Senbi, 31 Qazan 2020
COVID-19 QAZAQSTANDA. Júqtyrghandar — 111953. Jazylghandar — 106310. Qaytys bolghandar — 1825
Alashorda 14520 93 pikir 16 Sәuir, 2019 saghat 07:51

Ámir Temir sheshesi evrey bolghandyqtan músylmandardy qyrdy

Shynghyshangha deyingi, yaghny HIII ghasyrgha deyingi qazaq músylmandyghy jayyn sol jýzjyldyqtyng túsynda ómir sýrgen arab tarihshysy Ibn әl Asirding «Kitab әl-kamil fiy-t-ta'riyh» atty enbegindegi derekter qamtidy.  Ol derekterden Orta Aziya men qazaq dalasyndaghy músylmandarda sopylyq dәstýr bolghany bayqalmaydy. Iran aumaghynda bolghan kóptegen sektalar jayly bayandalady, al bizding aumaqtaghy biyleushilerding jaqsy músylmandar ekeni atap kórsetiledi (Qazaq handyghy-Qarahanidy biyleushileri).

Atalghan enbekting orysshasynda qazirgi qazaq dalasy «Strana turkov» (týrk eli) dep jazylsa, Taraz, Ispidjab (Shymkent many), Shash (Tashkent), Ferghana, Qashqar qalalary ornalasqan aumaqtar «oblasti turkov» (týrk aimaghy) delingen. Al Búhara, Samarqan qalalary ornalasqan aumaqtar «Maurenahr ólkesi» dep atalyp, olardyng týrk jerine jatpaytyny aitylghan. Arabsha jazyluynda «qazak» pen «týrk» sózderi óte úqsas ekenin aittyq. Sondyqtan Ibn әl Asir jazbasynyng týpnúsqasyndaghy «qazak» atauyn jasyru ýshin orys ghalymdary ony oryssha audarmalarda «týrk» dep kórsetken. Altyn Orda halqy jayly jazghan HIV ghasyrdaghy arab sayahatshysy Ibn Batuta enbegining oryssha audarmasynda da qazirgi qazaq dalasyn mekendegen el «týrk» dep atalady. Altyn Orda halqy «týrk» dep atalmaghany barshagha mәlim. Osy jayttar arab jazba derekterinde qazaq eli qamtylghanyn, tek ony Resey iydeologtary «týrk» atauymen jasyrghanyn ayghaqtaydy.

Demek, IH ghasyrdaghy Qarahanid memleketi zamanynan bastap qazirgi Tashkent, Taraz, Shymkent, Ferghana aumaqtarynan sonau Oral taularyna deyingi alyp aimaq «qazaq eli» dep tanylghany anyq. Qarahanid memleketi anyghynda «Qazaq handyghy» dep atalghanyn aldynghy maqalamyzda kórsettik. Ony biylegender týrky әuleti ekenin, yaghny qazaq eli handary ekenin Ibn әl Asir anyq jazghan. Olardyng Islam dinin týsinde qabyldaghan arghy babalarynyng «Shabuk Karahakan» degen esimi dúrysynda «Shattyq Kazah kan» ekenin arabsha jazyluymen dәleldedik. Búl jayynda Ibn әl Asirding myna jazbasynda da aitylghan: «Govoryat, chto strana Turkestan, a eto Kashgar y goroda Balasagun, Hotan, Taraz, a takje drugie sredy teh, kotorye granichat s nimi, v strane Maverannahr, byla v rukah sarey — hanov, turkov. Ony — musulimane iz potomstva Afrasiaba Turka, no toliko ony zanimaitsya mejdousobisami. Ih praded, Shabuk Kara-hakan, prinyal islam po toy prichiyne, chto on viydel vo sne, budto by chelovek spustilsya s neba y skazal po-turkskiy to, chto oznachaet: «Primy islam! Ty budeshi blagopoluchen v etoy jizny y v budushey». Y on vo sne svoem prinyal islam y poutru obnarujiyl, chto on musulimaniyn. Kogda on umer, na ego mesto vstal ego syn Musa ibn Shabuk. Y v etom kraY sarskiy san ne prekrashalsya sredy ego potomkov vploti do Arslan-hana ibn Muhammada ibn Sulaymana ibn Dauda Bogra-hana ibn Ibrahima, pochetno prozvannogo Tigadj-han, syna IYleka, pochetno prozvannogo Nasrom, Arslana ibn Aly ibn Musy ibn Shabuka. On vzbuntovalsya protiv Kadiyr-hana v 494 (1100-01) g, y tot otnyal u nego sarstvo, no Sandjar ubil Kadirhana y vernul sarstvo Arslan-hanu. Noga ego stala tverdo, no podnyalisi myatejniki, togda on vozzval k sultanu Sandjaru, tot zashitil ego y vernul na sarstvo».

