Seysenbi, 23 Shilde 2024
Alashorda 10665 0 pikir 18 Qarasha, 2015 saghat 10:15

OTAN SOGhYSYNDAGhY IRI JENISTER

HVIII. OTAN SOGhYSYNDAGhY IRI JENISTER

Jongharlar qazaq jerining shyghysy men Jetisudy jәne Syrdariyanyng orta aghysy ónirin basyp alghannan son  Úlytaugha qaray bet búrghan. Ordabasy qúryltayy jigerlendirgen birikken qazaq әskerleri Ábilqayyr hannyng qolbasshylyghymen Týrkistan–Tashkent alqabyndaghy ondaghan qazaq qalasyn qaytadan jaudan tazartyp, elding ortalyq aimaghyna bettegen jonghar qolyna sheshushi soqqy beruge әzirlendi.

Bas qolbasshy Ábilqayyr hannyng basshylyghymen qazaq batyrlary 1726 jyldyng sonynda jәne 1727 jyly әskery qimyldardy ýilesimdi әri útymdy jýrgize otyryp, Torghay dalasynyng ontýstik-shyghys bóliginde iri jenisterge jetti.  Úlytau manyndaghy Búlanty men Bileuti ózenderining jaghalarynda ótken shayqas el aibynyn erekshe asqaqtatty. Qazaq jasaqtary jongharlarmen әueli Qarsaqpay qyrattarynan bastalatyn sol qos ózen qúiyp jatqan Shúbar-Teniz kóli manayynda soghysqan. Talqandalghan basqynshylar kólden әrmen qashqanda, atalghan eki ózen aralyghyndaghy Qarasiyr (ony «shoqy» maghynasyn beretin Qarasiyre dep te ataydy) jazyghynda olargha qatty soqqy berip, tamasha jeniske jetti. Dúshpan oisyray útylghan búl úrys tariyhqa Búlanty-Bileuti shayqasy degen atpen endi. Osy iri jenis nәtiyjesinde qazaq jasaqtary jonghar kýshin Úlytaugha jetkizbey toqtatty. Shayqasta Qanjyghaly Bó­genbay, Qarakerey Qabanbay, Shaqshaq Jәnibek, Tama Eset, Bәsentiyin Malaysary, Taraqty Bayghozy, Taylaq, Sanyryq, Qabanbay, Derbisaly, Satay, Eset, Jәnibek, Tileuli syndy kórnekti qolbasshylar men kóptegen batyrlar, barsha sarbazdar kózsiz erlik kórsetti. Jongharlar zor shyghyngha úshyrap, keri qashty.

Búlanty-Bileuti shayqasynyng tarihtaghy manyzy erekshe. Óitkeni ata jaudy talqandaghan osynau úrys halyqtyng ensesin kóterip, azattyq ýshin, otan ýshin  kýreske bir jaghadan bas, bir jennen qol shygharyp  kóteriluge jigerlendire týsti. Qazaq sarbazdary búdan keyin ahlaqy jәne ruhany ýstemdikke ie bolyp, jongharlar basyp alghan jer-sularyn birinen song birin azat ete bastady. Búl 1727 jyl edi. (Sol jenisten keyin jazyqtyng ortalyghyndaghy maydan kindigi bolghan tóbe «Qalmaq qyrylghan» dep atalyp ketti. Búlanty alqabyndaghy býginde «Ýitas» dep atalatyn, qabyrghalary­nyng qalyndyghy qos qúlashtay, kýmbezdep órilgen tóbesi qúlaghan qúrylys osy aituly jenis qúrmetine kezinde salynghan eskertkish bolghan desedi.   Al tәuelsizdik jyldary babalar erligine sheksiz rizalyq tanytqan iygilikti úrpaq tarapynan sondaghy shoqylardyng birine eskertkish taqta ornatyldy (surette). Osy jyly kenetten qontayshy Sevan Rabdan (Syban Raptan) dýnie saldy da, jongharlardyng qazaq jerindegi kýshterine arttarynan qosymsha kómek kelmey qaldy. Búl jaghday belgili dәrejede ruhy kýsheye týsken qazaq jasaqtarynyng jenisti sheruining sәtimen jalghasa beruine qolayly jaghday tughyzghan bolatyn.

