Sәrsenbi, 5 Qazan 2022
Janalyqtar 2587 0 pikir 4 Tamyz, 2011 saghat 08:16

Gýljan Kósherova. Qobyzdy últtyq brendige ainaldyratyn uaqyt jetti

Abay OMAROV (kollaj)

Abay OMAROV (kollaj)

Qobyz – tek qana últtyq muzykalyq aspap emes, sonymen birge Tәnirge tabynghan ata-babalarymyzdyng qasiyet tútqan bir totemi de bolghany belgili. Qasiyetti zat emes pe, kez kelgen ýiden tabyla bermeytini de sondyqtan shyghar. Býginde qaraghaydyng týbinen qayyryp alyp jasaytyn kiyeli aspapty qoldan shabatyn sheberdi tabu da - qiyn sharua.

Kenestik kezende әr nәrseden ilik izdep, timiskilenip jýretin sholaqbelsendi­ler qobyzdy baqsy-balgerlerding aspaby dep qara kýie jaqqysy da keldi. Biraq san ghasyr sorabynan aman-esen shyqqan qobyz býginde qazaqtyng bas aspaptarynyng qataryna qosyldy. Bayyrghy qazaq sheberleri onyng ishegin jylqynyng qúiryq qylynan jasaydy eken. Onda da soyylghan jylqynyng emes, tiri jylqynyng qúiryq qylyn júlyp alyp, túzgha salyp qaynatyp baryp, әbden baptap taghady eken. Qazir tym taralghan, qobyzdyng әuelgi túrpa­tynan tym jinishkerip ketken sym shekti qobyzdar shyqty. Qobyz siyaqty eki tize­ning ortasyna qysyp otyryp tartatyny bol­masa, onyng skripkadan aiyrmasy shama­ly. Al skripkany qobyzdyng kóshirmesi sa­nay­tyndar barshylyq.

Sonau kóneden kele jatqan kiyeli aspap ekige bólinedi. Birin – qylqobyz, ek­in­shisin narqobyz dep ataydy. Býginde kýy tartugha arnalghan túrqy shaghyn ghana aspapty qylqobyz atap jýr. Al nar­qo­byzdyng shanaghy ýlken. Onyng qyl­qo­byz­dan aiyrmasy basyna jezden, temirden soghylghan syldyrmaqtar ilingen, ýni kýrkiregen juan bolyp keledi. Tarihy de­rekterge sýiensek, narqobyzdy, negizi­nen, baqsylar shalghan siyaqty. Baqsy saryny atalatyn janr ghasyrlar boyy osy narqobyzben oryndalyp kelgen. Osy kýnge aty jetken qobyzshylardyng kóbi abyz, jyrau, baqsy bolghan. Býginde el ara­synda ony muzykalyq aspap retinde emes, emshilerge arnap jasaytyn sheberler barshylyq. Negizgi standart boyynsha emes, onyng dauysy kýnirenip shyqsa bolghany dep esepteytinder de joq emes. Al qobyzben emdeytin emshiler de neken-sayaq. Búrynghy baqsylyq dәstýrge saysaq, qobyz ýni adamnyng boyyndaghy jyn-shaytandy quady-mys. Osy sózding jany bar shyghar, rasynda, qobyzdyng kýnirengen qon ýnin estigen adamnyng túla boyy týrshigip, erekshe sezimge bólenetini de ras. Medisina tilimen aitqanda, qobyz ýnimen emdeu tәsilin meloterapiya dep ataydy... Sapaly jasalghan qobyzdyng ózi birneshe myng dollar túrady. Aghashtan shauyp alugha qansha qajyr-qayrat júmsalady. Shyghyny da bar. Býginde ónerpazdarymyz paydalanyp jýrgen narqobyz – 2 myn, 1 myng dollar túrady...

