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Alashorda 3469 4 pikir 11 Qyrkýiek, 2018 saghat 09:00

Anyzdyq derekterge abay bolayyq!

"Qúlatylghan eskertkish ornyna eshkimge belgisiz Qarabalyq batyrdyng mýsini qoyylady" degen bizding maqalamyzgha Abai. kz portalynda «Qarabalyq batyr ómirde bolghan adam» degen aidarmen belgili aqyn Aqylbek Shayahmet jauap jazghan eken. Jauaptyng basym kópshiligi Qypshaqtyng Qarabalyq atasyna qatysty anyzdyq jәne aqyndyq (kórkem shygharmashylyq) derekterdi sholu bolyp shyqqandyqtan, naqty Qarabalyqqa qatysty eki derekting tónireginde sóz qozghaudy jón sanap otyrmyz. Onyng bir – Mәshhýr Jýsiptin, ekinshisi – B.Dauylbaev degen avtordyng jazbasy.

Qarabalyqtyng miftik personaj ekenin avtor tilge tiyek etip otyrghan qazaqtyng shejireleri men anyzdyq әngimelerining mazmúny aityp túr. Aytalyq, qazaqtyng foliklorlyq múralaryn jazbagha týsirgen Mәshhýr Jýsipting Qypshaq taypasynyng shejiresine qatysty anyzdyq deregine nazar audarayyq. Bes tanbaly Qypshaqtyng shejiresin tanbalyq sipatynnan minezdik [birbetkeylik - (moyyn tanbasy) jәne túrmystyq (adam sany kóptik- (әlip tanbasy), baylyq - (qaryn tanbasy)] syndy erekshelikterdi sipattaghan kórkem (mifologiyalyq) әngimede (sóz joq, qypshaq taypasynyng keyingi tarihynan shygharylghan jiyntyq әngimede) Qarabalyq –  bes tanbaly Qypshaqtyng bir balasy. Qaryn tanbasymen, yaghny toqshylyqtyn, baylyqtyng moldyghymen erekshelengen ru. Olardyng arghy atasy – Qobylandy batyr. Demek, Qarabalyq ruynyng tarihy terende. Sebebi Qypshaq atty ru-taypalyq birlestikting Úly Dalada meken etkeni yqylym zamannan belgili. Al qazaq-noghaygha ortaq ataqty Qobylandy batyr eposynyng el auzynda jyrlana bastaghan uaqytyn epostanushylar epostyq qaharmannyng әr kezendegi tarihy oqighalardyng ishinde jýrgenine qaray HIÝ ghasyrdan bastap jyrlana bastaghan dep esepteydi. Olay bolsa, Qarabalyq batyr Qobylandy syndy epostyq qaharman ómir sýrgen sol bir ghasyrlardyng o jaq, bú jaq shegindegi kisi bolyp shyqpay ma? Ol kezeng aldymen Altyn Orda, keyin Noghayly dәuiri emes pe edi?

Endi avtor keltirgen Orys imperatorlyq geografiyalyq qoghamynyng Orynbor bólimshesining korrespondent-mýshesi B.Dauylbaevtyng 1903 jyly jariyalaghan tanymdyq deregine nazar audarayyq: «Nazad tomu 50 let kirgizy kypchakskogo roda karabalykskogo y kulidenenskogo, okolo 3000 kibitok, upravlyaemye svoimy rodonachalinikami, iz kotoryh samymim izvestnymy byly batyry Karabalyk y Jabagy, vo vremya leta kochevaly po vsem obshirnym stepyam,nachinaya ot reky Tobola do ozero Urkach, a k ziyme otkochevyvaly k reke Toguzak (po beregam ih nahodyatsya poseleniya)».

Jogharydaghy shejirelik derek pen avtorlyq jazba derekten qanday qayshylyqty angharamyz? Áriyne, zerdege birden zerdelenetin nәrse - Qarabalyq batyrdyng ómir sýrgen uaqyty. B.Dauylbaevtyng aituynsha, Qarabalyq batyr derek qaghazgha týsken uaqyttan (1903 j.) 50 jylday búryn ómir sýrgen eken. Olay bolsa, búl shamamen – 1850 jyldar, yaghny HIH ghasyrdyng orta sheni. Tipti, ony taghy bir elu jyl shegerip, HIH ghasyrdyng basy-aq bolsyn deyik. HIH ghasyrda Qarabalyq batyrlyq kórsetetin qanday tarihy oqighalar boldy? Tariyhqa kóz salayyqshy. Jonghar HÝIII ghasyrda joyylghan edi. 1837-1847 jyldary orys ýkimetine qarsy qaru kótergen Kenesarynyng soghysy boldy. Kenesarynyng orystyng otarlyq sayasatyna qarsy kóterilisine shekara manyndaghy qazaq rulary orys ýkimetining yqpalynda bolghandyqtan qatyspay, kerisinshe, tipti, olardyng ishinen kóteriliske qarsylyq kórsetkenderi de boldy. Kensary han «kóteriliske qoldau kórsetpedin» dep Ybyray Altynsarinning atasy Balghoja biyding auylyn shapqany tarihtan belgili.