Sevan Rabdannyng ólimi handyq ishinde dýrbeleng tughyzdy. Taqqa onyng ýlken úly Galdan Seren (Qaldan Seren) otyrghan. Ol әkesining oida joqta dýniyeden ketuin ógey sheshesi – han taghyna talasuy yqtimal inisi Lauzan Shononyng tughan anasy Seterjab pen sol shaqta Qalmaq handyghynan kelgen elshilerden kórdi. Qatygezdikpen jazalaular jýrgizdi. Sosyn handyqtyng shyghys shekarasyna  nazar audarugha mәjbýr boldy. Onda Siyn-Qytay әmirshileri boghdyhan auysqan (imperator Kansy qaytys bolyp, taqqa Yunchjen otyrghan)  kezdegi uaghdalastyqty jiyp qoyyp, elge qaytadan qauip tóndire bastaghan edi. Soghan baylanysty  Galdan Seren әskerining negizgi kýshin sol jaqqa shoghyrlandyrugha kiristi. Sodan kóp úzamay qytaylyqtarmen qarym-qatynas shiyelenisti de, jongharlar olarmen jana soghysty bastady. Osynday jaghdayda Galdan Seren qazaq jerindegi jasaqtarynyng biraz bóligin jonghar elining shyghysyndaghy maydangha salu ýshin keri shaqyryp alghan.  Búl ahualdy qazaq elining Qaratau óniri men ontýstigindegi jer-sudy basqynshydan tazartu kýresinde jýrgen Ábilqayyr han múqiyat saralaghan da, 1730 jyldyng kókteminde jaugha Anyraqay dalasynda sheshushi soqqy bergen bolatyn. Anyraqay shayqasy qazaq halqynyng 18-shi ghasyrda jonghar basqynshylaryna qarsy jýrgizgen Otan soghysynyng eng eleuli belesi, ruhty kóterip, bolashaqqa degen senimdi bekitken jenisti shyny retinde óte oryndy týrde maqtan tútylady. Áygili jenis el sanasynan eshqashan óshpes ýshin Tәuelsizdik azamattary úrys bolghan dep sanaytyn Shu-Ile taularyndaghy jerlerge – Súnqar tauynyng etegine 1998 jyly jәne ýstimizdegi ghasyrdyng basynda Anyraqay tauynyng soltýstik betkeyindegi Almaly kentining janyna, sonday-aq, Almatydan Bishkekke shyghatyn halyqaralyq joldyng boyyna, danghyldyng Qaskelennen on shaqty shaqyrym әridegi  ontýstik jaghyna arnayy eskertkish taqtalar qoyghan.  

Maqsat Beksúltan. "Anyraqay shayqasy".

Júrtshylyq sanasyna sinirilgen mәlimet boyynsha – shartaraptan jinalghan sarbazdardan birikken otyz myndyq qazaq qoly qyryq myndyq jau әskerimen bir-bir jarym aiday uaqyt boyy soghysyp jeniske jetken. Alayda jenimpaz qazaq jasaqtary jýrgizgen shayqastar sonymen dogharylghan, qazaqtar búl soghysty әri qaray damyta almaghan, sebebi «shayqas sonynda Bolat han jaralanyp, qaytys bolghannan keyin» (taghy bir kóp taralghan qisyn boyynsha – «dimkәs Bolat han nauqasynan dýnie salghan son»)  bastalghan «taq ýshin talas» oghan kedergi keltiripti-mis, kópshilik «Bolat hannyng balasy jas Ábilmәmbetti qoldaghan» da, «búghan narazy bolghan Ábilqayyr maydan dalasyn tastap, Kishi jýzding qolyn batysqa,  Orta jýz qolyn Sәmeke han soltýstikke» alyp ketipti-mis.

Ghylymy zertteuler búl úigharymdardyng jansaqtyghyn kórsetedi. Birinshiden, ótken taraularda aitqanymyzday, Bolat han 1723 jylghy «Aqtaban shúbyryndy» bastalghan kezende ómirden ótken. Anyraqay shayqasynan keyin (1730) han saylauyn jasaugha qajettilik tughan joq. Óitkeni soghysty jenisti shynyna jetkizgen bas qolbasshy Ábilqayyr bahadýr әri agha han da bolatyn, onyng ýstine,  Ábilqayyrmen taq talasyna týsip bәsekelesetindey dәreje jas jaghynan da, bedel jaghynan da eshbir kishi handa bolghan emes.  Ekinshiden, «Ábilqayyr men Sәmekenin maydan dalasyn tastap» ketui mýldem ózge sipatta jәne basqa jaghdaygha baylanysty oryn alghan. Búl jayynda keyinirek sóz etermiz...