Turk elin biylegender turk handary delinipti, yaghny qazaq elin biylegender – qazaq handary. Alghashqy músylman dindi qazaq hany Islam dinin týsinde qabyldaghany, tanerteng oyanghanda ózining músylman ekenin týsingeni bayandalady múnda. Yaghni, ol tanerteng oyanghanda perishteler ózin týnde sýndettep qoyghanyn kórgen. Qúdireti sheksiz Alla qazaq hanyna týsinde músylmandyq qabyldatqanyna, osylaysha basshysy arqyly býkil qazaq halqynyng jappay Islam dinine kóshuine jol ashqanyna kóz jetkizemiz. Onyng Islam dinin qabyldauyna eshqanday qojanyng nemese arabtyn, sopynyng tikeley yqpaly bolmaghan. Onyng Islam dinin qabyldauy týsinde iske asqan, kókten adam beynesinde týsken perishte ony Islam dinine óz ana tili – týrki, yaghni, qazaq tilinde shaqyrghany anyq aitylady. Onyng úrpaqtary qazirgi Qazaqstan aumaghyn jәne oghan qosa Tashkent, Ferghana, Qashqar aimaqtaryn IH ghasyrdan bastap HIII ghasyrgha deyin biylep kelgeni de anyq jazylghan.

Olay bolsa, qoja-arabtar әuleti Qarahanid memleketin biylegen, qazaq halqyna Islam dinin taratqan degen orynsyz tújyrym. Onday tújyrymdy qazaqty erteden derbes el bolugha dәrmensiz jabayy bolghanday etip kórsetuge tyrysqan, «jabayy» qazaqty jartylay músylman etken qojalar men tatar moldalary degen Resey imperiyasynyng zymiyan sayasaty ornyqtyrdy.

Qazaq halqyna Islam dini eng alghash VIII ghasyrdyng basynda jetti, ony jetkizgen – sol zamandaghy arabtyng asyl músylmandary. Olar kóp úzamay qazaq qyzdarymen otau qúryp, Ramadan, Nókis, Seyit (Oshaqty taypasy qúramynda) atauly qazaq rulary bolyp qalyptasyp ketti. Yaghni, qazaqty Islam dinimen eng alghash tanystyrghan arab músylmandary qazaq halqynyng búzylmas bir bólshegine ainaldy. Sebebi ol zamandaghy arab músylmandarynda ózin aqsýiek, ózgeni qara dep tanu mýlde bolghan joq. Sol sebepten olar músylmandyqty qabyldaghan qazaq, ózbek, qaraqalpaqtargha tez sinisti. Al qoja ruy qazirgi Ózbekstandaghy Hodjand qalasyn VIII ghasyrda iyelengen al-Hadjaj arabtarynan taraghan. Olardyng HII ghasyrdyng basynda «qoja» atauymen tarih sahynasyna shyqqanyn Ibn әl Asir deregimen kórsettik. Ibn әl Asir jazbalarynda qoja ruy «aqsýiek» nemese «biyleushi ru» dep jazylmaydy. Tek onyng Hodjand qalasynda qalyptasqanyn, arghy tekterin Irandy biylegen arab Ál-Hadjaj  biyleushining әsker basshysy Muhalab Abu Sufradan taratatynyn bayandaydy. Muhalab Abu Sufra da, onyng basshysy Ál-Hadjaj da Mekke manynan shyqqan arabtar ekeni tarihshylargha mәlim. Ál-Hadjaj atauy ol biyleushining qajylyq aimaqtan, yaghny Mekke arabtarynan ekenine kuә. Onyng әskeri de sol aimaq arabtary bolghan, sol әskerding Hodjand qalasynda ornyqqandary keyin qoja atauymen jeke el bolyp qalyptasqan degen jón.

