Júma, 23 Aqpan 2024
Ádebiyet 2086 3 pikir 25 Shilde, 2023 saghat 12:16

Biz – qazaq ejelden... (jalghasy)

Basy: Biz – qazaq ejelden...

Ózindi-ózing tanu tәjiriybesinen

4.

Ýisin – qazaq halqynyng qalyptasuyna negiz bolghan ejelgi týrki taypalarynyng biri. Úly jýzding negizin qúraghan taypalar Bәidibekting balalary dep qarastyrylady. Olar – Alban, Dulat, Suan, Shapyrashty, Saryýisin, Oshaqty, Ysty.  Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng jazbalary boyynsha, Ýisin – atalghan taypalardyng ghana emes, kýlli Úly jýzge kirgen taypalardyng týp atasy bolyp sanalady[1]. Biz tarihyn qarastyryp otyrghan Shapyrashty Ýisinning bir balasy sanatynda bolghandyqtan, onyng tarihy Ýisin tarihymen bir dep esepteuge tolyq negiz bar.  Osynday payym jetegimen ýisinning shyghu tegin, taraluyn, tarihtaghy әr zamanda alghan orynyn qarayyq. Osy maqsatpen әueli N.A. Aristovte keltiriletin usunider (ýisinder) tarihyn qysqasha shola ketelik.

Arheologiyalyq jәne geologiyalyq zertteuler arqyly alynghan derekter býgingi qazaq elining aumaghynda alghashqy adamdar osydan 2 million jyl shamasy búryn ómirge kelgenin, búl jerding sodan beri tirshilik tolastamaghan  qasiyetti meken ekenin kórsetip otyr. Qauymdyq túrmys qúrghan qazaq jerindegi alghashqy adamdar evolusiyalyq damu satylarynyng san týrli qiyndyqtar men auyrtpalyqtargha toly bolghan baspaldaqtarynyng barlyghynan ótken. Sóitip, órkeniyet kezenine sýrinbey jetken. Al, býgingi Qazaq Dalasyn osydan shamamen 2,5 – 4 myng jyl búryn mekendegen saq taypalary turaly jazba tarih atasy Gerodot b.z.b. V ghasyrda jazyp ketken. Gerodot búl derekterdi ózinen 240 jyl búryn saq taypalarynyng ortasyna eki ret kelip, olardy zerttegen ghúlama Aristey (b.z.b. VIII—VII ghgh.) jazghan enbekten alghanyn aitqan.

Al ghún jәne basqa saq taypalarynyng basyn qosqan alghashqy qúdiretti memleket – Ýisin bolghan. Ýisin memleketi men onyng halqy b.z.b. V–IV ghgh. shamasynda tarihta óz ornyn aldy. Búl turaly akademik Manash Qozybaev: «Osydan eki jarym myng jylgha juyq búryn halqynyng ýshten biri atqa qonghan Ýisin memleketinen bastap qazaq saharasynda talay taypalyq memleketter ýstemdik etti» dep jazdy[2].

Qytay jylnamalarynda Ýisin memleketi turaly arnayy jazylghan enbekterdi bizge N.V. Kuner, N.Ya. Bichuriyn, Yu.A. Zuev, A.N. Bernshtam, L.N. Gumiylev jóne basqa da ghalymdar jetkizgen. Olar «Usuni», «Aóshin» degen sózder – Ýisin, al «Gunimo» – Kýnby (yaghny «úly biyleushi, patsha» maghynasynda) ekenin tәrjimelegen. Japon ghalymy K. Siratory «Kunimo» degenning dúrys audarmasy «Hanbi» ekenin anyqtaghan. Akademik Álkey Marghúlan Ýisin memleketining halqy Syr alaby men Alatau bókterinen Sibir taygasyna deyingi aralyqty erkin jaylaghanyn әigilep ketken. Osy tarihymyz turaly qúndy mәlimetterdi óz ghalymdarymyzdan Marghúlangha deyin Sh. Uәlihanov, M. Tynyshbaev, S. Asfendiyarov jәne basqalar da jazghan.

Ýisin memleketining aumaghy b.z. III–V ghasyrlarda osy kýngi Qazaq Dalasynan  asyp, Shyghys Dalasyn qamtyghan. Kóne Qytay kartasynda Ordostaghy qazirgi Pinlyan men Guiani ýiezderi ishki Mongholiyanyng ýisinder tu tikken ontýstik shekarasy retinde kórsetilgen. Ýisin memleketining әigili hanbii Elsaudyng (b.z.b. 178 – 104 jj.) ekinshi úly Duly biyding úrpaqtary III–IV ghasyrlarda bastap barghan, qúramynda ghún taypasynyng erjýrek jauyngerleri bar qalyng әsker Batys Dalasynan asyp, Batys Evropa elderin baghyndyrghany belgili. Osy ólkede qúrylghan jana memleketterding halyqtary ózderin Dulynyng úrpaghymyz deydi.

Hristing Tuyluyna (H.T., yaghny hristiandyq jyl sanau bastalghangha – bizding eramyzgha) deyingi 202-shi jyldan bastap, Qytayda Hani әuleti biylikte boldy. Búl kezde Qytaydy soltýstigi men batys jaghynan hundar (ghúndar) jeri qorshap jatqan-dy. Olar búl shaqta óte quatty bolatyn[3]. Hundar imperiyasy – óte ejelgi týrki memleketi sanatynda[4] edi. Al Hunn (Ghún)  imperiyasy qúramyndaghy shaghyn elding biri ýisinder bolatyn. Ýisinder b.z.d. II – VI ghasyrlarda Jetisu, Ile aimaqtarynda jәne Ystyqkól ónirinde ornalasqan. Shekaralary batysynda Shu, Talas ózenderine, shyghysynda Tyani-Shaninyng shyghys atyraularyna, soltýstiginde Balqash kóline, ontýstiginde Ystyqkólge sozyldy.