Qúramyna tarihshy, geolog-geomorfolog, etnograf, arheograf, paleoklimatolog, shyghystanushy, palinolog, geograf ghalymdar engen zertteushiler toby 2005–2007 jyldary Shu-Ile aimaghynyng ortanghy bóligine birneshe ret ekspedisiyagha shyqqan.   Jasaghan dalalyq zertteuleri men izdenisterining nәtiyjelerin birneshe salalyq ghylymy institut qyzmetkerlerining qatysuymen óndegen. Sóitip,  ataqty shayqas ótken Anyraqay ónirine keshendi týrde  jýrgizgen arnayy zertteu nәtiyjelerin syndarly ghylymy tilmen enbekterinde bayan qylyp, keybir qalyptasqan pikirlerge syn kózben qaraugha mәjbýr etetin qorytyndylar jasaghan bolatyn.

Ekspedisiyalar kezinde tarihy oqigha aimaghy jer betinen, sonday-aq biyikten (úshaqtan) suretke týsirildi, aumaqtaghy negizgi tabighy jәne әleumettik-ekonomikalyq obektilerdi geografiyalyq, geometriyalyq túrghyda kórsetetin ghylymy syzbalar jasaldy. Jer bederi men su kózderining qazirgi syrt keskinine ghylymy zertteuler men esepteuler jýrgizilip, olardyng ýsh ghasyrgha jete-ghabyl uaqyt úshyratqan ózgeristerden búrynghy keypi elestetildi. Jer men meken-jaydyng tarihy ataulary, әr kezgi geografiyalyq kartalar, ólkeni mekendegen taypalardyng túrmystyq jәne mәdeny erekshelikteri, olardyng tirshiligi men qyzmetining bizding zamanymyzgha jetken materialdyq qaldyqtary, búrynghy Anyraqay auyly túrghyndarynyng ekspedisiya mýshelerine bergen aqparattary qarastyryldy.  Solardyng bәrin ólkening әskeriy-sayasy tarihymen tyghyz baylanysta zerttey otyryp, aimaqtyng 1730 jylghy tabighaty men jorymal beynesin jәne tarihy shayqastyng bas-ayaghy men ótu retin ghylymy әdispen qalpyna keltiru әreketi jasaldy.

Qysqasy, ghalymdar zertteuge alynghan ónirding topografiyasyn, geomorfologiyasyn, landshafyn, paleoklimatyn, arheologiyasyn, tarihy toponimikasyn, kartografiyasy men etnografiyasyn, sol tústa oryn alghan sayasat pen jaugershilikter shejiresin jan-jaqty taldap, zerttey kele, alynghan derekterding pәnaralyq sintezi negizinde, Anyraqay shayqasynyng naqty bolghan jerin, dәl uaqytyn jәne sondaghy oqighalardyng qanday retpen ótkenin,  qazaq әskery jasaqtarynyng Anyraqay tauy audanynda jongharlargha qarsy ústanghan shabuyldau strategiyasy men taktikasynyng ózindik erekshelikterin anyqtaghan. Irgeles ghylymdar ókilderin tarta otyryp  ýilesimdi sipatta jasalghan zertteuler nәtiyjesinde otan tarihyn biluge qúmartushylar tanymynyng kókjiyegin keneyte týsetin tyng janalyqtar ashyldy, solardyng ishindegi biregeyi  Anyraqay shayqasyna qatysty edi.

Foliklorlyq derek kózderine qaraghanda, Otan soghysynyng sheshushi shayqasy bolghan  tarihy maydan dalasy Anyraqay jotalary men Alakól jazyghy aralyghynda, yaghniy,  Anyraqay alqabynyng soltýstik-shyghys bóliginde jatyr. Osyny negizge alghan zertteushiler  Anyraqay shayqasynyng tabighy shekarasy ontýstik-batysta – su bóletin sala men Anyraqay (kóne kartalarda – Kýmisti) jotalarynyng soltýstik-shyghys shoqylaryn, batysynda – Qopaly ózeni men Qarakemerding tarmaqtaryn, soltýstik-shyghysta – Beskól alqabyn, al shyghysta – Sarybúlaq ózenining angharyn alyp jatqan 210 sharshy shaqyrymdyq  aumaq dep tapty. Qazaqtardyng jonghar basqynshylaryna kórsetken jalpyhalyqtyq qarsylyghynyng qorytyndy kezenindegi basty әskery qimyldar osy audanda ótti. Áygili shayqas dalasy aiqyn ýshbúrysh týrin elestetetini anyqtalghan. Ýshbúryshtyng tabanynda Anyraqay qyrqalarynyng soltýstik-shyghys baurayy, al qos qanatynda – biyik jarqabaqty Qopaly jәne Sarybúlaq ózenderi jatyr. Eki su ortasyndaghy Beskól alqabynda barlyq qorghanys sharalary eskerilip salynghan myqty bekinisti qamal (qazirgi Qalmaqtóbe) boy kótergen.  (Jetisudaghy osy Qalmaqtóbe kesheni ondaghy qorghanys qamaly men óz әskerining úrys jýrgizuin jenildetudi, al dúshpannyng әreketin qiyndatudy kózdeytin barlyq fortifikasiyalyq qúrylysymen jәne oghan jәrdemin tiygizetin nysandarymen birge túnghysh ret 2005–2007 jyldary tarihshy Irina Erofeevanyng basshylyghymen ashylyp, ishinara zertteldi).