Al «aqsýiek» sózi – taza qazaqy sóz (arabtyq emes). Olargha búl atau Shynghyshan zamanynan keyin tanylghan. Qazaq halqynda sonau Huni (qonr) imperiyasy zamanynan Asylúya-As dinastiyasy adamdaryn «aq jik (aq ru)» dep tanu qalyptasqan. Ol dinastiya adamdary qazaqty ghana emes, býkil Euraziya halyqtaryn biylep-tóstep keldi (Osman imperiyasynyng negizin qalaghan Asyljik-seldjuk dinastiyasy da solardan). Sondyqtan sary orys eli biyleushisin qazaq «aq patsha» dep tanyghan (halqyn sary dese de, biyleushisin «aq» dep ataghan). Shynghyshan úrpaqtaryn «tóre» dep ataghan («tórgi» sózinen, yaghny «jogharghy ru» degen úghymnan qalyptasqan), olardy aqsýiekter dep tanyghan.

Shynghyshan әuleti óz úrpaqtarynyng músylmandyq qabyldau arqyly bolashaqta kóp qazaqtyng birine ainalatynyn jaqsy týsindi, yaghny jaqyn bolashaqta qarapayym rularmen qúdalasyp, aralasyp tandauly, tekti aq әulet dәrejesin joghaltaryna kózderi jetti. Olar qazirgi Mangholiyadan kelgen músylman emes qazaqtar bolatyn. Sondyqtan sonau Huni (qonr) imperiyasynan saqtalghan «tek aq rularmen qúdalasu» dәstýrin  ústanatyn (Shynghyshan әuleti tek qonyrattyng bir ghana tandauly ruymen qúdalasyp kelgeni tarihshylargha mәlim). Al adamdy aq pen qara dep bóluge tyiym salatyn músylman dininde ol dәstýrlerin saqtau mýmkin emesin olar týsindi. Alayda, biylik ózderinde bolghandyqtan úrpaqtarynyng «tandauly aq ru» bolyp biylikti saqtap qaluyna mýddeli boldy. Óz әuletterining qarapayym qazaq rularymen qúdalaspaytyn aqsýiek ru ekeni sharighatqa qayshy emesine músylman qazaqty sendiru qajet edi. Osy mindet qoja ruyna jýktelgen dep týsinemin. Osylaysha olar ózderine halyq arasynan qoja ruyn odaqtas qylghan. Óitkeni, arghy tekteri Payghambarymyzdyng (s.gh.s) ruynan bolghandyqtan qojalardy músylman qazaq qatty qúrmettegen.

Shynghyshan úrpaqtaryna jaqyn odaqtastyq qoja ruyn da aqsýiek dep qabyldaytyn týsinikke úryndyrghan. Búl jaghday memlekettik biylikke jaqyn nemese sol biylikke múrager bolugha úmtylghan key qojalargha jaghymdy әri qajet boluy da zandylyq. Búl ýrdis Temirlan zamanynda asa qatty beleng alghan. Týrkistangha Qoja Ahmet kesenesin túrghyzyp, ony tabynu ornyna ainaldyrghan da sol Temirlan ekeni barshagha mәlim. Qoja Ahmetting eshbir ósiyetinde «Mening qabirime kelip, qajetterindi súrandar» degen jol joq. Osylaysha halyq arasynda jәne qojalardyng óz arasynda «qojalar – aqsýiekter» degen qate úghym qalyptasty. Anyghynda ol týsinik Payghambarymyzdyng (s.gh.s) tura jolyna, yaghny qojalardyng arghy Asyl atalarynyng jolyna qayshy ekeni dausyz.