Ýisin sózi «úiysu», «toptasu», «yntymaqtasu» degen maghynany bildiredi. Arghy tegi Qytay jazbalarynda «Kuni uy», «Kuni rong» («Kýn búratanalary», «Kýn jabayylary») degen ataumen kezdesedi. Hristian jyl sanauyna deyingi IV ghasyrda – «Usuni rong» («Ýisin әuleti jabayylary»), II ghasyr jazbalarynda «usuni»  degen ataumen úshyrasady. Osy kezende  Shyghys Tyani-Shani aimaghyn mekendep, artynan batysqa qaray qonys audardy. Ile ózeni boyyndaghy, Jetisu ólkesindegi taypalardy ontýstik-batysqa yghystyryp, tәuelsiz ýisin memleketin qúrdy[5].

Osy kezendi qarastyra kele, N. Aristov mynanday mәlimetter beredi. Qytaydyng birinshi imperatory jәne Hani әuletining basynda túrghan Gad-dy bizding dәuirimizge deyingi 198-shi jyly jýrgizgen sәtsiz soghys әreketterinen son, ghún (hunn) biyleushisi shaniuy Módege (Mode)  jyl sayyn alym tólep túrugha mindettengen. Ózara shayqasyp, odan tәueldilik jaghdayda tikeley qatysyp túrghandyqtan,  Qytay, mine, osy ghúndardy bilgen. Biraq odan batysqa qaray ornalasqan jerler jayynda eshtene bilmegen, al múnday jәit ózgelermen tikeley tóte qatynasy joq bolghandyqtan oryn alsa kerek.

H.T.  deyingi 139-shy jyly qytay ýkimeti ózine odaqtas tabu niyetimen sol shaqta ghúndarmen jaulasyp túrghan yuechjy halqyna Chjani-Syani basqarghan elshilik jiberdi. Alayda shekaradan ótkennen keyin kóp úzamay elshilikti hundar ústap qaldy. Chjani-Syanige on jyldan song ghana tútqynnan qashyp shyghudyng orayy keldi. Ol ondaghan kýnder boyy sapar shegip, Ferghanagha (Davani), odan Syrdariya boyyndaghy Kanguy eline, sodan song yuechjiyge jetedi. Ol kezde búl halyq Dahya eline (Baktrianagha) ie bolyp otyrghan, búrynghy jerinen shalghayda jýrgendikten, hundardan ósh aludy da, Qytaymen baylanys jasaudy da oiyna almaytyn.    Sonda bir jylday bolghan Chjani-Syani keri qaytady, biraq jolda ony taghy da hundar ústap qalady da, tek bir jyldan song ghana qashyp shyghyp, aqyry, on ýsh jyldan keyin, Qytaygha H.T.  deyingi 126 jyly oralady[6].

Búl shamada ýisin memleketinde el basqarudyng 9 dәrejeli jýiesi qalyptasqan-tyn. Biylikke múragerlik tәrtip ornatylghan. Áleumettik qatynastar zanmen retteldi. Memlekette jaqsy úiymdasqan kýshti әsker boldy. Áskerding jalpy sany 189 myng adamgha jetken. Eldegi halyq sany 630 myng adam bolghan, olar barlyghy 120 mynday shanyraqty qúraghan. Patshasy «gunimo» – «kýnbi» dep atalghan. Ghúndarmen qalypty qarym-qatynasta bolghan. Sondyqtan, Chjan-Syani bastaghan elshilikting ghúndargha (hundargha) qarsy qytaylarmen birigip soghysu jayyndaghy úsynysyn qabyldamady[7].

Qytay tarihshylary  Chjani-Syaninyng sol sayahatyn batys ólkeni ashudyng basy boldy dep biledi. Ony Qytay Kolumby dep ataydy, óitkeni ol batys Aziya, Indiya jәne Jerorta tenizi janyndaghy elder jayynda dúrys ta shyn mәlimetterdi birinshi bolyp әkelgen edi.  Onyng әngimeleri qytay sarayynyng batys elderindegi tansyq zattargha qúmarlyghyn oyatty.

Qytay әskerleri hundardan (ghúndardan) 127 jyly Ordosty, 121 jyly Gani-sudy tartyp aldy. 104–101 jyldary Ferghanagha eki mәrte joryq jasady. Alghashqysy sәtsiz boldy, al 102 jylghy ekinshisinde 60 myng adamdyq tandauly qytay әskeri sol shaqtaghy Shyghys Týrkistandy qúraghan úsaq iyelikterdi baghyndyryp aldy.