Al sol Kensarynyng kóterilisine «Qarabalyq batyr» qatysyp, orys әskerimen shayqasypty degen derek joq. Onyng ýstine Qarabalyq ruy orys ýkimetining Ýy ózenining boyymen belgilengen shekaralyq liniyasynda-Toghyzaq ózenining boyyn qystap jýrgen. Basqasha aitsaq, orys әskerining tanauynyng astynda, baqylauynda bolghan. Endeshe, ol Qarabalyq «batyr» degen qúrmetti ataqty qaydan alghan? Ol kimmen soghysqan, qayda shayqasqan? Qanday erlik ister kórsetken? Aldymen osynday saualdargha jauap tabu kerek.

1895 jyly «Turgayskaya gazetada» Amanqaraghay men Nauryzym eldi mekenderding atauy turaly toponimikalyq әpsana jariyalanady. Ápsana bylay bastalady: “Torghay oblysynyng Qostanay men Torghay uezderinde “Amanqaraghay”, “Nauyryzym”, “Tirsek” dep atalatyn orman, “Danabiyke” ózine men “Sarymoyyn” kóli jayynda qyrghyz arasynda aitylatyn legenda bar. Astrahani qalmaqtarynyng qazaq dalasy arqyly Qytaygha aughan zamanda Aman, “Nauryzym” atty qazaq baylary jaylaydy. Baylyghymen ekeuining de atty kenge jayylady. Amannyng Danabiyke atty qyzy, al Nauryzymnyng Sarymoyyn atty úly bolady. Danabiykening tolghan aiday súlulyghy qanday jau bolmasyn qaytpaghan naghyz erjýrek deytin batyrlar oghan ghashyq bolyp, súludyng sózin ala almay jigeri qúm bolyp jýrgenderi Sarymoyynnyng qúlaghyna shalynady. Batyr jigit degen atqa tolyq say Sarymoyyn kýnderding kýnderinde ózining batyrlyghyn taghy bir synau ýshin Aman baydyng auylyna keledi. Danabiyke súludy kórip Sarymoyyn oghan ghashyq bolypty, Amannyng qyzyn qalyndyqqa súraydy...».

Ápsananyng sonynda saltty búzghan Sarymoyyngha qatang ýkim shyghyp, ólimge kesiledi. Sol Sarymoyyn batyr el arasynda «batyr» dep anyzdalmaydy. Sebebi ol әpsana el arasyna keninen taralyp, foliklorlyq múragha ainalmaghan. Foliklorgha ainalghan shygharma ghana halyq arasynda saqtalady. Sondyqtan oqta-tekte, bir-eki mәrte atalghan keyipkerdi «batyr» dep jalaulata ketu qisynsyz. Onyng ýstine «bayaghyda pәlenshe degen batyr bolypty» degen sóz qazaq arasynda jetip-artylady. Búl «bayaghyda bir bay bopty» dep bastalatyn epostyq-ertegilik sarynnyng biri.

Endigi kezekte B.Dauylbaevtyng deregine ejelgi Qarabalyq ruynynyng atauy janaryp «batyr» bolyp kiru sebebining syryna ýnileyik. Sebebi HIH ghasyrdan bastap qazaq dalasy orys imperiyasynyng qúramyna kirip, Qazaq handyghy qúlaghannan keyin kóshpendilik, jaugershilik zaman ketip, el moynyna otarshylyq qamyta ornaghan uaqytta ótkendi ansau, ondaghy keremet ómirdi saghynu basty sipat aldy. Ótken zamandaghy batyrlar әspettelip, olardyng erlik isteri dәripteledi. Búrynghy kóne jyrlar sol ansaudyng әserinen qazaq dalasynda qayta jyrlanady. Epostanuda múnday qúbylysty «epikalyq uaqyt, dәuir» dep ataydy. Qazaq folikloryndaghy songhy ýlken epikalyq kezeng – HIH ghasyr. Osy tústa búrynghy ótken kisiler qazaqtyng arman-ansarynyng saldarynan «batyr» bolyp tanyldy. Halyqtyng arman-ansary negizinde jasalatyn tarihty ghylymda «mifologiyalyq tariyh» dep ataydy. Mifologiyalyq, yaghny kórkem tarih degenimiz foliklorlyq sana, foliklorlyq múra negizinen tuyndaydy. Mifologiyalyq tarihtan jer betindegi halyqtyng barlyghy derlik ótken. Ayyrmashylyghy biri erte (batys elderi), ekinshisi kesh (shyghys elderi) ótkizgen. Keshteulik sipat qazaq halqyna da tәn.