Temirlannyng anasy tonalghan keruennen aman qalghan qyz degen derek bar. Ol tat, yaghny evrey qyzy boluy mýmkin. Óitkeni Búhar evreyleri Temirlan zamanyn «altyn ghasyrymyz» dep tanidy, Týrki qaghanatynda Irannan qúldyqqa әkelingen tat-evreyler sol zamannan «Búhara evreyleri» dep atala bastady. Olar Temirlan zamanynda biylikke de, baylyqqa da qol jetkizdi jәne olar asa qúrmetteytin Daniil payghambardyng sýiegin Iraktan Samarqangha әkelip jerlegende sol Temirlan. Temirlannyng negizinen músylmandardy qyryp-joyghanyn, al hristiandar men evreylerge tiyispegenin tarihshylar tandana jazady (Djastin Marossy «Tamerlan zavoevateli mira»). Temirlannyng músylman әlemin Shyghys Europa krestshileri joryghynan qorghap túrghan Bayazit súltan memleketin talqandauy, sonymen qatar Batys Europalyq hristian memleketterine tosqauyl bolghan Altyn Orda imperiyasyn birjola joq qylyp oirandauy kezdeysoqtyq emes. Onyng basty kenesshileri naghashy júrty bolghan deu oryndy. Onyng býkil Orta Aziyada (Ontýstik Qazaqstan aimaghyn qosa alghanda) ertede qaytys bolyp ketken qadirli músylman ghalymdary men qolbasshylarynyng qabirlerine keseneler túrghyzyp tabynu ornyna ainaldyruy músylmandardy bir Allagha tabynudan qashyqtatu niyetinen tughan. Músylmandy jenu ýshin ony Allanyng qoldauynan aiyru qajetin onyng naghashylary jaqsy biledi. Sondyqtan Orta Aziya músylmandary arasynda әulie aralap, qabirlerge tabynatyn dәstýr jappay engizilgen. Osylaysha HVI ghasyrda Orta Aziya men qazaq músylmandarynyng ýlken bóligi qajetin Alladan tikeley súramaytyn jamaghatqa ainaldy, Allanyng qaharyna úshyrady. Nәtiyjesi kóp kýttirgen joq, Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan hristiandyq orys imperiyasynyng otaryna ainaldy, Shyghys Týrkistan kәpir Qytaydyng qúldyghyna týsti.

Temirlan men onyng naghashylary óz maqsattaryna qoja ruyn qoldandy degen jón. Týrkilik músylman halyqtardyng Payghambarymyzdyng (s.gh.s) tuystaryn asa qúrmetteytin dәstýrin óz qajetterine jaratty. Orta Aziya men Kavkaz músylmandarynda buddalyq monahtar men hristian monahtary dәstýrlerine jaqyn sopylyq jol qalyptastyryldy. Ol jol qojalardyng músylmandyghynyng ajyramas bir bóligindey bolyp ketti. Anyghynda qojalar әuelden sopylyq jolda boldy degen jalghan týsinik. Ibn әl Asir dereginde eng alghash tarih sahnasyna shyqqan Qoja imamnyng Iran aumaghynda sektant-músylmannyng (kadarid sektasy) qolynan qaza tapqany kórsetilgen. Yaghni, ol tura joldy ústanghany ýshin qaza boldy, Ibn әl Asir qojalarda sopylyq jol baryn jazbaghan. Al aqiqat HH ghasyrdaghy orys tarihshylary tújyrymynda emes, sol HIII ghasyrda ómir sýrgen tarihshy Ibn әl Asir dereginde ekeni dausyz. XIV ghasyrdaghy arap sayahatshysy Ibn Batuta Hojelidegi (qazirgi Qaraqalpaqstandaghy qala) imamdardyng qadariyd  sektasy adamdary ekenin, alayda olardyng ózderining kim ekenin jasyratynyn, óitkeni qala әkimi men Altyn Orda biyleushisi Múhammed Ózbek hannyng sunnit músylmandar ekenin aityp ótedi. Osy derek XII ghasyrda Qoja imamdy óltirgen irandyq qadarid sektasynyng XIV ghasyrda Orta Aziyalyq hojalar arasynda keng taralyp qoyghanyn bayqatady (Hojeli atauy ol qalanyng bir zamanda hojalar túraghy bolghanyna dәlel).