Chjani-Syaninyng bayandamasy boyynsha – Ferghananyng soltýstik-shyghysynda Usuni (Ýisin) kóshpendiler iyeligi bar-dy. Olar b.z.d. 200-shi jyldary yuechjy halqymen kórshi bolyp, batys Mongholiyanyng bir bóligin alyp jatatyn[8]. Olargha Chjani-Syani elshiligi kelip ketkennen keyin, ghúndar qyryn qaraydy, qysym kórsetuin kýsheytedi. Ghúndardan qaymyqqan ýisinder b.z.b. 108 j. Hani patshalyghyna 1000 jylqy qalyng mal berip, Siy-Guani (Shijun) hanshany alady da, qytaylarmen resmy sayasiy-diplomatiyalyq baylanys ornatady. Sol tústa ghúndar da ýisindermen qúda bolady. Kýnbiyge qyz beredi. Sonyng nәtiyjesi bolsa kerek, qytaylar ghúndargha qarsy b.z.b. 71 jyly 150 myndyq qolmen joryqqa shyqqanda, ýisinder ghúndargha 50 myng jauyngeri bar óz әskerimen jaqtasady. Biraq búl shayqastar Ghún imperiyasynyng da, Ýisin memleketining de әlsireuine әkep soghady[9].

«...Shaniuy Módening túsynda, 177 jyly, hundar batysqa ýlken joryq jasaghanda, yuechjiydi jendi, ... bәrin baghyndyryp,  Leulani, Usuni, Huse jәne ónirdegi ózge 26 iyelikti bekitti»[10].  Alayda,  el ishinde qytay hanshasy men ghún qyzynan tughan úldar arasynda taqqa talasqan qiyan-keski kýres boy kórsetti[11].

Hristiandar jylsanaghyna jarty ghasyrday qalghanda hundardy ishki alauyzdyqtar irite bastady. 57-shi jyly olarda ózara jaulasqan bes shaniuy boldy. 53-shi jyly basqalaryn Chjichjiy-shanuy jendi. 49-shy jyly ol Usuniderge elshi jiberip, odaq qúru jóninde úsynys aitty. Chjichjiyding Qytaymen jaulyq qatynasta ekenin biletin ýisinderding kishi gunimii (kýnbiyi) Uszutu, qytay sarayyna jaghynu maqsatynda, elshini óltirdi de, ghúndargha qarsy 8 myng adamdyq atty әsker jiberdi.

Alayda Chjichjy búl әskerdi tas-talqanyn shygharyp jendi. Odan soltýstigindegi Uge, Gyani-guni jәne dinlinderdi birtindep baghyndyrdy. Ara-arasynda Usunige әsker jiberip, údayy jeniske jetip otyrdy.

44-shi jyl shamasynda usunidermen soghys jaghdayynda túrghan jәne olardan jenilip jýrgen Kanguy qojayyny Chjichjiydi ózine kómekke shaqyrdy. Odaqtastar usuniderge qarsy birneshe ret shayqasty. Usuni әmirshisi bodandarymen shyghysqa qaray ketti. 36-shy jyly Chjichjiydi Shyghys Týrkistandaghy qytay biyleushileri jendi.

H.T. keyin 3-shi jyly batys ólkening Agha Hanider әuleti uaqytyndaghy tarihyn qúrastyrushy Usuni jayyndaghy maqalasyn: «Usuni iyeligi eki bólikke – ýlken jәne kishi gunimy qojalyghyna bólingen kezden bastap, qytay sarayy kóp alandaushylyqqa úshyrady, bir-de-bir jyl tynysh ótpedi»[12].

Búl kezeng jayynda «Qazaqstan» últtyq ensiklopediyasynda mynanday derek berilgen: «...Hani patshalyghy ... b.z.b. 52 j. óz jiyenderin Úly kýnby dep jariyalap, oghan 60 myng týtindi bólip berdi. Al ghúndar óz jiyenderin Kishi kýnby dep jariyalap, oghan 40 myng týtindi basqartty». Osy talas-tartystyng saldarynan  Ýisin memleketi meylinshe әlsirey týsken de, Ortalyq Aziyadaghy sayasy yqpalyn joghalta bastaghan[13].

Jana zamannyng 1-shi jylynda Qytaymen ghúndar kelisimshart jasady. Onda ózderine baghynu ýshin qashyp kelgen ýisinderdi qabyldamaugha mindettengendik jayynda bap bar edi. Qytay men ýisinder arasynda ghasyrdan astam jalghasyp kele jatqan qarym-qatynas osylay, hristian erasynyng basynan toqtaydy. H.T.-nyng 9-shy jyly Hani әuletin taqtan aiyryp, Van Man imperator boldy. Kelesi jyly Shyghys Týrkistandaghy әskery qonys hundargha berildi, Qytaydyng ýisindermen jәne batyspen baylanysy ýzildi. 25–265-shi jyldary biylegen Heu-Hani әuleti alghashqy kezderi tek ishki istermen shúghyldandy da, tek 73-shi jyly batys ólkedegi biyligin qalpyna keltirudi qolgha aldy.

V ghasyrda usunider (ýisinder) Jualy tauda – batys ólkede, yaghny Shyghys Týrkistanda ornyqqan: «...usuni iyelenushisi V ghasyrda Narynda, Talastyng jogharghy aghystarynda jәne Shatqalda kóship-qonyp jýrdi». Kóptegen derekkózderdi jәne zertteushilerding pikirlerin qarastyryp, N. Aristov usuniderding (ýisinderdin) territoriyasy men shekaralaryna baylanysty: «...Deginining oiy boyynsha, ýisinderding jeri «Ile ózenining manynda, Ertisten Sayram qalasyna deyin»  sozylyp jatty, «Rihthofen boyynsha – ýisinder Balqashty, Ile men Ystyqkóldi alyp jatqan», – dey kele, «ýisinder aumaghyna Ile ózeni men onyng salalarynyng basseynderi, Júldyzdar, Naryn basseyni, Shatqal, Ystyqkól men Shu jәne Talas ózenderining basseynderi, bir sózben, ýisinder jeri kýlli batys Tyani-Shanidy Ile basseynin qosa alyp jatty», – dep qorytty[14].