Shymqaladaghy tarihiy-mәdeny etnomú­rajay diyrektory Kendebay Qarab­dalov – altyn qoldy qobyz jasaushy sheber­lerding biri. Qobyzdy qalay jasaudyng qyr-syryn tereng mengergen ústa: «Qobyz jasaytyn aghashty úzaq keptiremin. Sonda ghana ol keremet ýn shygharatyn bolady. Qara aghashtan, qaraghaydan, emennen de jasaugha bolady. Keptirgen song ony ystap, әbden baptau qajet. Ózimning narqobyzymnyng shanaghyn nardyng terisinen jasaghanmyn. Qobyzdyng túla boyyna taghylghan әr ainanyn, jylqynyng qylynan iyirilgen shekting atqaratyn óz qyzmeti bar», – deydi. Qobyzdy jasaushylar ony kәsip emes, ata-babadan qalghan amanat dep esepteydi. Ári baghasyn da anau aitqanday aspangha úshyrmay, óz iyesine kelisimdi baghasyna satady. Kiyeli aspapty jasau da onay emes. Degenmen kiyege sengen ústalar nәpsige boy aldyrmay, qanaghat tútudy ýirengen.... Songhy әlette qobyzdyng estradalyq ýlgige týsken dybysy jii paydalanylyp jýr. Múnyng ózi estradada qobyz aspabynyng qaytalanbas sazdy әuenine airyqsha súranys bar ekendigin kórsetse kerek. Europa elderi danghaza estradadan әbden qajyp, mezi bolghan. Sondyqtan da olar qobyzdyng kýnirene, terennen tebirene shyghatyn ýnine ghashyq. Tyndaghan әueni «qúlaghynan kirip, boyyn alghan» son, olar qobyz siyaqty etnoaspaptardy joghary baghalaydy. Tipti shetelge gastrolidik saparmen jii shyghatyn ónerpazdarymyzgha aghylshyndar «bizding múnday kóne aspabymyz joq. Keremet qoy, qalay saqtap býginge jetkizgensizder?» dep tanghalypty. Olarda joq, bizde bar. Endeshe, bizge de qolda bardy qadirlep, qobyz siyaqty kóne jәdigerlerimizdi últtyq brendke ainaldyratyn uaqyt jetti.

 

Áuede – qobyz ýni

Qobyzben oryndalatyn shygharmalar býginde týrlenip, zamanauy ýlgide damyp keledi. Tyndarmandardyng qatary da molaya týsude. Juyrda otandyq bir әue kompaniyasy óz jolaushylaryna keremet syy jasady. Kompaniya úshaq borttarynda qobyzda oryndalghan kýilerdi san myndaghan jolaushylardyng nazaryna úsyndy. Býginde elding bәri esirik estradagha elitip jýrgen shaqta qobyzdyng tasada qalyp ketpey, bolashaqta damy beretinining aiqyn dәleli bolsa kerek.

Qorqyt-anyz

Qorqyt dese qobyz, qobyz dese Qorqyt eske týsetini ras. Negizinen, kiyeli aspapty VIII- IX ghasyrlarda Qorqyt jasaghan degen anyz bar. Anyzgha qúlaq týrsek, Qorqyt jigit jasyna jetkende týsine aq kiyimdi adam kirip, o dýniyelik bolatynyn aityp, ayan beredi. Baqigha attanghysy kelmegen Qorqyt jelmayasyna minip, әlemning әr týkpirin aralap, ajaldan qashyp qútylmaq bolypty. Biraq qayda barsa da ajalmen betpe-bet jolygha beripti. Amaly qalmaghan Qorqyt qobyz shauyp, jelmayanyng terisin shanaghyna kerip, kýnirene kýy shertipti. Qobyzdan shyqqan kiyeli ýnge ainalanyng bәri tynyp, kýige elitipti. Jylan beynesinde kelgen ajaldyng ózi de kiyeli sazgha elitip, bettey almaghan desedi.

Avtor: Gýljan Kósherova

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