Jeksenbi, 14 Tamyz 2022
Ózgeler 6855 21 pikir 16 Sәuir, 2021 saghat 14:02

Oralghandar eli – Izraili

Basy

Izraili jәne evreyler bizge ejelden tanys. Sebebi ol turaly qasiyetti Qúranda az aitylmaydy. Ol jәne tarihta Yahudy dini, Hristian dini jәne Islam dini taraghan qasiyetti meken. Izraili - qazirgi evreylerding Otany bolghan memleketting aty. Ol Qúranda esimi on jeti ret atalatyn Jaqyp Payghambardyng taghy bir esimi. Jaqypta 12 úl bolady. Izrailiding 12 taypasy sodan taraghan desedi. Tarihta Músa, Dәuit, Sýleymen jәne Isa Payghambarlar evreylerden taraydy. Qúranda Músa Payghambargha - Taurat, Dәuit Payghambargha – Zabur, Isa Payghambargha – Injilding týskeni aitylady. Bir qyzyghy, bizding býgingi úghymymyzda evreylerding obrazy ýnemi sýikimsiz, sýrkey tartyp túrady. Múnyng sebebi batys әleminin, әsirese, hristiandardyng yqpaly boluy әbden mýmkin. Bizge evreyler qazaq oqyrmandaryna keninen tanys Shekspirding «Venesiya saudageri» dramasynda ashkóz, ósimqor, etinnen et kesip alatyn bezbýirek  evrey saudageri Sheylok obrazy siyaqty elesteydi. Biraq adamzatqa erekshe ese qosqan Eynshteyn, Freyd, Zamengof,  Mendelison qatarly úly ghalymdarmen qosa, Nobeli syilyghynyng iyegerlerining ishinde evreylerding alar orny da erekshe. Álemge әigili ataqty ghúlamalar men úly oishyldar, sayasatkerlerding qatary da az emes. Al endi osylardyng bәri jer shary halqynyng 0,3 % ghana iyeleytin evreylerden shyghyp otyr. Búl jaghynan evrey últy adamzat órkeniyeti men ghylymyna óshpes ese qosqan úly qauymnyng sanatyna jatady.

Biraq, evreyler óz tarihynda qúldyq pen qughynnyn, ashtyq pen qyrghynnyng nebir zúlmatyn bastan ótkergen baqytsyz halyq boldy. Bir qyrynan otarshyldardan kórgen qorlyq pen zorlyghy bizding qazaqtargha kóbirek úqsaydy. Biz taghdyrlas halyqpyz. Evreyler óz atamekenin tastap ketuden búryn 8 mln jan sany bar irgeli últ bolatyn. Sodan eki myng jyldan songhy býgingi kýnde kýlli әlemdegi evreylerding sany 2019 jyldyng shilde aiyndaghy resmy sanaq boyynsha nebәri 16 mln adamdy qúraydy. Demek, әlemdegi qazaqtardyng sanynan da az degen sóz.

Bizding jyl sanauymyzdyng 132-135 jyldary oryn alghan Bar-Kohba kóterilisinen keyin Rim imperiyasynyng taghylyqpen janyshtauy jәne          qughyn-sýrgin men adamgershilikke jat ózge de sayasy sharalardyng kesirinen óz atamekenin tastap, әlemning týkpir-týkpirine taryday shashylyp ketken bolatyn. HIH ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda shyghys Europadaghy evreylerding jaghdayy kýn ótken sayyn qiynday bastady. Batys Europada da evreylerding teng qúqyly últtyq mәrtebe alyp, ekonomikalyq jaqtan baquatty elge bet alghandyghyna qaramastan, olargha qarsy óshpendilik pen qughyn-sýrgin qayta bas kóterip edi. Búl jaghdaylar Mozes Gess, Karl Marks, ravvin IYehuda Alkalay, ravvin Sviy-Girsh Kaliysher qatarly evrey oishyldaryn evreylerding últtyq mәselesin týbirinen sheshu joldaryn izdeuge mәjbýr etti. Olardyng oilap tapqany Yerusalimning janyndaghy ejelgi evrey patshalyghynyng biyleushisi Dәuit Payghambar jatqan qasiyetti jer Sion taugha qaytu úrany boldy. Onyng basty maqsaty - Palestinadaghy evreylerding ejelgi ata qonysynan ózderine ekonomikalyq jәne ruhany tirek tauyp, sol aragha toptasu arqyly tәuelsiz evrey memleketin qalyptastyru.