Bartolidting aituynsha da usunider hundardan jenilgen halyq qatarynda. Hunn (ghún) patshasy ózimen shayqasta qaza tapqan usuni (ýisin) patshasynyng úlyn óz tәrbiyesine alady da, keyin, bala-jigit joryqtarda erligimen kózge týsken son, oghan ózining әkesining halqyn – usuniderdi qaytarady. Sosyn usunider ózderining búrynghy qonsylary, kezinde hundar tas-talqan etken yuechjiylikterdi qughyndaugha qatysady.

iyechjiyler ózderining batysqa qaray jyljuy kezinde Jetisudan se halqyn yghystyryp shygharghan edi, endi olardy usunider yghystyrdy. Osynda usuni patshasy gunimo Leszyaomi, quaty artqany sonday, hundargha mýldem baghynbaugha ainalady.

Usuni elinen ontýstikke qaray Shyghys Týrkistannyng otyryqshy iyelikteri, ontýstik-batysynda – Ferghana, batysynda – kóshpendi kanguy (qanly dep atalatyn týrki halqy boluy yqtimal) halqynyng iyelikteri jatty. Usunider (ýisinder) Ferghanadan soltýstik-shyghysqa qaray, al qanlylar –  soltýstik-batysqa qaray ómir sýrip jatqandyqtan, iyelikteri aralaryndaghy shekara shamamen Jetisu jәne Syrdariya oblystary arasyndaghy shekaragha sәikes keldi.  Ýisinderding kóshi-qony negizinen, qytay jazbalaryna qaraghanda, Jetisudyng jazyq bóligin alyp jatty. Taularyn qylqan japyraqty aghash toghayy japqan, tabighaty janbyrly, suyq. Halyq sanyn aitqanda – 120 myng otbasy nemes 630 myng jan bar delingen. Usunider 188800 adamnan túratyn әsker shyghara alatyn bolghan. Astanasy, dúrysynda, usuniderding basty ordasy Chigu – Ystyqkólding ontýstik-shyghys jaghasynda bolghan tәrizdi.

IV ghasyrdyng basynda «ejelgi usuni jerlerin» syanbiyler baghyndyrdy. IV ghasyrdyng ayaghynan VI ghasyrdyng ortasyna deyin Orta Aziyada jujandar biylik etti. Solardyng jiyiletken shapqynshylyqtary usuniderdi Jetisudyng jazyq bóliginen birjolata Tyani-Shani taularyna qonys audarugha mәjbýr etti. V ghasyrda usuni biyleushisi Soltýstik Qytaygha elshilik jiberdi, úzamay qytay elshiligi usuniderge keldi. Sodan jyl sayyn usunider Qytaygha tartu-taralghy artynghan elshilikter jiberip túrdy. Sol shaqtan keyin usunider derbes halyq retinde tarihta kezdespeydi[15].

Oqyrman angharghan bolar, biz ghylymy әdebiyette usuni dep tanbalanghan osy ejelgi halyqtyng atauyn әlsin-әlsin jaqsha ishinde ýisin dep belgilep otyrdyq. Óitkeni onyng keyin, qily tarihy alasapyrannan song quaty әlsirep, qazaqtyng Úly jýzi qúramyna ýisin degen ataumen kirgenin bilemiz. Dúrysynda, sol alys zamanda da ol ózin solay – ýisin dep atasa kerek. Usuni – shet júrttardyng kóne jazbalarynda solardyng ózderining tildik erekshelikteri ynghayyna baghyndyrylyp, óstip aityp-jazuymen saqtalghan atau.

Alayda, iri zertteushi N. Aristov ózining «Usunider men qyrghyzdar nemese qara-qyrghyzdar» atty irgeli zertteu enbeginde: «...usunider  qazirgi batys Tyani-Shanidy mekendeytin qara-kirgizderding (qyrghyzdardyng – B.Q.) týpki ata-babalary. Olar alghashqyda Eniyseyde túrghan qyrghyz halqynyng bir bóligin qúraghan»[16], – degen tújyrym jasaydy. Sonday-aq, «Ýlken Ordanyng kirgiyz-qazaqtary (qazaqtar – B.Q.) men qarakirgizdardyng (qyrghyzdar – B.Q.) ...etnostyq qúramyn anyqtau tәjiriybesi» atty baghaly enbeginde de: «...qara-kirgiz (qyrghyz – B.Q.) halqy orta Mongholiyagha ketken jәne sondaghy shyqqan tegi qyrghyzdan erekshe týrki rularynyng bir bóligimen qosyla kele, H.T. aldyndaghy II ghasyrda batys Tyani-Shanida  jәne oghan soltýstik jaghynan jalghasqan dalagha qonystanghan usuni odaghyn jasaghan Eniysey qyrghyzdarynyng bir bóliginen qúraghan»[17], – degen qorytyndygha kelgen.

