Egerde razy bolmasa, eki júma arasynda alghash biylik aitqan biyge qaytadan aryz qylady. Sonda by jauapkerding qúzyryna qaytadan biylik aitady. Eger jauapker tekserilu boyynsha agharsa yaky bolystyq sezge tyndatsa, sez biylerining biyligin únatpasa, sonda aiypty jaghyn shyghynyn qaytarugha mindetti qylyp hәm jaza búiyrylady. Jalghan aitqany ýshin jogharyda aitylmysh ret boyynsha bolystyq sezd syrttan biylik qúrady. Razy bolmaghan tótenshe sezge biyligin synatady. Ár tótenshe sezding biyligi der uaqytynda búzylmaydy.

4-BAP. Eger dauger shaqyrylghan uaqytynda kelmese, súralmysh dauyn bos qaldyrady. Sonda jauapker aryz etse, biylerding yqtiyary boyynsha jauapkerding shyghynyn daugerden búiyryp beredi. Biraq dauger yqtiyarly dauyn qaytadan súramaqqa sol dauy biylerding tekserui boyynsha jalghan shyqsa, daudyng somasyna qaray hәm jauapkerding qadirine qaray shyghynyn tartady.

5-BAP. Bir starshyn elding ishinde dauger, jauapkerlerding barsha janjal, súrau daularyn sol starshyn elining bii bitirmekke mindetti. Biraq by ózin mynanday jaghdayda biylik aitudan bosatady: eger daulasqan jaghynan biri tuysqan jaqyny bolsa, qaysy biri ata-anasy, bir tuma agha-inisi, әkesining bir tuma agha-inisi, jiyeni, nemere balasy jәne tughan qúdasy hәm dúshpan, óshtes adamdary, qaysy birining dúshpandyqtary búryn biyge týsisip, moynyna jaza salynyp, anyqtalghan bolsa, syiymdy bolady.

(jalghasy bar)

Almahan Múhametqaliqyzy, Astana qalasyndaghy Ziyatkerlik Tehnologiyalar akademiyasynyng «Abaytanu» ghylymiy-zertteu ortalyghy qyzmetkeri

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