Atalghan arman-múrattyng jetegimen bir ghasyrgha juyq ózining tәuelsiz memleketin qalyptastyru jolyndaghy jan alyp, jan bergen kýresining nәtiyjesinde 1948 jyly 14-mamyrda ózining tәuelsizdigin jariyalady. Bir qyzyghy, Izraili әlemde birden-bir BÚÚ-nyng sheshimimen memleket qúrghan el. Áriyne, san ghasyr búryn tastap ketken bayyrghy evrey jerinen shanyraq kóterip, memleket qúru jәne ony kýlli әlemdik qauymdastyqqa moyyndatu onay bolghan joq. Sol kezde BÚÚ-nyng sheshimimen Izraili memleketine bólingen aumaq 15 200 sharshy km bolatyn. Al qazir 25 000 sharshy km aumaqqa iyelik etedi. Tәuelsizdikting alghashqy jylynda Izrailidegi evreylerding sany 650 myng ghana bolatyn. Sodan 70 jyldan astam uaqyt ótkennen keyingi býgingi kýnde ondaghan esege kóbeyip, 2019 jyldyng qazan aiyndaghy sanaq boyynsha 9 mln adamdy qúrap otyr. Ekonomikalyq tabystary da tanghajayyp. Últtyq qauipsizdik pen memleketting qorghanys quaty da adam shoshyrlyq. Sonyng arqasynda ainalasyna aibar shegip, Arab әlemine kýn bermey keledi. Biz evreyler men arabtardyng tarihtan qalyptasqan últtyq óshpendiligin qayyra túryp, evrey halqynyng san ghasyrgha sozylghan azapty ómiri men ózining tәuelsiz memleketin qalyptastyru jolyndaghy keshirmelerine keninen toqtalghandy jón kórip otyrmyz. Ásirese, evreylerding ózderining bayyrghy ata qonysynda memleket qúru men kóshi-qon sayasaty jas, tәuelsiz elimiz ýshin erekshe qymbat.

YQYLYM ZAMANDAGhY EVREYLERDING ELI

Izraili memleketi 70 jyldan asa ghana tariyhqa iye. Biraq Izraili sayasatkerleri, tarihshylary, din ghúlamalary bir auyzdan ózderining tarihyn tórt myng jylgha bir-aq jetkizedi. Sebebi olar Palestina jerin evreylerge Tәnir syilaghan qasiyetti meken dep biledi. Olardyng ata-babalary sol bir yqylym zamandarda osy topyraqta ósip-ónip, baquatty tirlik keshipti. Evreyler 2000 jylgha juyq basqanyng bosaghasynda telim bolyp,  sergeldendik ómirdi bastan ótkergen son, óz atamekenin qayta tauyp, Izraili memleketining týtinin qayta týtetipti. San ghasyrlyq sergeldendik ómir evreyler tarihynyng bir ghana qúramdas bóligi. Sol sebepti olar Izraili men evrey últynyng tarihyn bólip qarastyrmaydy eken. Áriyne, arabtar olardyng búl uәjine mysqylmen ghana jauap beredi. Halyqarada kóptegen tarihshylar da olardyng búl uәjine kýmәnmen jәne saqtyqpen qaraydy. Meyli, qalay desek te, Izraili tarihy men evrey últynyng tarihynyng bite qaynasyp ketkendigin eshkim de joqqa shygharmaydy. Arab-Izraili teketiresinde eki  jaq ta ejelgi tәpsirlerden sitata alyp, ózderin Palestina aimaghynyng zandy qojasy ekendigin dәleldeuge tyrysady. Sol sebepti Izraili tarihyn tereng zertteu ýshin evrey últynyng tarihyn tolyq sýzip shyghu lazym. Evreyler әlemde jan sany onsha kóp emes halyq. Biraq, yqpaly orasan. Adamzattyng mәdeniyet tarihynda olar búl ghalamgha Taurat, Zabur, Injildi syilaghan últ retinde әspetteledi.

QASIYETTI KITAPTAR HIKAYaSY

Shynayy tarih pen anyz-әpsanalardyng miday aralasyp ketui evreylerding ejelgi tarihynyng ereksheligi sanalady. Evreylerding ejelgi tarihynda IYegova, Jaqyp, Músalar jónindegi anyzdardyng shynayylyghyna  ghylymdy tu etken tarihshylar kýmәnmen qaraydy. Al evreylerding sanasynda Allanyng әmirin oryndaghan osynday Payghambarlar bolmaghanda evreylerding kýlli tarihy qazirgidey bolmas edi. Bylaysha aitqanda, evreylerding ejelgi ata-babalarynyn  erekshe qasiyeti jónindegi anyzdar ómirde naqty bolghan tarihy oqighalargha qaraghanda osy últtyng damuy men ruhany kelbetine dәl osynday erekshe yqpal jasamaghan bolar edi. Evreylerding ejelgi tarihy jogharyda bayandalghan qasiyetti kitaptarda keninen bayandalady. Qúranda da evreyler jóninde az aitylmaydy jәne olardyng payghambarlyq qasiyetine shek keltirmeydi.