Ghalym búl oiyn dәleldeu ýshin edәuir enbektengenimen, onysy bizding kónilimizge qonbaydy. Búl, әsheyin,  tym jobagha kelmeytin boljal, qisynsyz joramal ghana. Áygili ghalym V. Bartolid ta ony «gipotezalyq» pikirge balaydy, sonymen birge ol ejelgi usuni men bertingi qazaqy ýisin atauyn sәikestendirudi de dauly mәsele dep bilgen. Degenmen, «Usunider» atty maqalasynda usuniderding aty V–VI ghasyrlardan keyin jeke halyq retinde tarihy derekkózderde úshyraspaytynyn aita otyryp,  «...búl esim (ýisinder) tek Ýlken kirgiyz-kazak (qazaq – B.Q.) ordasynyng atalymynda ghana saqtalyp qalghan»[18] ekenin jazyp ketken.

Shynynda, III – V ghasyrlarda ýisinder men qytaylardyng qarym qatynastary elshilikter almasumen ghana shektelgen. Al V ghasyrda jujandar men avarlardyng Orta Aziya elderine shapqynshylyq jasauy ýisin memleketin ydyratugha aparyp soqty. Ýisinder sodan keyin derbes memlekettik qúrylym retinde kóringen joq. Týbegeyli ydyrap, VI ghasyrdyng orta sheninde janadan qúrylghan Týrik qaghandyghyna baghyndy[19]. Biz Shapyrashty ruynyng arghy tarihy jayyn әngime etkende, onyng osy Ýisin birlestigine kiretindigin este ústay túryp, sol shaqtaghy derekkózderde  óz atymen úshyraspaghanmen, alys zamandaghy jogharyda aitylghan ýisin memleketi men odan keyingi týrki qúrylymdarymen taghdyry bir bolghan dep bilemiz.

Shyghys, Qazaq jәne Batys Dalalaryn týtastyrghan osy Úly Dalada duly Estemes han biylik tizginin alyp, 556–576 jyldary Úly Týrk qaghanaty qayta qanat jaydy. Estemes han qaytys bolghan song qaghanattyng qazirgi Qazaq Dalasy aumaghyndaghy bóligi, L.N. Gumiylev boyynsha, onyng ýlken úly Qarasha hannyng qaramaghyna ótken. Al Qazaq tarihyndaghy ómir joly anyzdargha oranghan, esimi ghasyrdan ghasyrgha tarih tolqyndaryn qaq jaryp ótip kele jatqan myzghymas túlghalardyng biri – Qarashaúly Bәidibek bi. Tarihymyzda XIII ghasyrdyng bastapqy kezenine deyin «bi» atauy osy búrynghy Elbasy – «úly biyleushi, patsha, han» dәrejesin alyp kelgen de, qazaq dalasyna Shynghys han biyligi jýre bastaghannan beri qaray «halqynyng qamqory, qara qyldy qaq jaratyn әdiletti tóreshi» degen keyingi maghynagha auysa bastaydy[20]. Biz endi búl әigili túlghagha aldaghy taraularda arnayy әngime jelisin arnaytyn bolamyz.

5.

Halqymyzdyng shyghu tegin, taraluyn bayandaytyn tarih ghylymynyng bir tarmaghy qazaq shejiresi ekeni anyq. Shejire degen sózding ózining týp-tórkini arabtyng bútaq, tarmaq degen maghynany bildiretin shadjarat degen sózinen shyqqan. Mәdeniyetti elderding bәrinde rular men taypalardyng ósip-órbuin tizbelep, úrpaqtan úrpaqqa jetkizgen qalyptasqan resmy shejire bar. Resey, Germaniya, Angliya, Fransiya jәne kóptegen shyghys elderi óz halyqtarynyng shejirelerin kóp tomdyq jinaq retinde shygharyp qoyghan. Ózbek, bashqúrt, týrikmen, qyrghyz jәne Sibir halyqtarynda da shejireler bar. Al qazaq shejiresi ósken elderding shejiresi siyaqty eng tolyq jinaqtardyng birinen sanalady.  Qazaq  shejiresining qaynar kózi – alys zamandarda qalyptasyp, úrpaqtan úrpaqqa múra retinde berilip otyrghan jinaqtar. Shejire atadan balagha auyzsha, jazbasha týrde belgili-bir tarihy shygharma ispettendirilip jetkizilgen[21].

Qazirgi tanda tarihshylar paydalanyp jýrgen shejireni T. Omarbekov  Qazaq handyghynyng alghashqy keze­ninde, dәlirek aitqanda, HVI gha­syrda qosymsha ózgerister engizilip naqtylanghan jәne jan­ghyrtylghan núsqa degen  oi­da. Jazba týrge kóp zaman búryn týsirilgen shejirelerding birqatary  qazaq oishyldaryna jaqsy tanys, olardyng qatarynda Rashiyd-ad-Dinning týrik-monghol shejiresi, Jamal Qarshiyding Oghyz-qypshaq, Qarahan shejiresi, Úlyqbekting «Súltandar shejiresi», Molla Myrza Rahym Tashkendiyding «Súltandar shejiresi», Ábilghazynyng «Týrik shejiresi», «Shejire jazbasy», Beybars pen ibn Haldunnyng «Qypshaq shejiresi», «Oghyz-qarahan shejiresi» jәne t.b. shejirelik jazbalar bar. Solarmen birge qazaq oishyldary toptaghan shejireler asa qymbat, olar: Múhammed Haydar Dulatiydin, Qydyrghaly Qosynúly Jalayyriyding shejireleri, «Kóshen-Qarauyl shejiresi», «Jәngirhan shejiresi», Shoqan Uәlihanov jazyp alghan «Úly jýz shejiresi», Abdulla Niyazovtyng «Ýsh jýzding shejiresi», Ahmet Jantórinning shejiresi, Grigoriy Potanin jazyp alghan Músa Shormanúlynyng shejiresi, Óteu Bójeyúlynyng «Qazaq júrtynyng shejiresi», Qorghanbek Birimjanúlynyng bastauymen jinaqtalghan «Orta jýz jәne Kishi jýzding shejiresi» mәlim. Shejirelerdi toptap jiystyryp otyru orta ghasyrlardaghy ataqty adamdar arasynda dәstýrge ainalghan bolatyn. Eski shejireler Esim, Tәuke, Sәmeke, Ábilmәmbet handardyng úrpaqtarynda saqtalyp kelgenin Shoqan Uәlihanov aitqan bolatyn. Sonday shejireler Ábilqayyr han men onyng balalary Núraly, Ayshuaq handarda, úrpaqtary Jәngir han,  Dәuletkereyde, Abylay handa, onyng balalary Uәlihanda, Súiyq tórede bolghan[22].

