Jeksenbi, 5 Aqpan 2023
Bilgenge marjan 14905 2 pikir 25 Qarasha, 2016 saghat 12:47

Serik DÁULETOV. ALShYN ShEJIRESI (basy)

Qazaq rularynyng shejire, tarihy últtyq tarihymyzdyng ýlken bir bóligi. Jer betindegi halyqtardyng bәrining últ bolyp úiysyp, el bolyp týziluining teginde rulyq, taypalyq negiz jatyr. Sol syqyldy qazaq halqynyng da shyghu, qalyptasu kezeninde de ru-taypa tarihtary jatqany mәlim. Qazirgi zamanda ru-taypalyq tanym  әulettik shejirelik dengeyde bolghanymen, últtyng tektiligin, tuystyghyn, bauyrmaldyghy men bir-birine qamqorlyghy, qan tazalyghy mәselesinde zor ról atqaryp keledi.

Serik Dәuletovting kezekti "Alshyn shejiresi" - janasha kózqaras" enbegi jogharyday aitylghan ru-taypa shejire, tarihynda tyng derekter, sony oilargha toly.

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ALGhY SÓZ ORNYNA

Qazaq halqynyng asa bay әri tereng tamyrly tarihynyng qatparly-qatparly  betteri әli de ghylymy tereng zertteulerdi qajet etedi. Óitkeni, qazaq halqy әp-cәtte qalyptasyp payda bolmaghan, onyng sonau ejelgi zamandardan til bitip, tildese bastaghan kezderinen, odan alghashqy nomadtardyng ókilderi  saqtardan bastap, "húnnú", "týrik", "qypshaq", "monghol", "altyn-orda", "ózbek", "noghay", "qazaq" dәuirlerindegi  asa kýrdeli etnosayasy tarihy bar. Bizding arghy ata-babalarymyz memlekettik qúrylymdar qalyptastyrghan tarihynyng merzimin mejelep aitatyn bolsaq,  ýsh- tórt myng jyl búrynghy tarih degen sóz.

Osynau  tarihta shynayy etnikalyq tarihy sabaqtastyqtar, úrpaqaralyq ýzilissiz baylanystarymyz  da  bar. Demek, XV ghasyrdyng orta túsynda  bir shanyraqtyng astyna qauymdasyp qazirgi birtútas til men birynghay bolmysty, bir sózben aitqanda,  qazaq últyn  somdaghan kóptegen týrik tektes ru-taypalar da ómir keshti, san-qily ózgerister de bolyp ótti.

Osy rette, qarapayym qazaq azamaty, óz tarihynyng janashary Serik Taghybergenúly Dәuletovtyng enbegi jayynda bizding aitarymyz mynau:

 Euraziya kenistiginde sonau este joq ejelgi zamannan beri arghy ata babalarymyzdyng keship ótken tarihyn tektep bayandaudyng ózi de belgili bir merzimdi, ghylymy tiyanaqty zertteulerdi, tipten tosyn oi-pikirlerding talqygha salynuy siyaqty san-qily taldaulardy sózsiz qajet etedi. Osy túrghydan S.T.Dәuletovtyng atalmysh enbeginde jana kózqaras pen tyng úsynystar mol degimiz keledi.

Búl enbekte qazaqtyng ru-taypalarynyng kýrdeli tarihyna qatysty alshyn jәne basqa da etnonim ataulardyn,  tarihy toponimderinin  etimologiyasy jayynda qyzyqty úsynystar aitylghan. Avtor S.T.Dәuletovtyng payymdauynsha Alshyndardyng Euraziyalyq kenistiktegi kósh joldary Orman Eli (Altay, Sayan tau jotaly aumaghynan bastau alyp) odan Joshy Úlysyna, sodan Noghay Ordasyna, odan keyin Qazaq handyghyna birigu tútasty ýrdisteri boldy delinedi. Biz de atalmysh pikirdi qúptaymyz. Shyn mәninde etnostardyng migrasiyalyq joldaryna dәiekti dәlelderding biri toponim ataulary bolyp tabylady. Búl toponimderining qyzyqty tústary jayynda avtor qazaq, monghol tildik derekterdi keninen qoldana otyryp, ózining oy pikirlerin senimdi etip jazghan.

Jalpy, etnonimder men toponim ataulardyng týrik, monghol jәne basqa da kóshpeli halyqtarda ortaq qúbylystary men erekshelikteri bar ekendigi, olardyng tarihy hronologiyalyq mejelerine de nazar audaru shart ekendigi zertteushlerge belgili.

