Seysenbi, 18 Qantar 2022
Alashorda 2727 11 pikir 9 Qarasha, 2021 saghat 13:02

Mústafa Shoqaydyng asharshylyq turaly jazbalary

Memleket basshysy Qasym-Jomart Toqaevtyng «Tәuelsizdik bәrinen qymbat» atty maqalasynda: «Milliondaghan adamdy qazagha úshyratyp, tiri qalghanyn jan saughalap bosyp ketuge mәjbýr etken alapat asharshylyqtyng alghashqy kezeni – 1921-1922 jyldardaghy nәubetten beri 100 jyl ótti. Sol zúlmattyng kesirinen qyrylyp qalmaghanda, halqymyzdyng sany qazirgiden әldeneshe ese kóp bolar edi», - dep jazady...

Ámirshildik-әkimshilik jýiening dәuirlegen jyldary kenestik kenistikte milliondaghan jan jazyqsyz qughyn-sýrginge úshyrady. Al, sol jýiedegi qazaq eli búl súmdyq asharshylyqpen ýsh dýrkin betpe-bet keldi, yaghny 1917-1919, 1921-1923, 1931-1933 jyldary. Osy jyldary kóshpendi halqymyzdyng 4 millionnan astamy osy asharshylyqtyng tikeley qúrbanyna ainaldy, yqtimal tabighy ósimdi esepke alghanda, elimiz aiyrylghan bozdaqtar sany 10 mln. adamnan asty.

El tarihyndaghy eng qaraly kezenderding biri, úly jút atalghan 1931-1932 jyldardaghy ashtyq turaly mәlimetter 80-shi jyldardyng ortasynda býkilodaqtyq, respublikalyq merzimdi baspasóz betterinde jaryq kóre bastady. Tarihshy ghalymdar arhiv qorlaryndaghy qúpiya qújattardy izdep, zerttep, saralap kópshilik qauymgha kenestik әmirshildik-әkimshildik jýie kezindegi asharshylyq turaly derekterdi jariyalay bastady.

Búl zúlmat jyldardy batys zertteushisi Dj. Bekker: «Qazaqtardyng birneshe úrpaqtarynyng esinde jazylmaytyn jara bolyp újymdastyru jәne onyng saldarynan bolghan 1931-1932 jyldardaghy asharshylyq turaly estelik qaldy»,- dep jazdy.

Kenestik kezeng dәuirlep túrghan shaqta Qazaqstandaghy auyl sharuashylyghy salasynyng damuy tarihyna qatysty qújattardy jinaqtau jәne dayyndau barysynda auyl sharuashylyghyn úiymdastyru tarihyna qatysty 5 myng qújat anyqtaldy, sonyng ishinde 310 qújat jinaqqa engizildi. Jinaqqa engizilgen qújattar qatarynda qararlar, búiryqtar, sheshimder bolatyn. Qazaqstandaghy auyl sharuashylyghyndaghy ózgerister turaly, jer-su reformalarynyng jýrgizuleri turaly qújattar jinaghy da baspadan shygharyldy (Kollektivizasiya seliskogo hozyaystva Kazahstana (1926-1941gg.). -Alma-Ata., 1967.- T. I-II. – 957s.). Shygharylghan qújattyq jinaqtargha ókinishke oray 1930-1933 jylghy kýshpen újymdastyru kezenindegi kóptegen arhivtik qújattar engizilmey qaldy.

Kenes qoghamyndaghy ózgerister ótken ghasyrdyng 20-30-shy jyldary qalyptasqan әkimshildik-әmirshildik jýiening qyspaghymen, halyqtyng belgili bir bóligin qúrban etu arqyly iske asyryldy. Búl әsirese jer mәselesinde, auyl sharuashylyghyn újymdastyru negizinde qayta qúru sayasatynda aiqyn kórindi. HH ghasyrdyng 30-shy jyldaryndaghy tarihy oqighalardy arhiv qújattary arqyly zerdeleu býgingi kýnning ózekti mәselelerining biri. Arhivterdegi qúndy tarihy qújattardy saralap jәne zerdelep, zertteu arqyly tarihy ýderisti týsinu býgingi tandaghy basty mәsele. Ashtyq turaly esepter men statistikalyq derekter, qughyn-sýrginge úshyraghan qazaq ziyalylarynyng enbekteri, korrespondensiyalary kimdermen qarym-qatynasta bolghandyghy turaly materialdar búrynghy Qauipsizdik Komiytetine týsken, odan keyin qaytarylmaghan. Asharshylyq, qughyn-sýrgin tarihyna qatysty kóptegen qújattar men materialdar týrli vedomostvolardyng qoymalarynda qaldyryldy. Al, olardyng kópshiligi Últtyq Qauipsizdik Komiyteti, Bas Prokuratura, Ishki ister ministrligi arhivterinde saqtaldy.

