Seysenbi, 16 Shilde 2024
Alystaghy bauyrym 4694 11 pikir 1 Mausym, 2023 saghat 12:36

Ózbekstan qazaqtarynyng hal-jaghdayy qalay?

Ghylymy jobamyzdyng kýntizbelik jospary boyynsha 2023 jyldyng 23-30 sәuiri kýnderi aralyghynda Ózbekstan Respublikasynda is-saparda boldyq.

Sonday kýnderding birinde Tashkent qalasyndaghy Ózbekstandaghy qazaq últtyq mәdeniyet ortalyghynda jergilikti ghalymdar jәne qogham qayratkerlerimen kezdesuge t.gh.d., professor Nәbijan Múqamethanúly ekeuimiz qonaq ýy aldyna kelip toqtaghan taksiyge otyrdyq. Ortalyqtyng qyzmetkeri Dilifuza Qaliyevamen telefon arqyly sóilesken taksist jigit bizdi dittegen jerimizge jetkizdi. Kezinde Qazaqstannyng Ózbekstandaghy elshiligi bolghan ghimarat qazir eskirip qalypty. Alayda, esik aldynan bizdi kýtip alghan aghayyndardyng jarqyn peyili júpyny әri salqyn bólme ishin jylylyqqa toltyryp jibergendey boldy. Esen-saulyq súrasqannan son, qol jayyp Alladan beybitshilik jәne amandyq  tilep  jýz sipastyq.

Ózbekstandaghy qazaq últtyq mәdeniyet ortalyghynyng tóraghasy Serikbay Nazarúly Ýsenov myrzamen búryn telefon arqyly sóilesip jýrsem de, jýzdesip otyrghanym osy. Serikbay Nazarúly enbek ardageri, Ózbekstannyng «Mehnat-shuhrat» ordenining iyegeri. Ózi sózge myghym, qimyly shiraq, iske shógel azamat ekeni kórinip túr. Ol bizge jinalghan aghayyndardy bir-birden tanystyryp shyqty. Aldymen tórde otyrghan  aq shashyn artyna qayyra taraghan, ziyaly azamatty núsqap, búl kisi Qaldybek Seydanov, Tash­kent­tegi Nizamy atyndaghy Mem­lekettik pedagogikalyq uniyversiytetting professory, әdebiyet zertteushisi, syn­shy, audarmashy, jazushy әri pedagog ghalym,  Ózbekstannyng enbek sinirgen mәdeniyet qayratkeri. Ózbek­standaghy 370 qazaq mektepterining  5, 7, 9, 10, 11-synyptarynda oqytylatyn «Qazaq әdebiyeti» oqulyqtarynyng jәne joghary oqu oryndaryna arnalghan «Múhtar Áuezov jәne tuysqan halyqtar әdebiyeti», «Shynghys Aytmatov jәne óz­bek әdebiyeti», «Áue­zov jәne Orta Aziya әdebiyeti», «Qazaq әdebiyetining tarihy» at­ty oqu qúraldarynyng avtory. Kóptegen qazaq klassikterining prozasy men poeziyasyn ózbekshe sóiletken maytalman audarmashy.  Ol 1999 jyly Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan әdebiyeti, mәdeniyet jәne óner qayratkerlerining Astana Qúryltayynda «Astana» me­dalimen marapattalsa, 2020  jyly Óz­bekstan Respub­likasynyng Pre­ziydenti Shavkat Mirziyyoev tarapynan  «Dostyq» ordenimen marapattalghan dep bir toqtalyp ótti de, odan tómen otyrghan aqsary jýzdi aghamyzdy núsqap, búl kisi - Iskendir Alashbaev, 70 payyz qazaqtar túratyn, Joghary Shyrshyq audanynyng qazaq mәdeny ortalyghynyng tóraghasy. Ómir boyy bilim beru salasynda enbek etken. Audannyng bilim bólimining basshysynyng orynbasary qyzmetin atqarghan.  Ózbekstandaghy bes iri partiyanyng biri «Adolat» Sosial-demokratiyalyq partiyasynyng Joghary Shyrshyq audany boyynsha Kenesining tóraghasy dedi. Endi kezek ol kisiden tómen otyrghan tolyqsha azamatqa keldi. Serikbay Nazarúly ol kisini Dәmir Qaldybaev, Tashkent oblysynyng qazaq mәdeny ortalyghynyng tóraghasy, «Núrly jol» gazetining janashyry. Osi kisining arqasynda gazetting jazylymy 7 myngha jetken dep toqtalyp ótti de, qonaqtargha shay qúiyp jýrgen orta boyly, qiyaq múrtty, qara tory jigit aghasyn núsqap, búl jigitting esimi Qúral Sýierov,  Dәmir Qaldybaevtyng orynbasary dep qysqasha tanystyryp shyqty.