«Qalmaqtóbe» jonghardyng ontýstik-shyghys shekaradaghy eng iri qarauyl beketi edi. Ony 1653–1666 jyldary belgili oirat noyony (Salqam Jәngirdi jekpe-jekte jengen delinetin) Galdamba  saldyrghan bolatyn. Osy bekinis pen ýsh taraptaghy tabighy shekaralar sol aumaqty  mekendeushi basqynshylardy qazaqtardyng yqtimal shabuylynan senimdi týrde qorghap túrghan. Tek soltýstik-shyghys jaghy (Qopaly, Qarakemer jәne Sarybúlaq alqaptarynyng eng tómen әri jazyq bólikteri ghana) birshama ashyq, yaghny syrtqy qaruly jasaqtardyng sol jerden ghana  kire aluy yqtimal edi. Bekinisting shyghysynan 8–10 shaqyrymday  jerden Ýlken Qalmaq  joly ótetin. Osynau kósh jәne keruen joly Shu-Ile aimaghynyng ontýstik bóliginen Qazaq dalasynyng batys aimaghy men soltýstik-batysyna qaray sozylyp, Jonghariyany Edil-Jayyq aralyghyndaghy Qalmaq handyghymen  baylanystyryp jatatyn.   Sondyqtan da onyng qazaq ýshin de, qalmaq  ýshin de ýlken әskeriy-strategiyalyq manyzy bar bolatyn.

Jalpy, Shu men Talas ózenderi alabynan  Shu-Ile taulary audanyna deyingi  geografiyalyq kenistikte oirattardyng 19 әskeriy-qorghanys beketi ornalasqan, olar 17-ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynan 18-ghasyrdyng alghashqy shiyregindegi Jonghar handyghynyng shekaralyq aimaghyn  belgilep, oirat kóshterining negizgi bóligin Qazaq handyghynyng halqy ornalasqan aumaqtardan qorghap túrghan. (Ábilqayyr han basqarghan azattyq shayqastary nәtiyjesinde jongharlardyng alghy shepterindegi әskeriy-qorghanys beketteri alynyp, ónirler dúshpannan tazartylghan, alghys sezimine bólengen qazaq halqy eldi azat etushi bas qolbasshygha rizashylyq bildirip, osy ónirlerdegi talay jer-su attaryn Ábilqayyr esimimen atap ketti). Qazaq jerine salynghan jonghar bekinisterindegi qaruly jasaqtargha әskerbasy etip qontayshy Galdan Seren ózining kýieu balasy Laszan Serendi 1728 jyldyng ortasynda taghayyndaghan. Birikken qazaq әskeri Otan soghysynyng Anyraqay maydanynda sol tәjiriybeli jonghar qolbasshysy basqarghan basqynshylargha qarsy sheshushi shayqasqa shyqty.

Jogharyda aitqanymyzday, qytay-jonghar qatynasy qayta shiyelenisip, 1729 jyly Sin imperiyasy  Jonghar handyghyna qarsy jana soghys ashqan. Sondyqtan handyqtyng әmirshisi Galdan Seren qontayshy 1730 jyldyng basynda qazaq aimaghyn meken etken halqy ishinen  soghysugha qabiletti oirattardyng kóbin asyghys týrde ontýstik maydangha shaqyrugha mәjbýr boldy. Jetisudaghy әskeriy-qorghanys beketterinde sany shaghyn qarauyl jasaqtaryn ghana qaldyrdy. Osynshama qolayly ahualdy qazaq elining ontýstiginde azattyq kýresin jýrgizip jýrgen Ábilqayyr han paydalanyp qalugha tyrysty. Ayaldamastan, әskery kýshterin Shu-Talas ózenderi aralyghynan Ontýstik-Batys Balqash many audanyna baghyttady. Sóitip, 1730 jylghy sәuirding basynda, jonghardyng qazaq jerindegi әskeriy-sayasy jýiesining Beskól (Qalmaqtóbe) forpostyna qazaqtardyng birikken qoly sol kezgi әskery ilim-bilimning  ozyq tәsilin qoldana otyryp shabuyl jasady.