Asharshylyq aqiqatyna janasha kózqaras el tarihy ýshin, bolashaq úrpaq ýshin de kerek ekendigi kózi ashyq, kókiregi oyau kópshilik qauymgha belgili.
Qazaqstandaghy asharshylyq jyldary ólgenderding sany turaly әrtýrli derekter bar, mysaly «Qazaqstan Últtyq ensiklopediyasynda» ashtyq qúrbandary turaly 1926, 1937 jyldardaghy halyq sanaghynda olqylyqtar jiberilgendigi, sonyng saldarynan asharshylyqtaghy adam shyghyny dәl anyqtaugha kedergi keltirip, әrtýrli pikirlerding óristeuine sebep bolghandyghy әdil atap ótiledi jәne 1931-1933 jyldardaghy ashtyq qúrbandary 2 mln 200 myng adamnan asyp týsti delindi. Baspasóz betterinde 2,5 mln («Altyn Orda» gazeti 9 aqpan, 2012), 3 mln («Altyn Orda» gazeti, 2012), 3 mln 250 myng («Ayqyn» gazeti, 7 sәuir, 2012), 2 mln 300 myng («Egemen Qazaqstan», 25 sәuir, 2012), 2,7 mln («Ayqyn» gazeti, 4 mamyr, 2012) adam degen mәlimetter kórsetiledi. Ashtyq nәubeti qúrbandarynyng sany búl mәsele tereng zerttelip, saralanghan sayyn kóbeymese, azaymaydy.

Kenes ýkimetining jýrgizgen sayasatynyng nәtiyjesinde ata-baba tarihynda myndaghan jyldary boyy kóship-qonyp jýrgen, jeke mal sharuashylyghymen ainalysqan halqymyzdyng túrmysyna kýrdeli betbúrys jasaldy. Kenes ókimetining alghashqy jyldarynda qolgha alghan sayasatynyng biri kóshpeli halyqtardy otyryqshylyqqa ainaldyru, ol ýshin әldilerdi tәrkileu isi qolgha alyndy.

Áldi sharuashylyqtardy tәrkileu halyqty jappay asharshylyqqa alyp kelgen jaghdaydyng alghy sharttarynyng biri dep qarastyrugha bolady. 1928 jyldyng 27 tamyzynda Qazaq AKSR Ortalyq Atqaru Komiyteti men Halyq Komissarlar Kenesining «Iri baylar sharuashylyghy men jartylay feodaldardy sharuashylyghyn konfiskasiyalau men jer audaru» dekreti qabyldandy. Búl dekret boyynsha baylar men jartylay feodaldardyng mal-mýlki, baylyghy tәrkilenip, ózderi otbasymen birge jer audarugha jatty. Konfeskeleu turaly zang boyynsha maly, dýnie mýlki tәrkilenip, ózi jer audarylugha tiyisti iri baylar men jartylay feodaldardyng qataryna kóshpeli audandarda maly 400-den asatyn (iri qaragha shaqqanda), jartylay kóshpeli audandarda 300-den asatyn, otyryqshy jerlerde 150, keyde 100 maly bar súltandar men handardyng úrpaqtary, el biylegen bolystar, atqaminerler jatqyzyldy. Osy dekret negizinde sol jyldyng kýzinde qazaq ólkesinde 696 iri bay, jartylay feodaldardyng mal-mýlki tәrkilenip, zorlyqpen tartyp alyndy. Baylardy tәrkileu ýlken zúlymdyqpen ayausyz jýrgizildi. Bir ókinishtisi baylardyng qatarynda solaqay sayasattyng nәtiyjesinde kóptegen orta sharualar da qosylyp ketip, tәrkileuge úshyrady. Alayda baylardyng aldymen jerin, odan sony maly men auyl sharuashylyq qúral-jabdyqtaryn tartyp alu tiyisti nәtiyje bermedi, kerisinshe kedey sharuashylyqtaryn nyghaytu isi úzaqqa sozylyp ketti. Baylardyng dýniye-mýlkin tәrkileu barysynda kóptegen jaghdaylarda adam qúqy men zandylyqtyng óreskel búzyluyna jol berildi.