Tanystyqtan son, shay ishe otyryp, әngime dýken qúrdyq. Sózding tizginin Serikbay Nazarúly ústap otyrdy. Ol kisi Ózbekstandaghy qazaqtardyng jaghdayyn, mektep, bilim beru salasyn, Qazaqstanmen qarym-qatynasyn jәne taghy basqa mәseleler turaly biraz sóiledi. Men sol kisining sózinen oqyrman júrtqa ruhany jәne ghylymy túrghy da azyq bolar - au degen oimen yqshamdap  qaghaz betine týsirip, oqyrman qauymyna úsynyp otyrmyn.

Tómende Sekenning (Serikbay Nazarúly) әngimesi: Ózbekstanda 9309 auyldy eldi-meken bar,  sonyng basym kópshiliginde qazaqtar qonystanghan. Úzyn yrghasy 3,5 mln qazaq ómir sýredi. Biraq búdan da kóp boluy әbden mýmkin. Biz osy 2023 jyldyng sonyna qaray,  statistikalyq sanaq jýrgizip, naqty qansha qazaqtardyng túratynyn anyqtamaqshymyz. Birneshe jyl ilgeri Ózbekstandaghy korey halyqtarynyng mәdeniyet ortalyghy osynday әdisti qoldanyp, Ózbekstanda qansha korey azamaty túratynyn anyqtaghan bolatyn. Biz de osy tәsildi qoldanyp, әrbir auyldy-mekenderge hat joldap qazaqtardyng sanyna qatysty aqparat aludy josparlap otyrmyz. Qazaqtar shoghyrly qonystanghan, qaymaghy búzylmaghan auyldar bar. Ol jerlerde jeti JOO bar, olarda qazaq tili men әdebiyeti fakuliteti bar. Nauay oblysy pedagogikalyq institutynda 7 fakulitet bar. Nizamy atyndaghy Tashkent memlekettik peadagogika uniyversiytetinde de tariyh, matematika fakulitetterin ashugha әreket jasap jatyrmyz. Óitkeni, qazaq mektepterinde sabaq beretin qazaq tildi oqytushylar jetispeydi. Sonyng nәtiyjesinde qazaq mektepterining sany azayyp barady. Keybir qazaq mektepterining diyrektory nemese oqytushylary tәjik, ózbek azamattary, biraq qazaq tilin jaqsy mengergen, tipti menen jaqsy sóileydi. Syrdariya oblysynda, Tashkent oblysynyng  Shyrshyq qalasyndaghy pedagogikalyq uniyversiytette da  syrttay oqu bólimderi joq edi, qazaq әdebiyeti boyynsha ashtyrdyq. Songhy kezderde Qazaqstannyng JOO-nyng 2-3 filialdary ashylyp jatyr. Onyng biri M.Áuezov atyndaghy Ontýstik Qazaqstan uniyversiytetinin, ekinshisi -Astanadaghy Euraziya uniyversiytetining filialdary. Búlar Aqtau jaqtan ashyp jatyr. Sebebi Horezmde 16 myng qazaq, Qaraqalpaqstanda 350 myng qazaq bar. Ol jaqpen barys-kelis jasaugha әue joldary ashylyp, qatynasu jaqsy bolyp qaldy. Bizde qazir 10 uniyversiytet jeke menshikke ótkizilip jatyr,  studentterding sany da artyp keledi. Mysaly, bir ghana Shyrshyq qalasyndaghy pedagogikalyq uniyversiyteting ózinde 23 myng student oqyp jatyr. Onda, tәjik, qazaq, orys tilderi boyynsha fakulitetter bar. Qazir elimizde oqimyn deushilerge barlyq mýmkindikter bar. Mektep bitirushi týlekter bir dokumentti 5 uniyversiytetke tapsyra alady jәne barlyghynda qazaq tilinde bilim aluyna bolady. Birine týse almasa, ekinshisine nemese basqasyna týsuine mýmkindigi bar. Memleketting qarjysymen oqumen birge jeke óz aqshasymen de oqugha mýmkindik bar. Mysaly, 1 gruppagha 20 bala alynsa jartysy memleket budjetine, al ekinshi jartysy aqyly, yaghny jylyna 12 mln som tólep bilim alugha mýmkindik alady (qazirgi kurs boyynsha bir qazaq tengesi 25 ózbek somyna ten).