Qazirgi Izrailidikterding ata-babasy evreyler dep atalady. Olar bayyrghy zamanda batys Aziyany mekendegen semitterding bir tarmaghy sanalady. Olar búryn kóshpendi taypa bolatyn. Injilde olardyng búryn  qos ózen alabyndaghy Ur qalasyn mekendegendigi jayly aitylady. Ur ejelgi shumerlerding astanasy. Ejelgi shumerler kóp Qúdayly, adamdary týrli totemderge tabynatyn halyq boldy. Al evreyler negizinen óz taypalarynyng Qúdayy sanalatyn IYegovagha senetin. Avraam taypa kósemi bolghan son, ejelgi Vavilondyqtardyn  dindik qysymyna tap bolyp, qughyn kóredi. Sol kezdegi patsha Hammurapy óz qarastylyghyndaghy taypalardy ózining tabynatyn Qúdayy Marodakka senuge mәjbýrleydi. Al oghan shek keltirgender qatang jazalanatyn. Evreyler múnday diny qudalaugha mýlde tóze almady. Anyzda osy kezde IYegova Qúdayy Avraamgha ayan berip basqa jaqqa qonys audaryp, óz memleketin qúrudy búiyrady. Avraam óz taypasyn bastap, Urdan ketip, Efrat ózenin boylap, soltýstikti betke alyp, tartyp otyrady. Olar Harran ótkeli arqyly batysqa bettep, myng bir mashaqatta Hanaangha, yaghni, býgingi Palestina jerine kelip taban tireydi. Hanaan degenimiz Hanaandyqtardyng mekeni sanalady. Olar óz jerlerine kelip qonys tepken taypany evreyler dep atap ketedi. Onyng maghynasy «ózenning arghy jaghynan kelgender» degen sóz bolatyn. Avraam Hanaangha kelip ornyghysymen, IYegova Qúdayy taghy ayan berip, oghan: «Sen basyndy kóterip, shyghys pen batysty, ontýstik pen soltýstikti barlap qara. Sening kózing jetken jerding bәrin men sen jәne sening úrpaghyna syigha tartatyn bolamyn jәne ol senderding mәngilik qonystaryng bolady» - deydi. Atalghan anyzdyng negizinde Palestinany Alla Taghala evreylerge arnayy syilapty. Múnday senim evreylerding búljymas nanymyna ainalyp, olardyng qanyna singen qasiyetti úghym sanalady. Evreyler keluden búryn Hanaandyqtar taptyq qoghamgha bet alyp, ekonomikasy men mәdeniyeti aitarlyqtay órkendegen el edi. Injilde ol turaly:  «Sýt pen bal aghyp jatqan meken» - dep suretteledi. Alghash kelgende evreylerding ekonomikasy men mәdeniyeti Hanaandyqtardan kóp mesheu bolatyn. Qúdiretti Hanaandyqtardyng ózderin qúldanyp, assimilyasiyalauynan qorghanu ýshin Avraam diny senimning kýshimen óz taypasyn ainalasyna toptastyra bildi. Ol: «Evreylerding Qúdayy IYegova erekshe qúdiretti. Evreyler IYegovanyng sýigen qúldary sanalady. IYegova men evreyler qasiyetti shartqa qasam bergender. IYegova Tәniri bizge baqyt pen baylyq syilaydy jәne bizdi qorghaydy» - dep sendiretin. IYegovanyng taghy bir aty Hristian dininde evreylerding Qúdayy  Yahviyding (mәngilik ghúmyr keshushi) qate oqyluy. Keyin kele osy qatelik eshbir týzetilmesten IYegova bolyp  tariyhqa endi. Avraamnyng da әuelgi esimi Abram bolatyn. Bir kýni IYegova Qúdayy oghan ayan berip: «Sening atyng Avraam bolsyn!» - depti. Onyng maghynasy «býkil elding atasy» degen sóz edi. Mine, solay Avraam bir ghana Tәnirge senetin nanymdy qalyptastyrdy. Búl  evreylerding Yahudy dinining bastauy bolatyn. Avraamnyng balasy Ysqaqqa Payghambarlyq qonyp, qasiyetti Qúdysta 80 jyl ghúmyryn ótkizipti. Qartayghan shaghynda Allanyng raqymymen egiz úl kóripti. Birinshisining esimi IYesu, ekinshisining esimi Jaqyp eken. Ysqaq Jaqypqa erekshe meyiri týsip, alghys-batasyn beredi. IYesu oghan qyzghanshaqtyq etip, ony óltiruge niyet etip jýredi eken. Múny sezgen sheshesi Jaqypty naghashysyna jiberedi. Naghashysyna barar jolda týsine aspangha órlep bara jatqan perishteler kiredi. Alla Taghala Jaqypqa: «Men saghan bereke bereyin. Úrpaghyndy kóbeytemin. Osy jerdi – Baitl Múhadasty sol úrpaqtaryna meken etemin» - deydi. Sol týsi boyynsha Allagha arnap bir ghibadathana saludy maqsat tútady. Keyin ghibadathana salatyn oryn belgileydi. Sol jerde Baitl Múhadas boy kóteredi. Jaqyp Ysqaq ólgen son, evrey taypalarynyng kósemine ainalady. Jaqyp biylik qúrghan jyldary Hanaanda qaghyrshylyq apaty bolyp, egis alqaptary tolyghymen kýiip ketedi. Ashtyqtan adamdar qyryla bastaydy. Halqyn aman saqtau ýshin Jaqyp Payghambar elin bastap, ontýstikke bettep, Nil ózenining qúyar saghasyndaghy Goshen aimaghyna qonys audarady. Evreyler Mysyrdy 430 jyl meken etipti. Jat jerge barghan son, olar Mysyr perghauyndaryna qúldyqqa jegilip, azapta ghúmyr keshedi. Ýlken Ramzes II perghauynynyng zamanynda (mólshermen jana eradan búrynghy 1317-1251 jyldary aralyghy) evreylerding Levy taypasynan shyqqan Músa Payghambar  Mysyrdy tastap,evreylerdi bastap Palestinagha qayta oralady. Sóitip, olar tórt ghasyrgha sozylghan qúldyqtan әreng qútylady. Evreylerding pasha merekesi IYegova Qúdayynyng qoldauymen jeniske jetip,  Mysyrdan qashyp shyqqan  kýnning qúrmetine arnalghan. «Mysyrdan ketu esteligi» dep atalatyn kitapta jazuynsha IYegova Qúdayy evreylerding Mysyrdan qashyp shyghuyn qorghap-qoldauy ýshin jәne olardyng arasyna bytyray  qonystanghan Mysyrlyqtardy óltiru ýshin evreylerdi óz shatyrlaryna qoydyng qanyn jaghyp, belgi salugha búiyrypty. IYegova Qúdayy evreylerdi sol qanmen boyalghan belgileri arqyly tanyp, qapyda jazym etuden saqtap qalady. Sol sebepti evreylerding pasha merekesin «qashyp qútylu merekesi» dep atasa da bolady. Evreylerding Mysyr perghauyndarynyng qandy shengelinen aman qútylghan osy erlikterin batys әlemi týgeldey azattyqqa úmtylghan últtardyng simvoly sanaydy. Bendjamin Franklin men Tomas Djeffersonday AQSh qúrushy úly túlghalardyng ózi Músa Payghambardyng bastauymen Qyzyl Tenizdi keship ótip, Mysyrdan aman qútylghan erlikterin Amerikanyng memlekettik gerbine ainaldyrghan bolatyn. Jәne oghan «qatygez biyleushilerge qarsy túryp, Tәnirge moyynúsynu» degen sózderdi jazyp qaldyrghan edi.