Sol zamannan bastap songhy kezge deyin qojalardyng key tobynda «Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan jerindegi biylik qojalargha tiyesili» degen týsinik oryn alghanyn, olarda sopylyq anyzdar arqyly qojalardyng Payghambar (s.gh.s) otbasynan ghana emes, sonymen qatar Shynghyshannyng arghy tegimen tuys degen tújyrym ornyqqanyn japon ghalymy Kazuo Marimoto men belgili ghalymdar D.Deviyz,  A.Muminov zertteuleri ayghaqtaydy: «Kazuo Marimoto analiziruet genealogicheskui tablisu, sostavlennui vo vtoroy poloviyne 15 go veka, yavlyaiyshuiy soboy neizvestnui do etogo rodoslovnui Timuridov. Genealogiya vozvodit Timuridov k geroyam islamizasiy regiona, svyatym voinam, yakoby proiychodivshim ot Muhammada ibn ali-Hanafiya, potomky kotorogo predpolojiytelino upravlyaly zemlyami, pozje stavshimy territoriyamy dinastiy Timuridov. Dannaya genealogiya, opisannaya na arabskom yazyke, byla obnarujena v tetradi, prinadlejashey Aly ibn Kasimu ali-Musavy ali-Nadjafiy. Zametno, chto rodoslovnaya potomkov Timura v tetrady Ali-Nadjafy byla vstavlena ily nadstroena v rodoslovnuy Muhammeda ibn Ali-Hanafiiy. Osobenno fantastichna y naibolee stranna ta chasti rodoslovnoy, kotoraya soedinyaet Muhammeda ibn Ali-Hanafii y Iliyas Hana, tak kak vsego cherez chetyre pokoleniya posle ibn Ali-Hanafiy voznikaet sovershenno turkskoe imya - Karabugra Han, kotoryy privoditsya kak ego potomok. Pry etom mejdu Karachaghanom (Karacharom) y Muhammedom ibn Ali-Hanafiey viyden ogromnyy vremennoy razryv v shesti vekov, togda kak v rodoslovnoy ukazano toliko 14 pokoleniy. Odnako rodoslovnaya, nesmotrya na vse netochnosti, byla ubediytelinoy dlya svoih sovremennikov, tak kak otrajala sentralinoaziatskiy narrativ islamizasii, ukorenennyy v yasaviyskoy sufiyskoy tradisii, gde glavnym protagonistom vystupaet Ishak Bab – odin iz treh legendarnyh geroev, rasprostranyavshih islam. Issledovaniya D. DeViza y A. Muminova y dr. o naslediy Ishak Baba v narrativnoy y genealogicheskoy tradisiyah pokazali, chto dannyy narrativ slojilsya v period mongoliskogo vladychestva (HIII-HIV veka) sredy mestnogo musulimanskogo naseleniya. Ponyatno, chto, obedinyaya Timuridov s vliyatelinymy sufiyskimy sheyhami, rodoslovnaya vypolnyala chetkui politicheskui seli, tak kak sheyhy mogly brositi vyzov potomkam Timura za politicheskoe vliyaniye. Ishak bab y ego rodstvenniky provodily islamizasii, soglasno legendam, na territoriyah, kotorye istorichesky prinadlejaly dinastiy Karahanidov. Kogda try geroya dostigly Tashkenta (Chach), ony razdelilisi - Abd al-Rahim zavoeval Kashgar, pravil tam tridsati let y islamiziroval ego, takje, kak y Balasagun. Takim obrazom, rodoslovnaya Timuridov pokazyvaet ih kak potomkov legendarnoy dinastii, kotorye eshe do samogo Timura islamizirovaly region, byly voinamy za veru, no takje y ego praviytelyamiy. Podvodya itog, nujno otmetiti, chto, nesmotrya na to, chto dannaya rodoslovnaya vyglyadit fantasticheski, na samom dele ona neset glubokiy smysl. V ney mojno uviydeti dve glavnye formy legitimnosty vlasti: yasaviyskuy y alidskui. Narrativ Ishak baba esti svyazi s yasaviyskoy tradisiey. No takje v dannoy rodoslovnoy Timuridy predstavleny kak alidy (potomky Aliy). Morimoto privodit ryad epitafiy (iz memoriala Shah-y Zinda v Samarkande), gde govoritsya, chto legendarnaya Alan Goa iymela neporochnuiy svyazi s luchom sveta, prinyavshim formu cheloveka-potomka Aly ibn Abu Taliba (plemyannika proroka Muhammeda). Vozvedenie Timuridov k Aly proishodit parallelino chingizidskoy genealogii. Hotya ony obediyneny proishojdeniyem ot Alan Goa, dve dinastiy – timuridov (karahanidov) y chingizidov, pohoje, pretenduit na samostoyatelinye, hotya y parallelinye pozisii. My ne znaem, kto izobrel ee – pridvornyy timuridov ily sufiyskiy sheyh, no opredelenno ona slujila selyam ukrepleniya dinastiiy. Privyazka hodjey ily semeystv koja k Alidam, k Alan Goa (k drevu Chingishana) do sih por kursiruet sredy kojy v yujnyh regionah Kazahstana, chto ya zafiksiroval vo vremya polevyh rabot v 2014 godu. Ulan Bigojiyn».