Qazaq jasaqtary Anyraqay ýshbúryshyna soltýstiktegi basty danghyl bolyp tabylatyn Ýlken qalmaq jolymen emes, qarama-qarsy eki baghyttan (Balqashtyng ontýstik-batys jaghasy men Shu alqabynan) keldi. Shabuyldyng negizgi maqsaty  Anyraqaydyng soltýstik-shyghys búryshyndaghy Qalmaqtóbe bekinisine shoghyrlanghan 5-6 myndyq jonghar әskerin qorshap alyp, joyyp jiberu bolatyn. Bas qolbasshy Ábilqayyr han sheshushi shabuylda qoldanghan әdisinde halyqtyng kópghasyrlyq dәstýri bar «dala soghysy» orayyndaghy әskery oigha, onyng «andy jan-jaghynan qaumalap aulau» tәsiline sýiengen-tin. Jauyngerlik soghys qimyldaryn әigili qazaq qolbasylary men batyrlary qatysqan ýsh atty jasaq jýzege asyrdy. Olardyng ekeui  Sarybúlaq pen Qopalydaghy jaugha ótkel boluy yqtimal jazyq tústardy torydy әri Qalmaqtóbe bekinisin shabuyldady. Shaqpaqty, bilteli myltyqtarmen atqylay otyryp,  әueli dúshpannyng qamalyn  basyp aldy, sosyn bekinisting manyna toptasqan jәne ony tastap shyqqan oirattardy tyqsyra quyp, taugha qashugha mәjbýr etti. Qashqan jaudy Anyraqaydyng ortalyq shatqaldaryna bekingen sadaqshylar qarsy aldy...

Búl 1723 jylghy «Aqtaban shúbyryndygha» úryndyrghan joyqyn shapqynshylyqtan beri tynymsyz jýrip kele jatqan, 1726 jylghy Ordabasy qúryltayynan keyin airyqsha serpin alghan Otan soghysyndaghy sheshushi shayqas boldy. Osy aumaqta qazaq halqy, qazaqtyng ýsh jýzining sarbazdarynan qúralghan halyq jasaghy basqynshy-jongharlardy birjolata jendi.  Bayyrghy kýshti de qaharly qarsylasyn osyghan deyin jaulap alghan qazaq jerinen quyp shyqty. Sóitip, azattyq jolyndaghy qiyndyghy mol kýrdeli qaharmandyq dastandy is jýzinde saltanatty jenispen ayaqtady.

  

HIX. OTAN SOGhYSYNDAGhY JENIS JÁNE BITIM 

Birikken qazaq әskerining bas qolbasshysy Ábilqayyr han 1730 jylghy sәuirding sonynda jonghar qontayshysy Galdan Serenmen beybit kelisimshart jasady. Sol aktimen «Aqtaban shúbyryndy» qasiretinen beri órshy týsken qantógisti azattyq kýresining shyrqau shynyna ainalghan Anyraqay shayqasyn qorytyndylap, 1723–1730 jyldarghy Otan soghysyna jenisti nýkte qoydy.  Búl jenis qazaq halqynyng jauyngerlik ruhyn nyghaytty, halyqtyng etnostyq birligin, tútastyq sezimin jәne óz eline degen sýiispenshiligin, jýzder, ru-taypalar arasyndaghy auyzbirshilikting manyzyn  arttyrdy.

Kóshpendi handyqtar ishindegi asa quatty jonghar әmirshisi Galdan Serendi jengen ataghy Ábilqayyr bahadýrdi sayasy túrghyda qazaqtyng agha hany mәrtebesinde tanyta týsti. Qadirli batyr-hanynyng esimin jenisti shayqastar jýrgizgen tau, ózen, anghargha bergen (Arqada «Qalmaqqyrylghan» degen jerde «Ábilqayyr ózeni», Shu men Talas ózenderining arasynda «Ábilqayyr dalasy» bar. Sonda «Qalmaq qyrylghan» degen eki jer atauy saqtalghan. Qaratau qoynauynda «Ábilqayyr búlaghy» bar. «Ýlken Orda qonghan», «Kishi Orda qonghan» degen jer ataulary – azattyq soghysyn basqarghan agha han, kishi han stavkalarynyng túrghan ornyn kórsetedi. Al Balqashtyng ontýstigindegi әigili Anyraqay shayqasy ótken ónirde, Ilege taqauyraqta  – Hantau, odan Shugha qaray sozylyp jatqan «Ábilqayyr jaly» degen tau atauy saqtalghan. Býgin bizdin  kónilimiz qanshama tarylyp, qazaqtyng 1723–1730 jyldardaghy Otan soghysynyng bas qaharmanynyng enbegin moyyndaghymyz kelmese de, geografiyalyq jer ataularynyng ózi-aq onyng da, bizding de kim ekenimizdi kózge shúqyp aityp túrghan joq pa?) óz júrtynda ghana emes, kórshi elderde de ol ýlken qúrmetke bólendi. Orta Aziya handyqtarynyng biyleushileri onymen tuystyq qarym-qatynasqa jetuge úmtyldy. Qolbasshy, әmirshi, sayasatker Ábilqayyr han Anyraqay shayqasynan keyingi jaghdaydy kóregendikpen saralay bilgendikten, jonghar qontayshysymen bitimge keldi...