Qazaq ólkesindegi asharshylyq turaly kórnekti qogham, memleket qayratkerleri T.Rysqúlov, S.Sәduaqasov, N.Núrmaqov, S.Qojanov, Q.Myrzaghaliyev, O.Isaev Mәskeuge resmy hattar dayyndap jiberdi. BK(b)P Ortalyq Komiytetining Bas hatshysy IY.V.Stalinge RKFSR ýkimeti tóraghasynyng orynbasary qyzmetindegi T.Rysqúlovtyng jәne Qazaq ólkelik partiya komiytetining birinshi hatshysy F.IY.Goloshekinge M.Ghatauliyn, M.Dәuletqaliyev, E.Altynbekov, Q.Quanyshov, Gh.Mýsirepov hattarynda («Beseuding haty») qazaqtardyng ashtan qyryluy men atakýldikten ýdere shetel asuynyng basty sebepteri, әleumettik-ekonomikalyq, demografiyalyq shyghyndy aighaqtaytyn naqty mәlimetter berildi. Qazaq ólkesin basqarghan F.IY.Goloshekinning 1925-1933 jyldardaghy sayasatyn L.D.Troskiy: «Goloshekin orys derevnyalarynda әleumettik kelisimdi uaghyzdap, al qazaq auyldarynda azamattyq soghysty qozdyruda», - dep sipattady. 1932 jyly jazushy M.Sholohovtyng «hutorlarda әidik soghys jýrip ótti» dep jazuynda ashy da bolsa shyndyq jatyr.

F.IY.Goloshekinning Ortalyq Komiytetke jazghan mәlimdemesinde «qazaqtardyng kollektivti sharuashylyqqa ótuding erekshe qiyn jәne kýrdeli jaghdayynda tirshilik etuge qabiletsizdiginde... Búl qojalyqtar ózderining mal basyn joyyp, bir bóligin memlekettik dayyndaulargha ótkizip, bir bóligin jyrtqyshtyqpen joyda», - dep jazdy. Ol kollektivtendiru kezindegi asyra silteudi, sholaq belsendilerding solaqay sayasatyn, mal dayyndau mýmkindigi eskerilmey josparsyz jasalghanyn mýldem qaperine de almaydy.

Al shet elderge Qazaqstandaghy asharshylyq turaly alghashqy dabyl qaqqandardyng biri – Mústafa Shoqay bolatyn. M.Shoqaydyng qazaqtardyng 1917 jyldan bastap permanentti týrde asharshylyqqa úshyratyluyna arnalghan enbekterining orny erekshe. Onyng 1921 jyldyng 26 qarashasynda «Poslednie novosti» gazetinde «Qazaq jerindegi asharshylyq» degen maqalasy jaryq kórdi. Qazaqstannyng kóptegen audandaryn qamtyghan asharshylyq jóninde kesheuildetpey aqparat jetkizip otyrdy. Ol «1918 jyly býkil jaz boyy jәne 1918-1919 jyldyng qysynda Torghay, Oral jәne Zakaspiy oblystaryndaghy qazaqtardyng ortasynda bolyp, Kenes ókimetining ozbyrlyqtaryn óz kózimmen kórdim, asharshylyqtyng týpki sebebi – «qoghamdastyru», «tәrkileu» men qazaq sharualarynyng maldaryn Qyzyl Armiyanyng paydasyna tartyp alu» deydi. Jәne de múnyng taghy bir dәleli retinde «Qazaqtardyng Leninge haty» degen qújatty keltiredi. Onda «qazaqtardy indet kezinde jәne adam tózgisiz sanitarlyq jaghdayda medisinalyq kómekten qaghu – qisynsyz. Tipti, boyymyzgha iler kiyimimiz de joq, sondyqtan әielderimiz syrtqa shyghudan qaldy. Asharshylyqtyng jaylaghany sonday, adamdar itting etin jeuge, balalaryn satugha deyin bardy» delinedi. Mústafa Shoqay qazaqtardyng qyrghyngha úshyrauyn bolishevikter men orys qonystanushylarynyng is-әreketterining saldary dep qarastyrady.