Músa Payghambar evreylerdi bastap, Qyzyl Tenizdi kesip ótip, Sinay qúmyna baryp tyghylady. Atalghan shól dalada olar qyryq jyl ghúmyr keship, myng bir mashaqatpen Sinay tauynyng etegine jetedi. Sinay tauyna barghan son, IYegova Qúdayy Músagha on týrli ósiyetti ayan etedi. Búl Taurattaghy әigili «Músanyng on týrli ósiyeti» dep atalady. Al Qúranda Músa Payghambar eng kóp atalatyn túlgha. Ol túnghysh sharighat zandaryn jasaushy Payghambar retinde dәripteledi.

Músanyng on týrli ósiyetining ómirge kelui Yahudy dinining ómirge kelgeninen derek beredi. Músa evreylerdi bastap, «Tәnir syilaghan jerdin» shetine ilinip, óz missiyasyn ayaqtar aldynda Alla ony óz panasyna alyp ketedi. Evreyler Músanyng izbasary Iisus Navinning bastauymen jalghasty sapar shegip, Hanaangha qaytyp oralady. Jana eradan búryn 13-ghasyrgha kelgende evreyler Hanaandyqtar men basqa da taypalardy baghyndyryp, kóshpeli ómirden otyryqshylyq túrmysqa bet aldy. Osymen bir uaqytta rulyq týzim de ydyrap tyndy. Osydan keyin soltýstikte evreylerding on taypasy birlesken taypalar odaghy qalyptastyp, ózderin Izraili dep atady. Al Óli Tenizding batys-ontýstik bóliginde Djamin jәne Iuda taypalarynyng taghy bir odaghy qúrylyp, «Iuda» dep ataldy. Búl dәuir evreylerding tarihynda «biylerding dәuiri» dep әigileydi. Ondaghy by taypalar odaghynyng kósemi sanalady. Olardy «Payghambar», «biyleushi» jәne «qútqarushy» dep, pir sanap, әspetteydi. Olar Qúdaydyng evreylerdi biyleu ýshin tandap alghan pendesi sanaydy. Biyler dәuiri is jýzinde evreylerding әskery demokratiyalyq dәureni sanaldy. Evreyler Hanaandyqtardy baghyndyru kezinde Krit aralynan kelgen tenizdik  Filistimlyandyqtardyng qatty qarsylyghyna tap boldy. Olar osy ólkede eng alghash metal qarulardy qoldana bilgen últ bolatyn. Olardyng soghys quaty erekshe kýshti boldy. Palestina degen úghymnyng ózi Filistimlyandyqtar degen sózding týrlenuinen kelip shyqqan. Filistimlyandyqtarmen  soghysta evreyler san mәrte jenilis tapty. Tipti, evreylerding qasiyetti kelisim kitaby salynghan sandyqtyng ózi Filistimlyandyqtargha qoldy bolghan kezderi de boldy. Soghystaghy jenilis evrey taypalarynyng birligin nyghayta týsti. Soghys barysynda әr taypanyng kósemderining de biyligi artty. Búl ýrdis memleketting qalyptasuyn tezdetti. Mine, osylay ejelgi evreyler syrtqy jaumen soghys barysynda birtindep tútas bir últ bolyp qalyptasty.