Tauly Altaylyq zertteushi N.V. Ekeevting zertteuleri boyynsha[1]qazirgi Tauly Altay halyqtarynyng etnonimderinde kóne týriktik, mongholdyq komponentterding tuystyq baylanystarynyng bar ekendigi airyqsha bayqalady. Osy túrghydan alyp qarastyrsaq, S.T.Dәuletovtyn  sóz bolyp otyrghan enbegindegi   oy tújyrymdary basqa da zertteushilerding taldaularymen  taghy da dәleldenip túrghanday.

Bizding tarihymyzdyng shynayy aqiqaty belgili dәrejede jazylyp ta keledi, aitylyp ta keledi. Áriyne, bizding tarihymyz tolyq jazylyp bayandaldy degennen aulaqpyz.

Sondyqtan óz tarihyn, ata babalarymyzydng tarihyn tanugha talpynghan, beymәlim әri qúpiya syrlaryn kóre bilgen, dәiekti etip dәleldey bilgen  qarapayym azamattarymyzdyng da isi  jaryqqa shyghugha tiyisti dep bilemiz. 

Avtor S.T.Dәuletovtyn   Alshyn atauyn kóne týrik, monghol tilderindegi alaq// alag > alaq+čin// alag+čin >  anshy, andy óltirushi degen semantikasynan tuyndaghan bayyrghy atau degen pikiri shyndyqqa anaghúrlym jaqyn dep sanaymyz.  Shynynda da qazaq  tilinde "ala" degendi monghol tilinde "alag" dep aitatyn fonologiyalyq  ereksheligi de bar. Basqasha aitqanda "alaq+shyn"   degenimiz qysqartylyp aityla kele-kele ,  "alshyn" , "alash" atauyna ainalghan.

 Týptep kelgende Alshyn= alyghshyn= anshyn=alyghshy= alash= anshy,  Alshy-tatar*= anisiy-tatar= anshy-tatar degen janghyrtpasy kónilge qonymdy.

Sóitip, S.T.Dәuletovtyn   qyzyqty da tosyn janalyghy bar  búl enbegin oqyp tanysqan song kópshilik júrtshylyqqa  jariyalaugha túrarlyq taldau júmys bolghan, qazaqtyng (jalpy alghanda týriktik, mongholdyq delinetin) tarihy etnononimder men toponimika salasyna az da bolsa ózindik ýlesin, óz pikirin qosqan enbek bolghan dep sanaymyz.

Filologiya ghylymdarynyng kandidaty Nәpil BAZYLHAN

 

Elimizge kerek emes ertegi!
Ertegini óz balam da shertedi.
Tarih kerek!
Irgetasy ol halyqtyn,
Irgetassyz qalanbaydy 

Erteni!

Qadyr Myrza-әli

K I  R I S P  E

Keybir derekter boyynsha qazaqtyng eki jýzden astam ru shejiresi bar. Alayda, «Bizding búl qazaqta tasqa tanba basqanday anyq shejire joq», dep Mәshhýr Jýsip aitqanday, shejiremizding kóbi on-shaqty atadan әri qaray kómeskilene beredi. Olardyjinaghan, jazghan adamdardyng shejirelik bilimiәrtýrli bolghandyqtan, oidan shygharylghan keyipkerlerdi qosu beleng alghan. Onyng ýstine ruyna tartu, әrkim óz ata-babasyn әspetteu, din ókilderin engizu siyaqty kemistikter kezdesedi.

Býginde zamanauy tehnologiyalardy qoldanu arqyly tól shejiremizding kemshin tústaryn tolyqtyrugha mýmkindik tudy. Ghalamtordaghy sayttardan qazaq rulary men taypalarynyng genealogiyasy, tanbasy, úrany turaly san-aluan aqparat alugha bolady. Ghylymnyng jetistikterining arqasynda songhy jyldary genetikalyq zertteulerding jana baghyttary payda bola bastady. Solardyng biri- genetikalyq genealogiya nemese DNK-genealogiya.Kәduilgi genealogiya múraghat qújattaryna nemese shejirelerge sýiense, genetikalyq genealogiya biologiyalyq qújatqa- eshqashan janylmaytyn adam DNK-syna sýienedi. Genetikalyq genealogiyanyng bir qasiyeti– ol DNK-nyng atadan balagha ózgerissiz beriletin bóligine- Ý-hromosomagha qol jetkizuge mýmkindik beredi.