Kezinde Abylay hannyng shejiresi onyng úrpaqtary arqyly kapitan Andreevke, N. Grodekovke tiydi. Tolyq týri Shoqanda boldy. Ábilqayyr hannyng shejiresi tolyghymen Mәmet Tevkelevtin, P.N. Rychkovtyng qolyna týsti. Sonday shejirelerdi A.I. Levshiyn, G.S. Sablukov, N. Aristov, A. Yagmiyn, B.S. Bronevskiy, F.G. Starkiyn, A.S. Andre, K.B. Krasovskiy, L. Meyer, V.V. Grigoriev, N.N. Veselovskiy jәne t.b. jinady. Qol astyndaghy búratanalar ómirindegi múnday tarihy shejirelerge patsha ýkimeti sayasy mәn berip, jergilikti jerlerden arnayy jinatyp otyrghan. HIH ghasyrda әsirese M. Ladyjenskiy, Sh. Uәlihanov, G.N. Potaniyn, Á. Divaev, N.I. Grodekov, I. Shangin syndy ghalymdar shejirelerdi kóp jinady[23].

Shejireni toptauda deregi mol enbekter («Qazaq shejiresi») Shәkәrim Qúdayberdiúly, Halidy Qúrbanghali, Mәshhýr-Jýsip Kópeyúly qalamdarynan shyqty. Núrjan Naushabayúlynyng «Qazaq pen týrikmen shejiresi», Syr boyynda Mústafa Shoqaydyng atasy Torghay by jinaghan «Ýsh jýzding shejiresi» (N.I. Grodekov jazbalarynda), Diqanbay batyrdyng «Úly jýzding shejiresi» (N.A. Aristov jazbalarynda) de qúndy jәdigerlikter bolyp tabylady. Qazaq shejirelerinde taypa, ru, atalardyng taraluymen qatar, olargha baylanysty tarihy oqighalar, el-júrttyng qonys audarulary, ózara qarym-qatynastary, әr ortadan ýzdik shyqqan sheshender, batyrlar jayyndaghy auyzdan auyzgha tarap kele jatqan әngimeler men anyzdar qosa jazylady. Biraq, qazaq shejiresi osy uaqytqa deyin tolyq jinaqtalyp, bir izge týsken joq[24]. Degenmen tәuelsizdik jyldary jekelegen ru-taypalardyng shejireleri jer-jerde jinaqtalyp, shygharylyp keledi[25]. Shejiremen júmys isteuding qiyndyghy – onda birneshe dәuirding tarihy bir-birimen astasa aralasyp jatatynynda[26]. Degenmen, shejire mәlimetteri ózindik dәs­týr­li erekshelikteri bar tól tarihy­myz­dyng úmy­tyl­ghan nemese búrmalanghan keybir tústa­ryn qalpyna keltiruge kóp kó­megin tiygizedi.

6.

Shapyrashty qaydan shyqty? Búl saual oy men sana tәuelsizdigine qol jetken jana zamandaghy býgingi shejireshilerding de qatty oilanghan mәselesi boldy. Shapyrashty ruyn da, ózge ru-taypalar sekildi, qazaqtan bólip alugha bolmaydy.  Osy rudyng býgingi shejireshileri qanaghattana atap ótkendey,  «úrpaghymdy ósiremin, ýrim-bútaghymdy jetkizemin» dep at qúlaghynda oinap, shyr ainala elin qorghaghan asyl tekti atalardy úmytu – týp ata-analaryn úmytqangha ten. Al týp atalardy «úmytqanymyz – ejelden birden-birge, satylap jalghasyp kele jatqan sananyng sara, altyn dingegin joyyp jiberu bolyp shyghady. Al, shejire – bizdi sonau týpki tarihymyzben ýzdiksiz jalghastyryp, býgingi úrpaqty toqtausyz baulyp túrghan quatty dariya, altyn kópir»[27].

Qazaq shejireshileri halyqtardyn, óz atalarynyng ótkendegi túrmys-tirshiligin auyzsha taratyp, úrpaqtan-úrpaqqa jetkizip otyrghan. Qazaq halqy qyryqtan astam ru-taypalyq birlestikten qúralghan desek, olardyng ishinde 200-den astam ru bar. Solardyng әrqaysysynyng óz shejireshisi bolghan. Olar jýzdin, taypalar men rulardyn, ata-babalardyng tarihyn tereng talday bilgen[28].