Alayda búl tújyrymnyng tarihshylar arasynda: «Anyraqay shayqasynan keyin qazaq biyleushilerding arasynda jik tudy» degen maghynada kópten qalyptasqan, tipti resmy «Qazaqstan tarihynyn» ýshinshi tomy tanbalap qoyghan elita ishinde «jogharghy biylik ýshin kýres»   jýrgeni jayyndaghy pikirge qayshy ekeni týsinikti. Resmy tariyh: «Tәukening úly, qaytys bolghan agha han Bolattyng ornyna Orta jýzden – Sәmeke, Kishi jýzden Ábilqayyr ýmittendi. Kópshilikting tandauy Ábilmәmbetke týsti. Sәmeke men Ábilqayyr ózderin eleusiz qaldyrdy dep tauyp, shayqas alanynan ketip qaldy, sol arqyly qazaq jerlerin jonghar basqynshylarynan azat etuding ortaq isine ondyrmay soqqy berdi», – dep habarlaydy. Elimizding eng basty tarih kitabynyng kýni keshe – 2010 jyly jaryq kórgen akademiyalyq basylymynyng tap osynday eskirgen maghlúmatty shegelep  taratuy ókinishti-aq. Óitkeni sodan bir mýshel ilgeride, ótken ghasyrdyng songhy jyldarynda,  jekelegen tarihshylar (aytalyq, IY.Erofeeva) senimdi derekkózderdi ainalymgha tartu arqyly onday baylamnyng qate ekenin dәleldegen bolatyn. Bolat hannyng «Aqtaban shúbyryndy, Alqakól súlama» qasiretining bastapqy jyldarynyng birinde dýniyeden ótkenin, onyng eshqashan agha han bolmaghanyn, agha han mәrtebesi 1715 jyly Qayypqa, 1719 jyly Ábilqayyrgha tiygenin, Anyraqay shayqasynan keyin eshqanday da agha han (úly han) saylauy ótkizilmegenin dәleldegen zertteulerin jariya etken edi. «Sәmeke men Ábilqayyr ózderin eleusiz qaldyrghandyqtan» emes, kýn tәrtibindegi jaghdaygha baylanysty, soghys ayaqtalyp,  tiyisti bitim jasalghannan son, ózderine qarasty ru-taypalar mekendeytin aumaqtargha kýn tәrtibine shyqqan mәselelerdi retteu ýshin ketken bolatyn. Demek, «shayqas alanynan» ketip qaldy deu de, «sol arqyly qazaq jerlerin jonghar basqynshylarynan azat etuding ortaq isine ondyrmay soqqy berdi» dep tújyrymdau da naqty tarihy shyndyqqa sәikes kelmeydi.