Osy derekterden Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan aumaghyndaghy dәstýrli biylik Shynghyshan әuletine ghana emes, odan búryn kelgen qojalargha da tiyesili jәne Temirlan arghy teginde Shynghyshangha ghana emes hojalargha da tuys degen týsinik oryn alghanyn kóremiz. Sol Temirlan zamanynda arnayy shejire dayyndalyp, onda VIII ghasyrdan bastap Orta Aziya men Qazaqstandy biylegen qojalar әuleti jәne Temirlan arghy teginde solardyng úrpaghy dep kórsetilgen eken. «Qansha ótirik bolsa da oghan senetinder Ontýstik qojalary arasynda kóp» deydi Úlan Bighojiyn. Onyng bir sebebi «Qazaqta memleket bolmaghan, tipti óz biyleushisi de bolmaghan» dep halqymyzdyng tarihyn beyshara etip ózgertken orys imperiyasy sayasatynda jatyr. Óitkeni, olar IH-HIII ghasyrlar aralyghynda ómir sýrgen músylman dindi Qazaq handyghyn «Qarahaniyd» etip tariyhqa engizdi jәne ony biylegen qojalar әuleti degen jalghan tújyrymdy ornyqtyrdy.

Anyghynda, bizdegi qoja ruy – qazaqtyng ajyramas bir bóligi, olardyng qazaqqa odan da jaqyn boluyna «aqsýiek» degen qate týsinik kedergi. IYә, qoja – qazaqtyng bir taypasy, ol – eshqanday aqsýiek emes, qúrmetti ru. Óitkeni, Payghambarymyzdyng (s.gh.s) júrtynan. Qazaq halqynyng biyligine múrager dep tanylyp kelgen birden-bir ru – tóreler. Al qoja ruynyng biylikke esh múragerligi bolghan emes. Mysaly, qypshaq nemese nayman rulary qyrghyzda da bar. Alayda, olar ózderin eng әueli qyrghyz dep sanaydy, al bizding qypshaqtar pen naymandar ózderin әueli qazaq dep tanidy. Qazaq qojalarynda da ózderin eng әueli qazaq halqynan degen týsinik qalyptasuy memleketimizding bolashaghy ýshin asa qajet. Olardaghy «Ózbek hojalary – jaqyn tuysymyz, aqsýiekpiz. Sol sebepten qara qazaqpen qúdalasu – qatelik» degen týsinik qazaq memleketining bolashaghyna asa qauipti ekeni dausyz. Tóle biyding kenesshisi bolghan qojanyng keyin Tashkent qalasynan qazaqtardy quyp, ony ózbek qalasyna ainaldyrghany jayly tarihy derek sózimizge kuә.

Taraz, Almaty, Manghystau jәne basqa da aimaqtardaghy qojalar әldeqashan qazaqtyng ajyramas bóligine ainaldy. Olar qazaqtyng barsha rularymen qúdalasyp, sinisip ketken. Alayda, Týrkistan, Sozaq, Kentau aumaghyndaghy qojalarda ózbek tildilik basym, olardyng qazaqtan góri ózbekke jaqyn ekeni bayqalady. Sebebin ózbek halqyndaghy qojalarmen tyghyz qarym-qatynastary saqtaluynan izdegen jón bolar.