Jana eradan búryn 11-ghasyrgha kelgende halyq mәjilisi Sauldy evreylerding túnghysh patshasy etip saylady. Sodan bastap evreylerding mәdeniyet tarihy nemese taptyq qogham tarihy bastaldy. Saul evreyding 12 taypasyn biriktirip, birtútas armiya qúryp, Filistimlyandyqtarmen soghysyp, jeniske jetti. Biraq Sauldyng ózi soghys maydanynda shahid boldy. Saul ólgen song evrey taypalarynyng kósemi Dәuit Payghambar Sauldyng úlymen patshalyq taqqa talasyp, búl tartys Dәuit  Payghambardyng jenisimen ayaqtaldy da, ol evreylerding patshasy bolyp saylandy. Dәuit taqqa otyrghan son, Qúdysty astana etip belgiledi de, ony Dәuit qalasy atady. Búl býgingi IYerusaliym  shahary bolatyn. Resmy tarih Dәuitti danqty qolbasy, asqan sayasatker bolghan desedi. Ol erekshe quatty armiyany jasaqtap, Filistimlyandyqtardy birjolata jendi de, birtútas, erekshe quatty evrey patshalyghyn qalyptastyrdy. Ol 40 jyl taqta otyrghan kezde san mәrte joryqqa attanyp, kýlli Qara Tenizding shyghys jaghalauyn tolyqtay baghyndyryp, ózine alman-salyq tólep túratyn baghynyshty elderge ainaldyrdy. Finikiyalyqtar men azdaghan Filistimlyandyqtar ghana Dәuit patshagha baghynyshty bolghan joq. Memleketting birtútastyghyn  odan beter bekemdey týsu ýshin biylikti ortalyqqa shoghyrlandyru arqyly Yahudy dinin barynsha dәriptep, ony birtútas evrey patshalyghynyng memlekettik dinine ainaldyrdy. Dәuit Payghambar biylik qúrghan dәuirde IYerusalim kýlli evreylerding sayasy jәne diny ortalyghyna ainaldy. Qazirgi evreyler men Izraili memleketi Dәuit Payghambardy últtyq qaharman, memleketting atasy sanaydy. Mәdeniyet pen ónerding qayta gýldenu dәuirinde Italiya mýsinshisi Miykelandjelonyng әigili sәulet tuyndysy «Dәuit» osy Dәuit Payghambardyng beynesi negizinde somdalghan. Dәuit Payghambar ómirden óter aldynda ózining kishi úly Sýleymen Payghambardy ózine múrager etip bekitti. Sýleymen jiyrma jasynda taqqa otyrdy. Zaburdyng «Patshalar» dastanynda Sýleymen Payghambardy qaru men qaghazgha birdey jetik, aqylyna erligi say, el basqarudyng eptisi, kemenger biyleushi retinde suretteydi. Sýleymen Payghambardyng biyligi kezinde evrey patshalyghy sayasaty әdil, óndirisi damyghan, «qoy ýstine boztorghay júmyrtqalaghan» memleketting gýldengen dәuiri boldy. Búl kezeng evrey últynyng tarihyndaghy altyn dәuir sanalady. Evreyler Sýleymen Payghambardyng eng úly enbegi IYerusalim qalasyn salumen birge IYerusalim ghibadathanasyn salu dep biledi. Sýleymen Sion tauynda IYegovagha arnap alyp ghibadathana túrghyzady. Qúrylysqa jeti jyl uaqyt júmsalypty. Ghibadathananyng kórki kóz sýrintedi. Altynmen aptalyp, kýmispen qaptalghan. Sol zamandaghy qúrylys ónerining jauhary sanalady. Búl dәuir Yahudy dinining de dәurendegen kezi bolatyn. Sýleymen patsha ómirining songhy kezinde sәn-saltanat pen qyzyq-qúmargha berilip, saraydan saray saldyryp, halyq qazynasyn susha shashqandyqtan elding renishin tudyryp, memleketti qúldyratyp jiberdi desedi. Soghan qaraghanda, qartayghansha oryn-taqqa kenedey jabysyp otyratyndardyng kóbi qansha jerden danyshpa «ghasyr ghúlamasy» bolsa da memleketke jaqsylyq әkelmeytin kórinedi. Perishtelermen kýnde tildesip otyratyn Payghambardyng ózi solay bolghanda jay pendeden ne súraysyn?!