Arabtar shejireni ata sanaumen tikeley baylanystyrsa, týrkiler kóneni saqtau – tarihty aitumen, tarihpen bir dep týsindiredi. Qazaq halqynyng ómirinde de  shejire eleuli oryn alady. Ol kóshpendilik ómir  salty kezinde tughan, óz kezinde ata-babasyn, ýrim-bútaghyn týgendeu jolymen elding tútastyghyn saqtaugha qyzmet etken qajettilik bolatyn. «Demek, shejire bizding atalarymyz ýshin tarih qyzmetin atqarghan»[29]. Sondyqtan da shejireden halqymyzdyng etnostyq qúrylymyn, ózindik tarihymyzdyng jón-jobasyn, belesterin anyqtaugha bolady.

Dýnie jýzining barlyq elderinde ótken tarihynan – óz shejiresinen údayy nәr alyp otyru dәstýri bar. Materialdyq, mәdeny jәne ruhany múralary biyikke kóterilip, quatty damyghan Germaniya, Angliya, Japoniya, Qytay, Ýndistan, Arab elderi t.b. ózderining ejelgi tarihynan derek beretin  shejirelik jazbalaryn kýni býginge deyin úmytpay zerttep otyrady.  Talay ghasyr kóshpendilik saltpen ómir sýrgen týrki taypalarynyn, sonyng ishinde qazaqtardyng da óz tarihyn úmytpauyna auyzsha jәne jazbasha shejiresin úrpaqtan úrpaqqa berip otyruy sebep bolghan. Shynghys han jylnamashylary qaldyrghan «Mongholdyng qúpiya shejiresi», «Altyn shejire», Rashiyd-ad-dinning «Shejire jinaghy», Múhammed Haydar Dulatiyding «Rashid tarihy», Ábilghazy baHadýr hannyng «Týrik shejiresi», Jalayyr Qadyrghaly by Qosymúlynyng «Shejireler jinaghy», Shәkәrim Qúdayberdiúlynyng «Týrik, qyrghyz-qazaq hәm handar shejiresi», «Búl qazaq qay kezde «Ýsh jýz» atalghan» enbegi, Múhamedjan Tynyshbayúlynyng «Qyrghyz-qazaq halqynyng tarihyna qatysty materialdary», ózge de shejireler mәselening manyzdylyghyn dәleldey týsedi.

Ózderining qoghamdyq-tarihi, etnostyq erekshelikterine baylanysty, kóshpendi halyqtardyng tarihy shejirelerinde, әriyne, ózindik erekshe sipattary bolady. Kóne týrki shejireshisi Mahmúd Qashqary týrki halyqtaryn, negizinen, jiyrma taypadan túrady dep jazghan. Árbir taypanyng birtalay úsaq rulary bar ekenin aityp, olardyng jaylap jatqan shegin: «Rúm ólkesinen Mashyngha deyingi ornalasqan týrki elderining úzyndyghy segiz myng perseh»  dep kórsetken. Ár persehting 6,24 shaqyrymgha teng keletinin eskersek, týrki elining eki sheti shamamen elu myng shaqyrymday bolghan tәrizdi. M. Qashqary «olardyng meken jaylaryn anyqtap beru ýshin jer jýzining bederli kartasynda naqty kórsettim» deydi, ol óz ghasyryndaghy kýlli týrki taypalaryn tarata bayandap, kórneki týrde berip ketken[30].

Al Múhammed Haydar Dulaty Mogholstan men Qashqariyany mekendegen shaghatay túqymynan taraghan handardyng sayasy tarihymen qatar dulat taypasy jәne onyng Shyghys Týrkistanda biylik qúruy, sonday-aq mogholdar turaly jazady. Múnda Kerey men Jәnibek súltandardyng Mogholstangha qonys audarghany jayynda jәne sol qos súltanmen bólek otau shyghyp jatqan júrtqa qazaq atauyn ózge júrt bergendigi aitylady[31]. Mahmud Abdollah ben Uәliyding «Zubdat al-asrar» degen enbegi de qazaq elining tarihyn tolyqtyra týsetin derekkóz bolyp tabylady. Onda qazaqtardyng orta ghasyrlardaghy kórshi eldermen  sayasy qarym-qatynasynyng kóptegen oqighalary aitylghan.

Akademik Álkey Marghúlan: «...qazaq halqynyng eski qariya sózderi – shejireni bilgish adamdar tarihi, dәstýr-salttyq kóp maghlúmattar qaldyryp ketken» dey kelip:   «Ghúndar, ýisinder, qanlylar – óte eski dәuirden Qazaqstan saharasyn otan etip, onda kóp joyqyn qalalardyng ýiindisin qaldyrghan elder... Olardyng mәdeniyet ortalyghy etken jeri – Jetisu, Ile, Shu, Talas ózenderining boyy. Búl jerde olar úly memleket jasap, Talas qalasyn ózderine astana etip kóterdi. Ekinshi ýlken qala Ile ózeni boyynda kórkeygen ýisinderding astanasy – Chigu (Shie – Qyzyl), ýshinshi ýly qala әri bәrinen de eskiregi Shu ózeni jaghasynda kórkeyip týrghan – Shu...» dep jazdy[32].  Degenmen, qazaqtyng ózine tәn tól tarihty onyng shejire syndy kól-kósir múrasynan mol tabugha bolady. Al qazaq ishinde negizinen auyzdan auyzgha berilip jýrgen tarihy oqighalar jayyndaghy әngimeler qaghazgha HIH ghasyrdyng ayaghynan bastap týsirile bastaghan-dy.

