Jeksenbi, 1 Tamyz 2021
Talqy 13214 48 pikir 10 Mausym, 2021 saghat 15:26

Jonghar dalasynyng joghaluy. Qalmaq qalay qyryldy?

Óz uaqytynda úly Qytay men Qazaq handyghynyng aralyghyn alyp jatqan Jonghar handyghy at ýstindegi jauynger el bolghany tarihy shyndyq. Qytaylar «Juun-gar» dep ataghan (qaraqshy adamdar) qalmaqtardyng tolassyz joryghy tek qazaq ýshin ghana emes, Qytay memleketine de auyr tiydi.

Olardyng qalalary men eldimekenderin ýnemi tonap ketip otyrdy. Ýsh ghasyrda arghy jaghyndaghy qytay men bergi jaghyndaghy qazaqtardyng әlsiz jaqtaryn bes sausaghynday bilip alghan qalmaq qontayshylary qayta-qayta shýrshitti tonap, juynu degendi bilmeytin, qolansa sasyghan júrtyna molynan azyq-týlik әkelip, sonday-aq әlsin-әlsin momyn qazaqqa shabuyldap, shúrayly jaylauy men qys qystauyn tartyp alyp, jerin ýnemi keneytip otyrghan.

Kezinde ekspedisiyamen jýrip, oida-joqta qolgha týsip, solargha qyzmet etken shved ofiyseri Yuhan Gustav Renattyng jazuynsha, ontýstikte Horezmge deyingi jәne soltýstikte Tobyl suyna deyingi aralyqty jaulap alyp, úlan-baytaq Jonghar qaghanatyn qúrudy mejege alghan kórinedi. Qalay desek te, qazaq jәne Ortalyq Aziya elderimen soghys barysynda az uaqytqa bolsa da olar imperiya qúra aldy. Sol Renattyng «Djungarskaya stepi» atty jazbalarynda jәne onyng jonghar – qalmaq qonys etken mekenderin qaghazgha týsirgen kartasynda, shyn ba, әlde ósirip jazghan ba, sol uaqyttaghy qalmaqtardyng sanyn tórt milliongha juyq dep kórsetken. Qúba qalmaqtar qatang tәrtipke baghynghan, qontayshylarynyng búiryghyn qalay da oryndaugha kýsh salatyn әskery el dep jazypty.

Sol Jonghar qontayshylary men batyrlarynyng talay kenesine qatysqan shved ofiyseri «Olardyng týpki oiy – qazaq jәne Ortalyq Aziya elderin ózderine baghyndyryp, san jaghynan molayyp, kýsheyip alghan son, qalyn qytaygha tarpa bas salu. Baghyndyrghan qol astyndaghy el-júrttan qosymsha әsker jasaqtap әri ózderin ýnemi azyqpen qamtamasyz etudi oilastyrady», - deydi kitapta. «Olar Shynghys han imperiyasynyng qalay jәne qanday jolmen orasan kýsh-quatqa ie bolghanyn jatqa biletin edi». Renat osylay jazypty.

Jongharlar qazaqqa soghys ashpay túryp, aldymen qasyndaghy donghan men solang mekendegen ólkelerdi, sonan song býkil Qashqariyany az ghana kýshpen jaulap alady. Osy elderding ústalaryn jinap, qylysh pen nayza, basqa da qaru-jaraq soqtyrtady. Keyinnen shved ofiyseri qalmaqtargha zenbirek qúndyng jolyn kórsetip, osy qarudyng birazyn dayyndap beredi. Taghy bir aita keterimiz, Jonghar biyligi qazaqqa soghys ashar aldynda qytay biyleushilerining aldynan ótip, ózara yntymaqqa kelip, art jaghynyng qauipsizdigin (tyl) qamtamasyz etken.

Degenmen, imperiya qúrugha talpynghan elding qateligi qaydan ketti? Jaujýrek elding ózgening qanyn tóge jýrip qúrghan qaghanaty qalay qúlady, neden qúlady?

Zerdeley kele týsingenimiz, óz ishinde auyzbirlikting joqtyghynan, taqqa talastan, jaq-jaq bolyp әrkim óz jaqtastaryn, ru-taypalaryn qoldaghan taytalastan oisyray útylghan. Shynghys hannyng búlardan artyqshylyghy – qaghanat ishindegi alauyzdyqty esh uaqytta ózin alandatpaytynday etip tyighan. Aynalasyndaghy biylikke (әsker qolbasshylaryn) ru, taypa kósimderinen emes, imperiya qúrugha qyzmeti singen әri ózine qiyn-qystau kezderinde adaldyq tanytqan ýzengiles azamattardan taghayyndaghan. Satqyndyqty ayamay jazalaghan.