 Elimizde qazir amerikalyq Family Tree DNA kompaniyasynyng kelisimimen kommersiyalyq Shejire DNA jobasy júmys istep jatyr. Jobanyng diyrektory Núrbol Baymúqanovtyng aituyna qaraghanda, býginde myngha tarta adam genetikalyq synaqtan ótken, onyng 200-ge juyghy Alshyndar.

Men de osy joba arqyly DNK-test tapsyryp, ata-babalyq gaplotobymnyng S3s (S-M48) ekenine   kóz jetkizdim. Búl gaplotopty genetikalyq genealogiyamen ainalysyp jýrgen keybir qazaqstandyq ghalymdar «Alshyn klasteri» dep te atap jýr.

Solardyng biri filosofiya doktory- PhD, sayasattanushy Jaqsylyq Sәbitov. Ol ózining «Etnogenez kazahov s tochky zreniya populyasionnoy genetikiy»[2]degen enbeginde Qazaq DNK-jobasynda test ótken 273 qazaqtyng gaplotoptaryn taldap, әrbir ruda belgili bir dominanta gaplotop bar ekenin anyqtaghan, ony ol keste týrinde bylay keltirgen:

 Búl dominanta gaplotoptar Jaqsylyq Sәbitovtyng oiynsha qazaq  shejirelerinde aitylatyn sol rulardyng ata-babalarynyng gaplotoptary.

«V sovetskoe vremya k shejiyre otnosilisi krayne skepticheski, stavya ego na uroveni foliklora, gde uroveni domyslov krayne veliyk. No dannye genetiky sviydetelistvuiyt o tom, chto shejiyre zachastuiy podtverjdaetsya na 80-90%,kogda ludi, iymeiyshie po shejiyre edinogo predka (iskluchaya kirme – potomkovusynovlennyh y dr.), iymeiyt takje odnu gaplogruppu y blizkie gaplotipy. Takim obrazom, govorya ob etnogeneze kazahov, mojno utverjdati, chto kazahskie roda yavlyaitsya preemnikamy nekotorogo kolichestva zolotoordynskih emirov, kotorye po shejiyre yavlyaiytsya ih predkami, to esti dannye shejiyre podtverjdaiytsya dannymy populyasionnoy genetiky po Y-hromosome.»[3]

Demek,deydi Jaqsylyq, barlyq derlik qazaq rulary Altyn Orda әmirlerining úrpaqtary.

Onyng oiynsha

Ýisinder 13 ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Mayqy biyden,

Qanlylar 17-18 ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Keldibekten,

Shanyshqylylar 17-18 ghasyrda ómir sýrgenShanyshqylydan,

Arghyndar 14-ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Arghynnan,

Naymandar 13-14 ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Ókireshten,

Qonyrattar 14 ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Nanghúdaydan,

Uaqtar 15 ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Er Kóksheden,

Alshyndar 14 ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Alaudan taraydy.[4]

Men Jaqsylyqtyng búl pikirimen kelisealmadym. Sebebi qazaq - qargha tamyrly, jәne qazaqtyng tamyry Jaqsylyq oilaghannan terende jatyr. Qazaq halqyn qúraghan ru-taypalardyng ata-babasy Evraziya kenistiginde әlimsaqtan beri túryp kele jatqanyn bile túra, Jaqsylyqtyng qazaqtardy 13-14 ghasyrdaghy Altyn Ordanyng 7-8 әmirinen tudyruy- tariyhqa qiyanat.

Ghalamtor sayttarynda shejire derekterine «folk historiy» dep qaraytyn Jaqsylyqbúl jolyZ.Sәdibekovtyng «Qazaq shejiresin», T.Ýsenbaevtyng «Alshyn shejiresin» esh kýmәnsyz 100 payyzdyq senimdi derekkóz retinde qoldanghan.Ol múnday tújyrym jasamas búrynQazaq shejiresi turaly Shәkәrimning «Áz-Jәnibekhannan bergi qaray atalary turaly shyn da, ótirik te aitylghan sózder bar»,Múhamedjan Tynyshpaevtyn«Bez predvariytelinogo izucheniya genealogiy kajdogo otdelinogo roda, a takje bez togo, s kem y v kakie vremena on stalkivalsya nevozmojno predstaviti sebe obshui kartinu istoricheskih sudeb kazahskogo naroda»degen siyaqty sózderin qaperine alyp, atalmysh enbeginde paydalanghan shejirelerdi ghalym retinde syny kózqaraspen zerttep, әrbir rudyng tarihyn taldauy kerek-aq edi...