Qazaqtardyng Kenes ókimeti túsynda kórip otyrghan qorlyqtary jóninde habarlar týrli joldarmen M.Shoqaygha jetip túrghan. Mústafa Shoqay 1922 jyldyng 20 mamyryndaghy bolishevikterding basty ýnparaghy «Pravda» gazetinde jaryq kórgen G.Safarovtyng maqalasyndaghy «1917, 1918, 1919 jyldary jerlerin tartyp alu ýshin orys qonystanushylary qazaqtardy tiridey órtedi» degen sózderine talay ret silteme jasauy da biraz nәrseni anghartsa kerek. M.Shoqay óz maqalalarynda orys otarshyldyghynyng týpki maqsaty: býkil ólkeni orystandyru, qazaqtardyng jerin tartyp alyp, shól dalagha yghystyryp tastau, sonyng saldary retinde asharshylyqqa dushar etu dep atap kórsetedi.

M.Shoqay Kenes Odaghyndaghy oqighalardy jiti qadaghalay otyryp, újymdastyru barysynda qazaqtardyng jappay qyrghyngha úshyrauy turaly Londonda túratyn tanysy A.Baykalovqa hat jazady, basqa da orys emigrasiyasynyng jetekshilerine, shetel qayratkerlerine habarlaydy, birneshe maqala jariyalaydy. 1934 jyly 15 shildede A.Baykalov M.Shoqaygha hatyn alghany jәne onda kóterilgen mәseleler boyynsha biraz әreketter jasaghany turaly bylay deydi: «Asharshylyq turaly mәlimetiniz ýshin ýlken rahmet, men olardy tiyisti oryndargha tapsyrdym. Búl maghlúmattar «Sosialinaya lestnisa» jurnalynyng songhy sanynda basylghan hat-habarlarda, sonday-aq «Observer» gazetining býgingi sanyndaghy janama tilshilerining hatynda tolyghymen rastaldy» (Mústafa Shoqay Epistolyarlyq múrasy. 2 tomdyq. –Almaty: «SaGa» baspasy, 2006. 1-tom. 270 bet). Mústafa asharshylyq turaly әlem júrtshylyghynyng biluining manyzdylyghyna, bolishevikterding ony Europa júrtshylyghynan jasyrugha barlyq sharalardy qoldanyp jatqanyna toqtalady. Ol búl nәubet jalghyz qazaqtardy ghana emes, býkil Reseydi qamtyp otyr degen pikirde boldy. M.Shoqay 30-jyldardaghy asharshylyq nәubetining eng aldymen qazaqtardyng basyna tóngendigin aityp, ony tónkeriske deyin qazaqtardyng jan basyna shaqqanda qansha maly bolghany, endi qansha malynyng qalghany turaly statistikalyq derektermen dәleldeydi.

Qazaq halqy «Aqtaban shúbyryndydan» keyin múnday joyqyn nәubetke úshyrap kórmegen bolatyn jәne 1933-1934 jyldary Qazaqstandaghy asharshylyq zúlmaty jóninde shet elderdegi «Niu-Iork Tayms», «Manchestr Gardian», «Deyly Telegraf», «Niu-Iork Geralid Tribun», «Figaro», «Stampo», «Maten», «Noye Suriyher Saytung», «Gazett de Lozann» siyaqty basylymdarda jazyldy.

Sol jyldardaghy qayghyly tәjiriybeni qoghamdyq sanamyz mengermeyinshe jәne qazaqstandyq qoghamnyng da uaqyt talabyna say janarugha, naqty modernizasiyagha betteui qiyn bolsa kerek. Ol ýshin últtyq elita, kýlli qogham barshagha ortaq azamattyq sezimdi týisiner bolsa, sol týisikpen tarih aldyndaghy jauapkershilikti bir kisidey sezinse – dittegen modernizasiyanyng sәtti jýreri sózsiz degen tújyrymgha keluge bolady.

Aqqaly Ahmet

H.Dosmúhamedov atyndaghy Atyrau uniyversiyteti,
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