Jalpy qojalardyng barlyghyn sopylyq joldy ústanushylar deu – qatelik. Qazaqtyng asyl dini Islammen qayta jaqyn qauyshy jolynda qyruar enbek etip jatqan aghayyndy músylman ghalymdar – Smanovtar әuletining bir ózi talay nardyng jýgin kóterude. Olar ashqan medrese týlekteri Qazaqstan aumaghyndaghy talay meshitterde qyzmet etip, halqymyzdyng Ata dinine jaqyndauyna sebepker boluda. Alayda, sopylyq joldy qaru etken key qojalar toby memlekettegi din salasyn juyq bolashaqta óz qoldaryna aludy maqsat etkendey. Óitkeni, onday tәsil Temirlan zamanynan qoldanylyp kelgenin jogharyda aityp óttik.

Altyn Orda aumaghyn XIV ghasyrda aralap ótken arab sayahatshysy Ibn Batuta derekteri qazaq músylmandyghy men Orta Aziya halyqtary músylmandaryghynda ózindik erekshelikter bar ekenin aighaqtaydy. Ol Qyrym manyndaghy Kerish týbeginen bastap, Altyn Ordanyng Qyrym (Krymsk), Azaq (Taganrog), Majar (Kazanskaya stanisasy), Hajtúrghan (Astrahan), Ákki (Prohladnaya), el astanasy As-Saray (Aq qystau eldi mekeni many) qalalarynda bolyp, ol shaharlardyng týrk eline, yaghny qazaq halqyna tiyesili ekenin jәne olardyng músylmandyq ústanymdary jayly naqty derekter kórsetedi. Solardyng birde-birinde qazaq halqynda әuliyelerding qabirin qúrmetteu nemese keseneler salyp ziyarat etu dәstýri bary jazylmaghan. Mysaly, Hajytúrghan (Astrahan) qalasy ertede bir syily qajynyng mekeni bolghanyn, oghan han sol jerdi syigha bergenin jәne ol ýlkeyip әueli eldi mekenge, keyin alyp qalagha ainalghanyn bayandaydy. Alayda, sol qajynyng qabiri saqtalghanyn nemese onyng qabiri syiynu ornyna ainalghany aitylmaydy. Altyn Orda hany memleket astanasyndaghy din basshysyn qatty qúrmetteytinin, biyleushilerden bastap qarapayym qyzmetshilerge deyin bes mezgil namazyn qaza etpeytinin, sol sebepten jolgha shyqqanda kóshpeli meshitterin tastamaytynyn (kiyiz ýi-meshitter) jazady. Qymyz, boza ishetini, óitkeni Hanafy mazhaby oghan rúqsat etetinin aitady. Tamaq ishilip bolghan song qúran oqylyp, diny uaghyzdar aityluy dәstýr ekenin de bayandaydy. Han әielderining mýsәpirlerge kóp sadaqa beretinin de jetkizedi. Alayda, esh jerde «Altyn Orda aumaghyndaghy halyq әruaqqa syiynady nemese qabir-kesenelerge baryp mal shalatyn dәstýrleri bar» demegen.