Osy orayda, Stalinning «Úly maqsatqa jetu ýreyden bastalady» degen sózin keltire keteyik. Eger búl sózdi taratyp aitsaq, tarihta dara túlgha boludy, әlemdik biylikke jetudi maqsat etken adam aldymen ózi ýreymen auyrady degen sóz ghoy. Keyin biylikke jetkende basqalardy solay ústaydy. Sondyqtan Shynghys hannyng túsynda tómendegiler jaltaqtamay jauyna qasqyrday shapqanymen, óz biyliginen qoghaday japyrylyp ýreylenip jәne әr qadamyn sanap basyp, qarsy kelip qalmaudyng jolyn izdep, qorqynyshpen kýn keshken.

Sonymen qatar kóregen Shynghys  han el tútastyghyna, yntymaghyna asa ýlken mәn bergen. Múnsyz qúrghan imperiyany ústap túru mýmkin emes edi. Jongharlardyng qateligi – ishki birligine den qoymaghany jәne alauyzdyqty boldyrmaytyn qúrylymdy oilap tappaghany.

1723 jyly ong men solyn barlap, zerdelep alghan olar tas-týiin dayyndyqpen Qazaq handyghyna tap beredi. Artyndaghy Qytaydyng tilin tauyp, aldausyratqan jongharlar qystan jaqsy dayyndyqpen shyghyp, taudan qúlaghan doly ózendey kóktemgi alasapyranda qazaq eline ondyrmay soqqy berdi. Alghashynda janghaqtay shashylyp, abdyrap qalghan qazaqtar esin jiyp, kýsh biriktirip, jinaqtalyp, búlargha toytarys jasaghansha biraz uaqyt kerek boldy. Qazekeng osy bir qiyn-qystau zamandy «Aqtaban shúbyryndy, alqakól súlama» dep ataghan. Qytay biyligi jonghardyng qazaq pen Ortalyq Aziya elderine shabatyn agressiyalyq josparyn bilgende quanghan. Qaraqshylyghy basym tynymsyz jonghardy túnshyqtyru ýshin olardyng әlsiregeni kerek edi. Degenmen, osy qúba qalmaqtyng qolymen arghy jaghyndaghy Qazaq handyghy men Qyrghyz, Ózbek, Týrikmen elderine soqqy berip, ayamay tulaqtay silkip alu kerek boldy. Janghaqty bir-birine soghyp jaru degen osy bolatyn.

Sol kezdegi Sin dinastiyasy aldaghy uaqytta bir joryghymen búlardy úryp jyghyp, óz qúramyna úlan-ghayyr aumaqty qosyp aludy oilady. Ejelden aspan asty imperiyasyna ainaludy oilaytyn olar, búlardyng qala soghyp, bala oqytyp, egin salyp, órkeniyettilikke úmtyludyng ornyna úshyp-qonghan tirligine qarap, «dalanyng qanbaq qughan aqymaqtary» dep oilaytyn. Qan josa qylyp, taptap ótetin sәtti kýtti. Qan-qasap soghys bastalyp, qyrghyzdy Alataudyng týkpir-týkpirine quyp tyqqan jongharlar ózbek pen týrikmendi tez arada jaulap aldy. Qazaq elin alghashynda yghystyryp jibergenimen, esin jighan qazaq batyrlary men biyleri Abylay hannyng ainalasyna toptasa bildi әri toytarys jasay aldy. Degenmen, qazaqty saqtap qalghan – dalasynyng kendigi, uaqyt sozbay ru, taypalardyng auyzbirlikke kelui jәne at ýstindegi jauyngerligi.

Shved ofiyseri óz jazbalarynda jonghar elining kartasyn jasaghan eken. «Jonghar Alatauy, Balqashqa qúyatyn Ile ózenining eki qaptaly, Altynemel men Qoylyq aralyghy, Sarqan óniri (qalmaq batyrynyng aty), Kegenning (qalmaq biyining aty) soltýstik jaghalauy men Shonjy dalasy, Sharynnyng shyghysyna qaray Ketpen taularynyng soltýstik betkeyleri, Qaskelen, Boralday óniri, qazirgi qyrghyz jerindegi Ýlken Kemik alqaby, Týp jaghalaulary, Ystyqkólding ontýstik jaghalauy, sonday-aq Tarbaghatay alqaby, Emil ózenining atyraby, Zaysan kólining manayy, Gýrshim dalasy (qazaqtar Kýrshim dep ataydy),  Shәueshek (qalmaqtyng «tostaghan» degen sózi) jәne Ýrimshi ólkesi – jongharlardyng kóneden meken etken atamekeni», - dep jazypty.