Serikbay Nazarúly shayynan úrttap otyryp, әngimesin sabaqtay týsti. Búryn institutqa kiru ýshin oryssha ne ózbekshe test tapsyratyn bolsaq, qazir Preziydentimizding arqasynda, qazaqsha da tapsyrugha bolady. Búdan syrt, qazaq balalaryna tómendetilgen shek bar. Búl negizinen malshynyng nemese shart-jaghdayy nashar jerlerdegi jastargha baghyttalghan. Mәselen, Nauay obylsynyng Tamdy, Kenemeh jәne Ýshqúdyq audandarynda 68 ballmen oqugha týsuine bolady. Al eng joghary ball sanalatyn medisinalyq oqu oryndaryna 200 ballmen týse alady. Búl da memleketting berip otyrghan jenildigi. Preziydenttimiz Qazaqstanmen birlikte kóbirek institut ashu niyetinde. Qazir 3 institut hoz raschetke ótti. Ol degenimiz aqyly negizde oqu, súqbattasu arqyly emtihansyz oqugha týsip bilim alasyn. Búl uniyversitterde ekonomika, menedjment fakulitetteri bar.

Sekenning әngimesi qyzghan sayyn, Nәkeng (Nәbijan Múqamethanúly) ekeuimiz kezek-kezek súraq qoyyp, yntygha tyndap otyrmyz. Ishtey ózimizding Qazaqstandyq oqu oryndarymen salystyryp ta qoyamyz. Serikbay Nazarúly әngimesin salmaqty dauysymen sabaqtay berdi: Ózbek jastary kóbinese medisinagha qyzyghady. Sondyqtan biz Qaraghandygha baryp, ondaghy medisinalyq uniyversiytetke jastardy oqugha týsirdik. Oqu aqysy jylyna 2000 dollar boldy. Eng alghashynda 1300 qazaq balasy oqugha týsken. Olar 7 jyl oquyn bitirip elge oraldy. Keyin qazaqtardan basqa ózge últ azamattary da baryp bilim alyp jatyr. Syrttay oqu bólimi Qazaqstanda jabylghanymen, Ózbekstanda ashylyp jatyr. Sonyng arqasynda qazaq studentter bitirip, júmysqa túryp jatyr. Búdan basqa qazaqstandyq doktoranttar bizge kelip, óz júmystaryna qatysty әdebiyetterdi alu, qoljazbalar qoryna kiru ýshin bizden kómek súraydy. Biz kitaphanalargha tanystyru úsynys hatyn jazyp beremiz. Sol arqyly olar kitaphanalargha kirip, әdebiyetterdi paydalanuda.