HIH ghasyrdyng orta shenindegi qazaq qoghamynda sәl-pәl erlikpen aty shyqqan kisini jappay «batyr» dep maqtau kórinis oryn aldy. Búl kórinisti qazaqtyng tanymdyq kenistiginde alghash synaghan hәkim Abay bolatyn. Ol ózining «Ghaqliyalarynyn» «On tórtinshi sózinde» bylay dedi: «Tiri adamnyng jýrekten ayauly jeri bola ma? Bizding qazaqtyng jýrekti kisi degeni - batyr kisi degeni. Onan basqa jýrekting qasiyetterin anyqtap bile almaydy. ...Qazaqtyng «jýrektisi» maqtaugha syimaydy. Aytqangha kóngish, uaghdada túrghysh, boyyn jamanshylyqtan tez jiyp alghysh, kóshting sonynan itshe ere bermey, adasqan kópten atynyng basyn búryp alugha jaraghan, әdiletti aqyl moyyndaghan nәrsege, qiyn da bolsa, moyyndau, әdiletti aqyl moyyndamaghan nәrsege, onay da bolsa, moyyndamau - erlik, batyrlyq osy bolmasa, qazaqtyng aitqan batyry - әnsheyin jýrekti emes, qasqyr jýrekti degen sóz».

Halyq anyz-shejirelerining bilgiri Mәshhýr Jýsipting jazbalaryna. «By degen - aq sharighat ilude bireu tabady, batyr degen - baraq it eki qatynnyng biri tabady»,- degen halyqtyng «batyr» dep maqtaghandargha qarsy aitylghan syny tirkelgen.

Qazaqtyng ótken kýnderdi, tarihtaghy túlghalardy keremet etip ansau kónilin synaghan túlghalardyng biri Alash kósemi Álihan Bókeyhan. Ol: «Pәlen han-ay, týgen bi-ay!» dep ýide otyryp ókinesinder. Búrynghy handaryng da, búrynghy biylering de osy kýngi atqa mindim dep jýrgen ózderindey edi! Qazaqtyng búrynghy basshylarynda әdildik, bereke bolsa, búl kýnde qazaq búl kýide bolar ma edi?! Júrttyng berekesi ketuge týpten sebep bolghan nәrse - qazaqta birlikting joqtyghy. Birlik joqtan hәm jangha erip bytyraghan, birlik joqtan qazaqtyng hәr qaysysyn hәr jerde dúshmany obaylatqan. Búrynghy han bolsyn, biyler bolsyn, әdildikten jyraq bolghan, dәl osy kýngi atqa mingen ózderindey»,- dep, batyra aitqan bolatyn.

Ataqty oishyldardyng sózderinen keltirilgen búl mysaldar bizge de oy saluy tiyis. Árbir anyzdyq derekke abay boluymyz kerek. Ony ghylymy negizde talday bilu paryz. Qazirgi foliklortanuda halyq shygharmashylyghyn, tanymyn ghylymy túrghyda tanugha septigin tiygizetin kóptegen әdis-tәsilder, tanymdar bar. Halyq shygharmashylyghynyng qyr-syrymen tereng tanys ghalymdardyng ortaq payymynda halyqtyng miyf-әpsanalarynda, jyr-anyzdarynda el basynan ótken tarihy kezenderding saryny, sol tústaghy adamdardyng tanymdyq dengeyi beynelenedi degen tújyrym qalyptasqan. Osy túrghydan kelgende, B. Dauylbaevtyng jazbasynda oryn alghan anyzdyq derek HIH ghasyrdaghy qazaq qoghamynyng foliklorlyq tanymynda batyrlyq kezendi dәripteu beleng alghan sarynnyng negizinde payda bolghan syndy. Sóitip, kóne Qarabalyq «qayta janghyryp», «Qarabalyq batyr» atanady. Eger Qarabalyq shyn mәninde batyr bolsa, onyng erlik isteri, shayqasy, jaudyng qimyl-әreketteri Qanjyghaly Bógenbay, Qarakerey Qabanbay, Oljabay batyr, Shaqshaq Jәnibek, Shúbyrtpaly Aghybay t.b. siyaqty erlerding anyzdalghany siyaqty erlik, jaujýrektik, batyrlyq turaly әngimelerge toly bolar edi. Biraq ol joq. Onday kórinisting el auzynda joq ekenin avtor: «Qart aqyn Ótemis Qalabaev kózi tirisinde Qarabalyqtyng bes qaruy say bolghan, ózi de talay shayqasqa qatysqan, biraq el auzynda onyng erlikteri turaly derekter joqtyng qasy degendi aitqan bolatyn»,- dep ózi de qoshtap otyr.

«Joqqa - sot ta joq»,- deydi batys tanymy. Joq nәrseni shyndyqqa ainaldyru qazirgi HHI ghasyrda-ghylym men bilim jetilgen uaqytta әure bolu – berekti az, mazmúny tayaz qaraket. Ghylym-bilim jetilgen zamannyng azamattary sarynshyl, qughynshyl emes, sarapshyl, talapshyl bolyp kelgeni lәzim. Batyrlar instituty - qazaqtyng ótken tarihynda ózindik orny bolghan әleumettik qúrylym. Ol jaugershilik zamangha layyq qúbylys edi. Jaugershilik ketkennen keyin ol da tarih sahnasynan yghysyp ketti. Qazaqtyng ótken tarihynda erekshe orny bolghan batyrlyqqa jalpy eskertkish qoysaq, búrynghy kezende bolghan jýzdegen jalqy batyrlardy da qamtyghan bolar edik. Bizding oy – osy.

 Almasbek Ábsadyq, filolgiya ghylymdarynyng doktory, professor

Abai.kz

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