Sýleymen patsha ómirden ótkennen keyin, quatty evrey patshalyghy ekige bólindi. Soltýstigindegiler sol bayaghyday Izraili patshalyghy dep ataldy da, on ýlken taypa Samariyany astana etti. Al ontýstik bóligi evrey patshalyghy dep ataldy da, sol bayaghyday IYerusalimdi astana etti. Ekige bólingen evreyler  ózara jaulasyp, memleketting berekesin ketirdi. Sol dәuirde olarmen teng keletin basqa da quatty patshalyqtar bolmaghandyqtan, eki memleket eki jýz jyl derbes jәne qatar ómir sýre aldy.

Jana eradan búrynghy 8-ghasyrgha kelgende,  qos ózen alabyndaghy Assiriyalyqtar kýsheyip, batys Aziyanyng sayasy jaghdayyn basqa arnagha búryp jiberdi. Assiriyalyqtar aldymen Izrailidi tize býktirip, olargha alman-salyq tóletti. Sonynan, jana eradan búrynghy 721-jyly Samariya qalasyn jaulap aldy. Olar patshadan qarashagha deyin 27 000 adamdy tútqyngha týsirip, Izrailidi Assiriyanyng bir ólkesine ainaldyrdy. Al evrey patshalyghy odan keyin de 100 jylday ómir sýrdi. Biraq, Assiriyalyqtargha auyr alman-salyq tóleuding esebinen ghúmyr keshti. Jana eradan búrynghy 605-jyly Assiriya jana Vavilon tarabynan joyyldy da, endi jana Vavilon patshasy Navuhodonosor II men Mysyr perghauyny Neho II Palestinagha talasqan soghystyng otyn tútandyrdy. Navuhodonosor II IYerusalimdi on segiz ay boyy qorshaugha alyp, jana eradan búrynghy 586-jyly ony jaulap aldy. Qatigez jau qalany qangha boyap, qala qamaldaryn kýl-talqan etti. Sýleymen Payghambar saldyrghan ghibadathanany týgin qaldyrmay tonap, qirandagha ainaldyryp jiberdi. Evreyding patshasynan tartyp,  uәzir-aqsýiekteri qolóner sheberlerimen qosyp jýz myndaghan adamdy tútqyn retinde Vavilongha aidap ketti. Olar sol arada jarty ghasyr qúldyqta jýrdi. Búl tarihta «Vavilon qúldyghy» dep atalady.

«Vavilon qúldyghy» dәuirinde jat júrtta qúldyqta bolghan evreyler jana diny iydeyany oilastyryp jatty. Olar IYegova Qúdayynan ózderin qútqarushy Messiyany jiberudi tilep, jat júrttardyng ýstemdiginen qútqaryp, óz memleketin qayta týletudi armandady. Múnday iydeyany, eng aldymen, IYezekiili Payghambar qúldyqta jýrgen evreylerding arasynda nasihattay bastady.  Payghambar atanghan adam perishteler arqyly Qúdaymen tildesip otyratyn, sol arqyly aldyn-ala bәrin boljap-biletin danyshpandar dep qaralatyn. Olardyng kóbi ghúlamalyq bilimi bar bayqampaz, alghyr, ziyaly adamdardyng ortasynan shyghatyn. Jana eradan búrynghy 538-jyly parsylar jana Vavilondy talqandady. Parsynyng patshasy Úly Kir II evreylerding Palestinagha qaytyp, IYerusalim ghibadathanasyn qayta salugha rúqsat berdi. IYezekiili Payghambardyng sәuegeyligi  birtindep ómir shynlyghyna ainala bastady. Aytulargha qaraghanda, birinshi topta 40 myng adam óz eline oralypty. Evrey dinbasylary IYerusalimde әkimshilik pen dinning ýstemdigi biriktirilgen biylik jýiesin qalyptastyryp, parsy imperiyasyna baghyndy. Jana eradan búrynghy 516-jyly qayta salynghan ghibadathananyng qúrylysy ayaqtaldy. Ol evreyler tarihynda ekinshi ghibadathana atymen belgili. Sol arqyly Sýleymen patsha saldyrghan alghashqy ghibadathanadan paryqty aitylady. Osymen bir uaqytta evreyler Tauratnyng jana núsqasyn qúrastyrugha kirisip, diny sharighattar men diny rәsimderdi belgilep, Yahudy dinining songhy qalyptasu ýrdisin ayaqtady. Yahudy dinining qalyptasu barysynda evreyler atam zamannan beri saqtalyp qalghan jazbalardy din ghúlamalarynyng saraptauymen retke keltirip, diny joralghylardyng talaptaryna ýilesetin jalpy jinaq shygharyp, ony Taurat dep atady. Evreyler Tauratty Qúday men adamdardyng arasyndaghy kelisim retinde qarastyrady. Taurat evreylerding tarihy dastany, anyz-әpsanalary, diny ósiyetteri men diny anyzdardyng jiyntyghy. Qúran ayattaryna zer salsaq, búl qasiyetti kitap Hazireti  Músa dýniyeden ótken son, kóp uaqyt ótpesten-aq әuelgi týpnúsqasynan auytqy bastaghan. Uaqyt óte kele, Izraili úrpaqtary kóptegen qughyn-sýrginge úshyrap, Taurat kitaby saqtalghan sandyqty joghaltqan. Osy sekildi jayttar Taurat kitabynyng mazmúnynyng ózgeriske úshyrauyna әkep soqtyrady. Álemde eski ósiyet atymen tanylghan Taurat kitabynyng bizge belgili ýsh núsqasy bar:

  1. Yahudiyler men Protestanttar senimindegi ibrit tilindegi núsqasy;
  2. Rim jәne shyghys hristian shirkeuleri qabyl etken grek tilindegi núsqasy;
  3. Samiriylerding qabyl etken «Samiy-riyshe» núsqasy;

Taurat adamzattyng mәdeniyet qazynasynda erekshe mәnge ie mәdeny múra.  Ol keyin kele Hristian dini men orta ghasyrlyq Europagha sheshushi yqpaly boldy. Hristian dini Yahudy dinining bir Tәnirlik ústanymymen әlemdi qútqarushy qúdiret iydeyasyna múragerlik etti. Tipti, Tauratty tolyghymenen qabyldady dese de bolady. Biraq hristiandar Tauratty tolyq emes, sondyqtan Alla Taghala keyin taghy óz Payghambarlaryn jiberip, adamdarmen basqasha uaghdalasty dep sanaytyndyqtan. Tauratty «eski ósiyet» dep ataydy. Sol arqyly alghashqy Hristian dinin taratushylar qúrastyrghan Injildi «jana ósiyet» dep atap, Taurattan paryqtaydy. Hristiandardyng Injili ekeuining birikken núsqasy dese de bolady. Taurattaghy oqighalar men keyipkerler eki myng jyldan beri batys әdebiyetindegi shygharmashylyq jasampazdyqtyng mәngi sarqylmaytyn qaynar kózine ainalghan. Onyng keyingi dәuirge bolghan ghalamat yqpaly Qúrannan búrynghy eshqanday kitappen salystyrugha kelmeydi.

Jana eradan búrynghy 333 jyly Makedoniya patshasy Eskendir Zúlqarnayyn Palestinany basyp aldy. Al Eskendir Zúlqarnayyn ómirden ótken son, ilgerindi-keyindi Mysyrdyng Ptolemey patshalyghy men Siriyanyng Selevkidter patshalyghy Palestinany biyledi. Osy mezgilde Iudeya atauy ómirge keldi. Sol kezdegi grekter Palestinanyng ontýstik ónirin osylay ataghan kórinedi. Maghynasy  «evreylerding jeri» degenge sayady. Ptolemey patshalyghy dәuirinde bir bólim evreylerdi Mysyrdyng Aleksandriya qalasyna aidap aparyp, qúldyqta ústaydy. Keyin olar qúldyqtan azat etilipti. Olardyng arasynan Aleksandriya qalasynda túratyn evreyding 70 oqymystysy Tauratty ibrit tilinen grek tiline audarady. 70 oqymysty әrqaysysy jeke-jeke bólmede túryp, ózara bir-birimen baylanyssyz jaghdayda әrqaysysy tútas kitapty tolyghymen audaryp shyghady. Bir qyzyghy, jetpisining audarmasy, sóz-sóilemi, ýtir-nýktesine deyin birinen-biri tughanday bolyp shyghypty desedi. Taurattyng osy audarma núsqasyn keyingiler jetpis ghúlamanyng grek tilindegi núsqasy dep ataydy.

Jana eradan búrynghy 198-jyly Siriyanyng Selevkidter patshalyghy Palestinany basyp alady. Selevkidter patshalyghy grektik assimilyasiyalandyru sayasatyn qoldanyp, IYerusalimdi grek ýlgisindegi qalagha ainaldyrugha tyrysady. Jana eradan búrynghy 168 jyly Selevkidter Yahudy dinin zansyz dep jariyalap, evreylerdi basqa dinge senuge mәjbýrleydi. Tipti, olar evreylerdi atyp-asyp, kiyeli ýidi tonap ketedi. Búl evreylerding qatty qarsylyghyna úshyrap, evreyler óz ravviyni Matianyng basshylyghynda qaruly kóteriliske shyghady. Matia qaytys bolghan son, evreyler onyng úly Iudanyng basshylyghynda jalghasty kýresedi. Iuda erekshe qayratty, erjýrek qolbasy bolypty. Ony adamdar syrttay «makkabi» dep ataydy eken. Onyng maghynasy qúrysh balgha nemese kýrzi  degendi bildiredi. Sol sebepti búl kóterilisti tarihshylar makkaby kóterilisi dep ataydy. Eki jylgha sozylghan qan-qasap soghystan keyin jana eradan búrynghy 165-jyly evreyler IYerusalimdi basyp alyp, kóterilisti jenispen ayaqtaydy. Selevkidter patshalyghy evreylerding tәuelsizdigin moyyndaugha mәjbýr bolady.   Makkaby әuleti diny ýstemdik ornatyp, makkaby patshalyghy dep ataldy. Osydan son, qasiyetti ýy qalpyna kelip, Yahudy dini de órken jayady. Makkaby әuleti Palestinany jýz jyldan asa uaqyt biyledi.