Ángime arnasy osy arhiv taqyrybyna kelgende Sekeng az-kem ýnsiz qaldy da әngimening auanyn mýlde basqa, tyng arnagha búryp jiberdi. Al búl taqyryp biz ýshin eng qyzyqty taqyryp bolaryn biz әuelde sezbedik. Sekeng búl әngimeni barynsha yjdaghattyqpen aitty: Ózbekstannyng ÚQK arhiyvinde úzaq jyl qyzmet istegen Shyrynbek Orazymbetov degen azamat bolghan. Ol kisi aldyna kelgen qazaqqa qatysty mәlimetterdi saqtap otyrghan. Sebebi әdette arhiv materialdary 75 jyl saqtalady da, sodan song órtep jiberilip otyratyn bolghan. Shyrynbek agha osylaysha óte kóp materialdardy órtenip ketuden saqtap qaldy.  Ol kisining saqtaghan qújatynyng kóptigi sonday tútas bir ýlken bólmeni alyp otyr. Jasy 97 ge kelgende, ómirden ozdy. Qasterlep, ata-baba qoryna jerledik. 1918 Ózbekstandaghy eng alghash uniyversiytet «Ortalyq Aziya uniyversiytetin» qúrylghan. Ol uniyversiytetting negizin qalaghan 7 qazaq 6 ózbek azamaty bolghan. Ol kisi osy oqu ornynyng týlegi, tarihshy edi. 2018 jyly «Ortalyq Aziya uniyversiytetining 100 jyldyghy» atty kitap jazdy.  Búl kisining jinaghan múrasy qazir úrpaqtarynyng qolynda. Men Qazaqstannyng Ózbekstandaghy túraqty jәne ókiletti elshisine osy mol múrany satyp alyp, elshihananyng ishinen oryn berip, ony «Shyrynbek Orazymbetovtyng múraghaty» dep ataudy úsynyp otyrmyn. Elshi myrza oghan qarsy emes. Tek aldymen osy biz otyrghan ýiding eskiruine baylanysty janadan qazaq mideny ortalyghynyng ghimaratyn jóndeyik, sosyn, arhiv isin qarastyramyz dep aitty.

Ángimemizding sharyqtau shegine de jetip qaldyq. Bólme ishi salqyn, shәinektegi ystyq shay kesege qúiylghan song kóp ótpey demin alyp  qala beredi. Biraq, әngime, әsirese, últtyq mýdde aitylyp jatqan jerde biz de, ýy iyeleri de ornymyzdan tapjylmastan, bar yntamyzben súqbatymyzdy jalghastyra berdik. Marqúm Shyrynbek Orazymbetovtyng jinaghan arhiyvining paydasy zor boldy dep әngimesin sabaqtay berdi Seken. Men bir ghana mysal aitayyn: osydan biraz jyldar búryn Astanadan bir adam habarlasyp, ózining babasynyng sýiegining qayda jatqanyn súrastyrady. Shyrynbek aghay bir kýn ishinde ol adam turaly tanqalarlyq derek úsynady. Zayyrynda, Beriya ol kisini atu jazasyna ýkim etken eken. Alayda ýsh kýnnen son, Stalin búiryq shygharyp, ol ýkimning kýshin joyghan. Osylaysha, qazaqtyng bir azamaty ólimnen aman qalyp, keyin tuberkulezden qaytys bolghan eken. Shyrynbek aghay tipti ol kisining qabirining qay jerde ekendigin de aityp bergen. Kózi tirisinde ol kisining ýii Tashkenttegi Týrkimen bazarynyng qasynda bolghandyghy turaly da úrpaqtaryna aityp bergen jәne ol kisiden bir qyzdyng Almatyda túratyndyghy, aty-jóni men jas shamasynda aityp bergen.  