 Bir qyzyghy Jaqsylyq qyrghyzdardyng shejiresi (sanjyrasy) men qauymdastyq genetikanyng baylanysy turaly qyrghyz sayttarynda basqasha sóileydi:

«Zadachey populyasionnoy genetiky v issledovaniyah narodov, jivshih rodoplemennym obshestvom, zdesi stanovitsya iymenno razdelenie y vyyavleniye, kakaya chasti iz sanjira yavlyaetsya dostovernoy, a kakaya chastimificheskoy y kakaya chasti kajdogo etnosa blizka drugoy chasty drugogo etnosa...Ne stoit absolutizirovati issledovaniya po Y-hromosome, ona neset v sebe vsego 85 genov, v to vremya kak v samom cheloveke okolo 28000 genov, to esti Y-hromosoma sostavlyaet vsego 0,3 % ot vsego genoma cheloveka. Esly je issledovati kyrgyzov na autosomy (vse 46 hromosom, a ne toliko na Y-hromosomu), to my mojem poluchiti sovsem drugui kartinu. K priymeru, po autosomam kyrgyzy budut ocheni blizky altaysam, kazaham y drugim turkskim narodam Sentralinoy Azii. Ily je kyrgyz, iymeiyshiy gaplogruppu R1a budet po Y-hromosome budet ocheni dalek ot kyrgyza, iymeiyshego gaplogruppu S3, no pry etom po autosomam ony budut ocheni blizki. Tak chto, govorya o gaplogruppah Y-hromosomy nado pomniti, chto osnovyvayasi na etih issledovaniyah nelizya govoriti o proishojdeniy vsego naroda».[5]

Jaqsylyq Sәbitovpen ekinshi bir kelispeytin jerim-ol osy atalmysh enbeginde alshyndardy tatarlardan shyqty deydi.

Jaqsylyqtyng oiynsha:

«Rod proishodit ot alchiy-tatar, plemeni, kotoroe bylo pochty polnostiu istrebleno Chingiyz-hanom. Predok roda- Alau,  jivshiy v serediyne 14 veka»[6]

Ol múnda «Mongholdardyng qúpiya shejiresinde» jәne Rashid әd-Dinning «Jәmy әt-Tauarihynda» aitylatyn 1202 jyly Shynghyshannyng tatarlardy shyghyryqqa (arbanyng biligine- telejnaya osi) tenestirip qyrghan oqighasyn aityp otyr.Onyng oiynsha, qazaq Alshyndary sol qyrghynnan anda-mynda tyghylyp aman qalghan (nemese boyy shyghyryqtan alasa bop óltirilmey qalghan)alshy-tatarlardyng bireuining shóberesi (nemese nemeresi)- Alaudan taraydy.Songhy kezderi ghalamtor betin bermey jýrgen Jaqsylyqtyng búl tújyrymdary jeti atasyn bileyin dese aitatyn aqsaqaly joq, aqparatty tek internetten alatyn qazaq jastaryn aljastyruda.

Sondyqtan qolgha qalam alugha tura keldi.

Men bilsem, birinshiden, Alshyndar- tatarlar emes. Ekinshiden, Alau batyr da tatar emes. Ýshinshiden, qazaq Alshyndary 14 ghasyrdan erte payda boldy. Bir taypaly eldi 14 ghasyrdaghy jalghyz adamnan taratu esh aqylyma syimady. Ózim Alshyn bolghandyqtan Alshyn shejiresin shama-sharqymsha zerttep jýr edim. Endi sol oilarymdy ortagha salyp otyrmyn.Tarihshy ghalym emespin, biraq qazaq tarihshylaryna oitýrtki bola ma deymin.

(jalghasy bar)

abai.kz


[1]Ekeev N.V. Altayskaya etnogoniya: voprosy sostava, tipologiiy, etimologii, stratigrafiiy   http://clib.gaju.ru/2a/archive/2002/08/21.html#ekeev.

[2] The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Orys núsqasy) 5 tom, №1, 2013 j., 35-b.

[3]Sonda, 34-35 bb.

[4]The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Orys núsqasy) 5 tom, №1, 2013 j., 31-b.

[5]J.Sabitov: Proishojdenie kyrgyzov s tochky zreniya polimorfizma Y-hromosomy

http://www.centrasia.ru/newsA.php?st=1380522540 

[6]Etnogenez kazahov s tochky zreniya populyasionnoy genetiki. The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Orys núsqasy) 5 tom, №1, 2013 j.,31-b. 

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