Bas qolbasshy Ábilqayyr han ontýstikte belgili bir maqsatta, belgili bir mólsherde әskery kýsh qaldyrdy. Tәuelsizdikting alghashqy jyldary «Sin úly dinastiyasynyng hronikasy» degen atpen jariyalanghan qytay qújattary jinaghynda qazaq hany Ábilqayyr (Abuerhayli) qazaq jigitterining 70 myndyq әskerin óz búiryghymen inisi Búlqayyrgha (Buerhayli) basqartyp, jongharlargha qarsy joryqqa shyqty delinetin aqparat keltirilgen.  Sonday-aq olardyng Shu-Talas jerinde túratyn oirattardyng myng shanyraghyn týgel basyp alghany jәne Jonghariyanyng ózge kóshi-qondarynan 2–3 myng at aidap әketkeni aitylghan. Búl oqigha imperator Yunchjen basqarghan merzimning 9-shy jylyndaghy 2-shi aida oryn aldy dep kórsetilgen. Ony bizding tarihshylar 1731 jylghy nauryz ben sәuir ailarynyng bastapqy kýnderine sәikesedi dep belgilep jýr. Imperator Kansy 1722 jyly qaytys boldy, artynsha taqqa Yunchjen otyrdy. Demek, imperator Yunchjenning biylikti qolgha alghan uaqyty 1722 jyl, al onyng imperiyany basqarghan merzimining toghyzynshy (toghyz emes!) jyly 1730 jylgha, yaghny jongharlargha qarsy Otan soghysyn tamamdaghan Anyraqay  shayqasy bolghan jylgha tura keledi. Demek Yunchjen jylnamasynyng 9-shy jylyndaghy 2-shi aida, yaghny 1730 jylghy 8 nauryz ben 6 sәuirding arasynda bas qolbasshy Ábilqayyr han, aldynghy tarauda aitqanymyzday, әskerin Shu-Talas aimaghynan Anyraqay ónirine auystyryp, jonghar kýshterimen sheshushi shayqasqa shyghugha әzirlendi jәne ony sәtti jýrgizip, sol sәuirding sonyna qaray Galdan Serenning kýieubalasy, tәjiriybeli әskerbasy   Laszan Seren basqarghan jonghar jasaqtaryn birjola jendi de,   mamyr aiynda qontashynyng ózimen kelissóz jýrgizip, bitimge kelgen.  Sodan song oirattardyng yqtimal shabuyldaryna toytarys beru ýshin Búlqayyr súltan qolbasshylyq jasaytyn әskerdi ónirde qaldyryp, ózi batys shekaragha attandy.

Jogharyda atalghan Sin boghdyhany Yunchjenning jylnamasynda «Galdan Serenning inisi Lobuszyan-Shunu (Lauzan Shono) qazaq hany Ábilqayyrdyng qyzyn әieldikke aldy, qazir, ynghayy, qazaq jerinde túrady» degen mәlimet bar. Biz múnyng aqiqaty qanday ekenin aita almaymyz, degenmen, Ábilqayyr hannyng bәibishesi qyzymen Týrkistandaghy ordasynan 1723 jyly tútqyndalyp Jonghariyagha әketilgenin eske alsaq, Lauzan Shono han qyzyn aluy yqtimal dep payymdaymyz. Atalmysh qytay derekkózinde odan әri: «Lauzan Shono múrager retinde әkesining taghyna otyru mәselesin sheshu ýshin 1-shi aida óz jaushylaryn  Galdan Serenge jiberdi» degen habar aitylady. Búl oqigha, shamasy, Sevan Rabdan dýniyeden kóshken 1727 jyldy menzese kerek. Aldynghy tarauda aitqanymyzday, Galdan Seren әkesi Sevan Rabdannyng kenetten bolghan ólimin ózining ógey sheshesi,  Lauzan Shononyng tughan anasy Seterjabtan kóredi de, ony balalarymen, sonday-aq sol tústa Qalmaqiyadan (bәlkim, qytay jylnamasynda aitylghanday maqsatpen  Lauzan Shonodan) kelgen elshilerding keybirin óltiredi. Sondyqtan, boghdyhan sarayynyng shejiresinde odan әri aitylghanday, «Galdan Seren onyng anasyn, sonday-aq birge tughan inisi men qaryndasyn óltirgendikten»,  Lauzan Shono «Galdan Serennen ósh aludy qatty tilep jýr. Oghan әskery shabuyl jasaghysy keledi». Búnday ahualdyng Ábilqayyr hannyng oirattarmen de, qalmaqtarmen de bitim jasauyna janama týrde bolsa da әser etui mýmkindigin moyyndaymyz. (Tek  Lauzan Shono «qazaq jerinde túrady» degeni jansaq, ol Qalmaq handyghynda  túrghan.  Qontayshy Galdan Seren ózining taghyna bәsekeles dúshpanyn ústap berudi qalmaq hany Seren Donduktan talap etken bolatyn).

Anyraqay shayqasynan keyin jasalghan beybit kelisimshart eki jaqqa da tiyimdi edi. Galdan Seren qazaqtarmen bitimge kelu arqyly siyn-qytay jaghyndaghy shekarasyna әskery kýshterin toptastyrugha mýmkindik aldy. Imperator Yunchjen oirattarmen soghysty qayta janghyrtu jayynda 1729 jyly sheshim qabyldaghan bolatyn. Qazaqtarmen 1730 jyly bitimge kelip, qolyn kýsheytuge mýmkindik alghan qontayshy sol jyldyng ózinde qytay әskerin Barkól manynda tas-talqan etip, endi Altayda soghysugha әzirlik jýrgize bastady. Al jongharmen soghysty odan әri sozbay, bitim jasaudy maqúl kórgen Ábilqayyr han soltýstik-batys shekaragha jana shabuyldarymen qaytadan  qauip-qater tóndirip túrghandar kórshilermen – orys memleketine qarasty kazaktar qauymymen,  qalmaq jәne bashqúrt elderimen ara-qatynasty retke keltiruge attanghan edi. Ol orys imperiyasymen shekaradaghy  mazasyzdyqty tynyshtandyrugha kýsh saldy.