Serikbay Nazarúlynyng aituynsha, búl arhiv turaly qazaqstandyq izdenushilerding de habary bar. Olardyng keybireui, material izdeu maqsatynda  Shyrynbek aghaygha kelip, jolyghyp, ol kisiden qajetti aqparttardy alghan son, Qazaqstandaghy gazet-jurnaldargha maqala úsynady. Alayda, birde-bireui Shyrynbek aghaydyng enbegin eskerip, maqalalarynda ol kisining arhiyvinen alynghany turaly bir auyz sóz jazbaghan. Shyrynbek aghay da adam balasy bolghandyqtan, búl isterdi estigen song renjip, kónili qalghan. Sosyn maghan: «Serik, búdan song maghan adamdardy ertip kelmeshi»,-dep ótinish etken.   Shyrynbek aghay óte úqypty adam bolghan. Arnauly jurnal ústap, әrbir polkada qanday arhivterding túrghandyghy turaly estelik jazyp otyrghan. Ol kisning kózi tirisinde Qazaqstan telearnasynan jurnalister jәne bir jauapty basshysy (orys azamaty) kelgen. Shyrynbek aghaydyng otbasy ol kisilerdi qonaq etip kýtip alyp, kóptegen súraqtaryna jauap berip, paydaly aqparattarymen bólisken. Ol kisiler attanarda: «kýtiniz, biz sizge gonorar tóleymiz»,-dep ketken. Al ol kisi búl «gonorardy» 3 jyl kýtken. Qazaqstan telearnasynda arhiv turaly jinalghan materialdar kórsetilgen, alayda, bayaghyday Shyrynbek aghaydyng aty auyzgha alynbaghan. Búl ister ol kisining kóniline qatty kelgen eken.

Shyrynbek Orazymbetúlynan basqa Jyzzaq oblysynda taghy bir qazaqtyng mandayyna bitken, últyn sýigen azamattyng biri - Sәrsenbay Esiyn. Ol 95 payyz tәjikter túratyn audangha әkim bolghan. 97 jasynda 2022 jyly ómirden ozghan. Ol kisi de qazaqtar qayda kelip, qayda qonystanghan, qanday úly túlghalary bolghan, olardyng aty-jóni turaly aqparat mol jinaghan. Ol kisining auyly Qyzylqúm jaqta bolyp, jylqy týie ústaghan.  Tughan kýni 9 mamyr kýni 300 shaqyrym jol basyp, amandasyp, barushy edik. Sonda ol kisi: «qymyz-qymyran ishinder, ómir-jastaryng úzaq bolady»,-dep aityp otyrushy edi. Óte qonaqjay adam edi, kelgen qonaghyna qoy soymay attandyrmaytyn edi.....

Serikbay Nazarúly, ómirden ózderi ozsa da, sózderi ozbaghan, әli kýnge últyna enbek etip kele jatqan osynau aghalaryn saghyna eske alghanday ýnsiz qaldy. Qonaq iyeleri de, biz de bir týrli qúrmet pen maqtanysh әlde saghynysh biylegen kónil kýimen birazgha ýnsiz qaldyq. Qazaq halqynyng danasy Abay atamyz: «Ózing ýshin enbek qylsan, ózi ýshin ottaghan hayuannyng biri bolasyn. Adamshylyqtyng qaryzy ýshin enbek qylsan, Allanyng sýigen qúly bolasyn»,- degen joq pa? Mine naghyz Qúdaydyng sýigen qúldary osy kisiler emes pe? Osy 10 kýnge juyq Ózbekstandaghy ghylymy is-saparym maghan kóp oy jýktedi. Olardyng bәri de ret-retimen jazylar. Bastysy týbi bir, tuysqan eki memleketarasyndaghy dostyq baylanys bayandy bolsyn. Eki elding ara-qatynasyna arqau bolyp otyrghan Ózbekstandaghy aq edil, ashyq-jarqyn bauyrlarymyz esen bolsyn Alldan tilerimiz osy. Qaymaghy búzylmaghan qazaqy auyldar da tarihtyng san-qatpar qyrynan syr shertetin dýniyeler bizdi kýtip jatqanday sezile berdi. 30 Sәuir referendum ótuine oray, shash etekten júmystary bolsa da, bizdi kýtip alyp, tamasha syr-súqbat úiymdastyrghan  Ózbekstandaghy qazaq últtyq mәdeniyet ortalyghynyng basshysy Serikbay Nazarúlyna, hatshy Dilifuza Qaliyeva hanymgha jәne bizben birge súqbatta bolghan aghalarymyzdyng bәrine shynayy alghysymyzdy aityp, biz úzay berdik. Alla sәtin salsa, әli talay kelermiz...

Sarqytqan Qaster

g.gh.k., professor, QR jurnalister odaghy mýshesi

Abai.kz

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