Jonghar qaghanatynyng irgesin qalaghan ataqty qontayshylar Qalden Seren men Sevan Rabdan dýniyeden ótken son, taqqa talasqan úrpaqtarynyng arasynda qandy janjal tudy. Sevan Rabdannyng úly Dabasy men Qaldan Serenning inisi Ámirsana ekeui taqqa úmtylyp, bir-birine jol bergisi kelmedi. Aqyry, Sevan Rabdannyng biyligi jýrip túrghan kezinde taghayyndaghan әsker basshylarynyng kómegimen Dabasy taqqa otyrdy. Biylikten mýlde ysyrylyp qalghan Ámirsana kektenip, tyghyryqtan jol tabudyng әreketine kóshti. Ata jauy qazaqtardan kómek súraugha namys jibermedi. Esine kelgeni kezinde ymyralasugha jonghar qontayshysymen ilesip barghan Qytay biyligi edi. Solar ghana kómekteser dep oilady. Degenmen, búl qadamdy jasarda qalmaq noyany býkil jonghar júrtynyng ystyq shamgha soghylghan kóbelektey bolaryn týsinbedi. Súmdyqty alystan oilaytyn kәri Qytay jymiyp kýldi. Óz mezgilinde sany kóp manjúrdy, tanghútty, basqa da kóptegen eldi jútyp qoyghan jәne hansugha ainaldyrghan qytay biyligi mynalargha «aqyry ózdering keldinder ghoy» dedi ishterinen. Qanshama ghasyrda bir keletin mýmkindikti ótkizip almaudy oilady. Biraq myna kóshpeli jabayylardy qyryp tastamasan, qytaygha ainaldyra almassyng dep oilady taghy da.

Hat tanymaytyn, kóship-qonghan el bolghandyqtan, búlargha tilin, dәstýrin, tanymyn, tamaghyn ótkize almaytyndyghy anyq edi. Tek kýsheyip ketpey túrghanda qyryp tastau kerek boldy. Kómek súrap kelgen Ámirsanadan qarsylasynyng kýshin, sanyn, túrghan ornyn anyqtap alghan son, qytay jaghy qalyng әsker bóldi. Ámirsana búlargha jonghar biyligin oida-joqta soghudy, qalmaq kýshining qay eldi mekenderde qansha ekenin anyqtap berdi. Sonday-aq qytay әskerining qalay ornalasu kerektigin kórsetti. Dabasiymen aradaghy qandy óshpendilik arystanday aqyrghan jauynger eldi ondyrmay orgha jyqty. Renattyng jazuynsha, búl qytay joryghynan Jonghar handyghy ghana emes, tútas jonghar júrty qyrghyn tapty. «Kezindegi baytaq dalada úiysqan qalyng elden týk qalmady»,  – deydi ókinishpen.

Ámirsanagha qosyp, qytay jaghy alghashynda shaghyn әsker jibergenimen, ile-shala general Pu De basqarghan sany kóp tútas armiyany attandyrghan kórinedi. Tegi Ámirsanagha artynan qalyng әsker baratynyn aitpaghany onyng shoshynyp, sózinen tanyp, qashyp ketpesin degeni bolar. Qalmaq jigitining bar maqsaty Dabasiydi taqtan alyp, ornyna otyru edi. Shýrshitting kómektesem degen sózining artynda genosidtik pighyldyng jatqanyn qaydan bilsin?! Eki qalmaq noyanynyng qan jútqan tartysynan ormanday shulaghan býkil el-júrty qyrghyn tapty. Qytaylardyng qolyna ótip, general Pu Dening qaramaghynda biraz uaqyt birge jýrgen shved ofiyseri: «Shýrshitter qalmaq sarbazdaryn ghana emes, olardyng kempir-shalyn da, әielderi men balalaryn da ayamady. Enbektegen balalaryna deyin nayzagha shanshyp, tarbandatyp joghary kóterip qarqyldap kýlgenderin  kórdim», - deydi jazbasynda.

Qanshama ghasyr Qytay qalalary men eldimekenderin qorqynyshta ústap, tonap ketip otyrghan jәne solardyng tilimen «juun-gar» (qaraqshylar degen maghynada) dep atalatyn qalmaq eli týgelimen qyrylyp ketti. Olar qúrghan úlan-ghayyr imperiya da oida-joqta qúlap tyndy. Jonghar handyghyn jәne Qytay men Ortalyq Aziya elderin zertteushi europalyq ghalymdar jazatyn Jonghariya imperiyasy osylay qúrdymgha ketti.

Tarihta soltýstiktegi orys imperiyasy qazaq elin qanshama yghystyryp, qonystarynan aiyryp, óz mezgilinde sonshalyqty zobalang tudyrghanymen, qazaqtar aman qaldy. Búghan shýkirshilik deyik. Al endi Úly qorghan iyesi sәti kelgen mýmkindikti jibermey, talay zamanghy óshpendiligin úmytpay, irgesindegi ormanday qalyng qalmaqty bauday týsirip, handyghynan da, eldiginen de aiyryp, qúrtyp jiberdi. Osy orayda, ata-babalarymyz qaldyrghan «Qara qytay qaptasa, sary orys әkendey kóriner» degen mәteldi úmytpaghan jón. Búl – osy qiyn-qystau jyldarda tughan, ómirden alynghan shynayy sóz. Orys patshasy Birinshi Petr: «Elinning úlylyghyn týsinging kelse, onyng tarih qatparyndaghy jaularynyng da osal emes ekenin bilgening jón», - degen-di.

Beysenghazy Úlyqbek,

Qazaqstan Jurnalister Odaghynyng mýshesi

Abai.kz

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