1730 jylghy mamyr aiynda Ábilqayyr hannyng Torghay ólkesindegi jazghy ordasyna Kishi jýz ben Orta jýzding bas adamdary bas qosty. Búl mәjiliste orys shekarasyna taqau kóship-qonyp jýrgen  júrtqa qyrghiday tiyip jýrgen Jayyq jәne Sibir orys kazaktarynyn, Edil qalmaqtarynyng shapqynshylyq qylyqtary, qalmaqtarmen aradaghy qatynas, jonghardy jenuge baylanysty, qazirgi sәtte birshama rettelip, tynshyghanmen, týbi bir týrki bolsa da, jelkelerindegi otarshyl әkimderining astyrtyn aidap saluyna kónip, qazaq auyldaryna tútqiyldan  jortuyldatyp airyqsha  maza ketirip jýrgen bashqúrttar jayy talqygha týsti. Osynau mәjiliske deyin Ábilqayyr hangha bashqúrt elining qúrmetti adamy tarhan Aldar Esengeldin (IYsekeev) jolyghyp qaytqan. Búl sodan jiyrma shaqty jyl búryn Ábilqayyr bahadýrdi bashqúrt taghyna shaqyrudy úiymdastyrghan, onymen birge orysqa qarsy iyq tirese kýresken әskeriy-basshy túlgha bolatyn. Búl qos ýzengiles bahadýr әrәdik kezdesip, әrdayym dostyq peyilmen jyly súqbattasyp otyratyn. Osynau kózqarastary erteden jarasqan eki el aghalarynyng súqbattary әrdayym ózara týsinistik rәuishte ótetin. Endeshe osynau qarulas әm pikirles qos әmirshining qaramaghyndaghy adamdar nelikten ózara shabuylgha shygha beruin dogharmaydy? Múnda qanday syr bar? Áriyne, ekeuara ótken kenesting býge-shigesin bilmegenmen, shamalaugha bolady: olar sol mәseleni týbegeyli sheshudegi kedergilerdi saraptap, olardy joy joldaryn aqylgha salysty... 

(Kezinde imperiyagha qarsy túrghan bashqúrt jetekshisin óz jaghyna útymdy tarta alghan patsha әkimshiligining úsynuymen oghan atalghan tarhan aiyrym-belgisi berilgen. Jalpy, tarhan ataghy Altyn Orda handary dәuirinde shirkeu adamdaryna olardyng óz sharualaryn sheshuge erikti ekendikterin kórsetu ýshin berilip túrghan. Keyin ony orys knyazideri de jekelegen adamdargha alym-salyqtan bosatylatynyn, dauly mәselelerde eshkimge baghynbay, tek úly knyaziding óz qúzyryna keluge haqyly ekendigin bildiru ýshin berip jýrdi. Bir-eki mәrte tarhandyq beru mýldem joyylyp tastaldy da, bodan últtardyng bedeldi adamdaryn imperiyagha senimdi ete týsu ýshin, qayta engizildi. Bashqúrt kóterilisshisi Aldardy tarhan mәrtebesine kóteru arqyly patsha әkimshiligi ony ózine órkeniyeti tәsilmen tәueldi etti. Qazaqtar arasynda da tarhan bolghandar bar).

Sol jylghy mamyrda hannyng jazghy ordasyna jinalghan Kishi jәne Orta jýzder súltandarynyn, batyrlary men belgili adamdarynyng qúryltayynda orys patshasynyng ýkimetimen onyng qolastyndaghy qalmaq, bashqúrt jәne orys kazaktarynyng qazaq eline shabuyldaryn doghartudy kózdeytin bitim jasau jóninde sheshim qabyldanghan... 

Redaksiyadan: Jogharydaghy taraular jazushy, tarihshy, kósemsózshi Beybit Qoyshybaevtyn "Qazaq memleketi tarihyna kózqaras" atty enbeginen jalghasty týrde alynyp otyrghyn eskertemiz. Basy myna siltemelerde: http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4553;  http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4554;  http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4579; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5256;http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5335; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5370; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5371; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5469; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=5470.   

(Jalghasy bar)

Beybit Qoyshybaev

Abai.kz

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