Jana eradan búrynghy 2-ghasyrda Rim imperiyasynyng yqpal-kýshi Jerorta tenizining shyghys jaghalauyna jetti. Jana eradan búrynghy 64-jyly Rimdikter Siriyany basyp alyp, ózining bir baghynyshty ólkesine ainaldyrdy. Palestina qater astynda qaldy. Jana eradan búrynghy 63-jyly Rim generaly Pompey IYerusalimdi jaulap alyp, on eki myng adamdy oqqa baylap, Palestinany Siriyagha biriktirdi. Rim imperiyasynyng ýstemdigi kezinde evreyler ýnemi qaruly qarsylyq kórsetip, Rimdikterding qatygez basqynshylyghyna ýzdiksiz qarsy shyghyp otyrdy. Jana eranyng 66-jyly Rim gubernatory Florus qasiyetti saraygha ashyq tonau jýrgizdi. Onyng әskerleri qasiyetti saraygha kiruge kedergi jasaghan barlyq adamdy qyryp saldy. Búl kezde tózimi tausylghan evreyler qolyna qaru alyp, әlemdegi eng qúdiretti imperiyagha qarsy soghysty. Búl tarihta evrey soghysy dep ataldy. Evreyler qaru-jaraq pen azyq-týlikting tapshylyghyna qaramastan, IYerusalimdi jan sala qorghady. Aqyr sonynda, Rimdikter IYerusalimge basyp kirdi. Eki jaq qasiyetti saray ýshin qiyan-keski úrys salyp, nәtiyjesinde qasiyetti saraydyng ózi qirandagha ainaldy. Jan keshti jasaqtyng eng songhy bir toby Óli Tenizding jaghasyndaghy jartasqa salynghan Masada qamalyna sheginip, sol arada ýsh jyl qarsylyq kórsetti. Jana eranyng 73-jyly 960 evrey jasaghy er-әiel, kәri-jasyna qaramastan Rim jasaghyna beriluden bas tartyp, toptyq týrde ózderine qol júmsap, erlikpen qaza tapty. Osydan keyin «Masada» degen sóz evrey últynyng ólispey, berispeytin qarsylyq ruhynyng simvolyna ainaldy. Evreylerding qarsylyghy Masada qamalynyng alynuymen ayaqtalghan joq. Sodan jarty ghasyr ótkende jana eranyng 132-jyly Bar-Kohbanyng basshylyghynda evreyler taghy da kóteriliske shyqty. Kóterilisshiler Rimdikterdi quyp shyghyp, IYerusalimdi qaytaryp aldy. Oghan tózbegen Rim imperatory asa quatty qosyndaryn attandyryp, IYerusalimdi taghy da jaulap aldy. Bar-Kohbanyng jasaqtary IYerusalimnen ontýstikke qaray 12 shaqyrym jerdegi Betal qamalyna bekinip, taghy da 3,5 jyl soghys saldy. Sonynda, qamal talqandalyp, Bar-Kohba erlikpen qaza tapty. Rimdikter evreylerding qarysylyq sezimderin birjolata óshiru ýshin IYerusalimning aman qalghan barlyq ghimarattaryn jermen jeksen etip qiratyp, tazalap, soqamen jyrtyp, qúlazyghan qu dalagha ainaldyrdy. Evreyler ayausyz qyrghyngha úshyrady. Sol kezde qúl retinde basqa elderge satylyp ketken evreylerding sany jarty millionnan asypty. Aman qalghandarynyng ózi Palestinadan quylyp, kýlli әlemge taryday shashylyp ketti. Osydan bastap evreyler Palestinada ómir sýruin toqtatty.

Bizding jyl sanauymyzdyng basynda ómir sýrgen Isa Payghambar, Qúranda Mәriyamúly Isa Mәsih dep aitylady. Isa - Qúranda aty atalghan 25 Payghambardyng biri. Onyng esimi Qúranda 25 ret atalady. Ol Islam men Hristianda birdey moyyndalghan. Isagha Alla Taghala Injildi jibergen desedi. Isa ózining qysqa ghúmyrynda Allanyng izgi jolyn dәriptep, kóp enbektengenimen, oghan bar joghy 12 shәkirt (Qúranda «hauari» dep atalady) qana eripti. Onyng biri sonynda ony satyp ketken mýnafyq bolyp shyghady. Evreyler oghan ermek týgili, ony óltiruge oqtalady. Nәtiyjesinde, Alla Taghala Jәbireyildi jiberip, Isany kókke alyp ketken desedi. Al evreylerding krestke shegelep óltirgeni ony satyp ketken shәkirti Taytanos eken. Isanyng ólimi Hristian dini men Yahudy dinindegilerding arasyndaghy mәngilik óshpendilikke úlasty.

Rim imperiyasynyng ýstemdiginen keyin evreylerding tragediyagha toly, otansyz, bosqyndyq ómir bastaldy. Jәne ol tym úzaq – 2000 jylgha juyq uaqytqa sozyldy.

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