Al Orta Aziyada barlyghy kerisinshe, Sarayshyq qalasynan (Qaraqalpaqstandaghy Hojeli qalasynan tórt kýndik jerdegi eski qalashyq ornynda) bastap, Hojeli (orysshada Hovarezm dep búrmalanghan), Búhara, Samarhan tәrizdi Orta Aziyalyq qalalardyng barlyghynda әuliyeler kesenesi kóp ekeni jәne ol qabirler jergilikti músylmandardyng syiynu ornyna ainalghany naqty derektermen bayandalady. Sol qalalardy biyleuge taghayyndalghan qazaqtardyng (oryssha «Shynghyshandyq tatarlar» dep kórsetilgen) jergilikti músylmandargha eliktep sol qabirler basyn ziyarat etuge daghdylanghanyn da aityp ótedi. Osy jazbalar Temirlan zamanyna deyingi qazaq halqy bir Allagha ghana syiynghanyna jәne bir Qúdaydan ghana qajetin súraghan tura joldaghy músylman el ekenine kuә. Haq joldan janylysu Temirlan biylegen zamanda bastalghan. Sondyqtan әuliyelerdi Allamen aradaghy «posredniyk» etuge daghdylanghan sopylyq joldy qazaqtyng ata-babasynyng joly degender qatty qatelesedi.

Qalay bolghanda da qazaq bir Allagha ghana syiynghan músylman, al qazirgi sopylyq jol - biylikke jetudi maqsat etken bir toptyng qaruy ghana. Óitkeni, onday sopylyq joldy ústanghandar ústazyna tolyq baghynyp, sol ústaz-әuliyesi arqyly ghana Alladan jәrdem súraytyn «zombi» topqa ainalady. Onday zombiy-músylmandardy basqaru, óz maqsattaryna qoldanu óte onay. Al qajetin tikeley bir Alladan súraytyn, óz betimen Qúran ayattary maghynasy men hadisterdi zerttep oqityn erkin músylmandy ózgening qolshoqpary etu qiyn. Arabqa úqsaymyz dep barynsha tyrysatyn, alayda sózderi oryssha key orystanghan músylman qazaqtargha renjiymiz dep sopylardyng qarmaghyna týspeyik, aghayyn. Qazaqtyng músylmandyghy esh arabtan kem bolmaghan. Biz músylman әuliyeler men ghalymdardy qúrmetteymiz, alayda olardyng qabirlerinen súramaymyz. Biz bir Alladan ghana tileytin, bir Allagha ghana syiynatyn qazaq halqymyz, ata-babamyzdyng joly sol. Osy joldy ústansaq ghana Allanyng qorghauynda bolamyz, osynday tura jol - memleketimiz ben últymyzdyng saqtaluynyng basty kepili bolyp tabylady. Al sopylyq joldyng Allanyng qaharyna úshyratatyna, onyng aqyry memleketimizding joyyluyna jәne últymyzdyng ózgege qúl boluyna apararyna ótken tarihymyzdyng ózi kuә.

Bekjan Ádenúly

Abai.kz

 

93 pikir