Shәkerim jogharyda atalghan shejire kitabynda el ishinen estigen-bilgeninen basqa, kóne zamandaghy týrik, arab, parsy, qytay jazbalary men oryssha derekkózderin oqyghanyn jaza otyryp, halyqtyng ótken tarihyn bayandaydy. Sh. Qúdayberdiúlynyng «Týrik, qyrghyz-qazaq hәm handar shejiresi» 1911 jyly Orynbor qalasynda basylyp shyqqanda, ol jayynda Álihan Bókeyhan: «Múnan búryn qazaq shejiresi qazaq tilinde kitap bolyp basylghan joq. Shәkerimning búl kitaby – qazaq shejiresining túnghyshy (túnghysh kitap bop basylghan degen úghymda – B.Q.). Qazaq shejiresin bilmek bolghan agha-ini izdegendi osy kitaptan tabasyn. Endi múnan bylay qazaq shejiresin jazbaq bolghan kisi, Shәkerim kitabyn bilmey qadam baspa», – dep jazghan edi.

Ghasyrlar boyy negizinen auyzeki aitylumen saqtalyp kele jatqan jәdigerlikti HIH ghasyrdyng ayaghynda zertteu kezinde, qazaq shejireshileri tek tikeley jazbashagha ainaldyru  júmystaryn ghana jasap qoya salghan joq, olar el auzynda saqtalghan ne hatqa týsken múralardy óndep bir izge týsirude birneshe baghytty ústanghan. Mәselen, Shәkerim Qúdayberdiúly jogharyda atalghan enbegin jazuda batystyq zertteushilerge baghdar ústady. Al Qúrbanghaly Halidy ózining «Tauarih Hamsasynda» qazaq elining tarihy, әdet-ghúrpy, «qazaq» etnoniymining shyghu tarihy, rular turaly tyng derekterdi әngimelegeninde shyghystyq dәstýrdi ústandy.  Mәshhýr Jýsip Kópeev bolsa shejirelerdi qazaq auyz әdebiyetine sýienip jazdy. Akademik Sәbit Múqanov ol jayynda: «Kópeev shejiresining ózge shejirelerden ózgesheligi – ol әrbir atalardy bayandaghanda, sol atalardyng túsynda bolghan oqighalar turaly el auzynda qalghan ertegi-anyzdardy qosa aitady», – dep atap kórsetken bolatyn[33].

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[2] Egemen Qazaqstan.  – 30 sәuir, 1999 j.

[3] N.A. Aristov. Usuny y kyrgyzy ily kara-kyrgyzy. Ocherky istoriy y byta naseleniya zapadnogo Tyani-Shanya y issledovaniya po ego istoricheskoy geografii. Bishkek, 2001. – 9-b.

[4] Bartolid V.V. Sochiyneniya. Tom V. – Moskva, 1968. – 267-b.

[5] Qazaqstan. Últtyq ensiklopediya. 9-tom. – Almaty, 2007. – 93-b.

[6] N.A. Aristov. Usuny y kyrgyzy ily kara-kyrgyzy. Ocherky istoriy y byta naseleniya zapadnogo Tyani-Shannya y issledovaniya po ego istoricheskoy geografii. Bishkek, 2001. – 9–10-bb.

[7] Qazaqstan. Últtyq ensiklopediya. 9-tom. – Almaty, 2007. – 93-b.

[8] N.A. Aristov. Usuny y kyrgyzy ily kara-kyrgyzy. Ocherky istoriy y byta naseleniya zapadnogo Tyani-Shanya y issledovaniya po ego istoricheskoy geografii. Bishkek, 2001. – 10–11-bb.

[9] Qazaqstan. Últtyq ensiklopediya. 9-tom. – Almaty, 2007. –93-b.

[10] N.A. Aristov. Usuny y kyrgyzy... – 11-b.

[11] Qazaqstan. Últtyq ensiklopediya. 9-tom. – Almaty, 2007. –93-b.

[12]N.A. Aristov. Usuny y kyrgyzy... –17–20-bb.

[13] Ýisin memleketi// Qazaqstan. Últtyq ensiklopediya. 9-tom. – Almaty, 2007. – 93-b.

[14] N.A. Aristov. Usuny y kyrgyzy ily kara-kyrgyzy. Ocherky istoriy y byta naseleniya zapadnogo Tyani-Shanya y issledovaniya po ego istoricheskoy geografii. – Bishkek, 2001. –17-, 21–23-, 123–124-bb.

[15] Bartolid V.V. Sochiyneniya. T.II, chasti I. – Moskva, 1963. – 25–27-, 30-bb.

[16] Aristov N.A. Usuny y kyrgyzy ily kara-kyrgyzy. Ocherky istoriy y byta naseleniya zapadnogo Tyani-Shanya y issledovaniya po ego istoricheskoy geografii. – Bishkek, 2001. – 136-b.

[17] Aristov N.A. Opyt vyyasneniya etnicheskogo sostava kirgiyz-kazakov bolishoy ordy y karakirgizov, na osnovaniy rodoslovnyh skazaniy y svedeniy o sushestvuyshih rodovyh deleniyah y o rodovyh tamgah, a takje istoricheskih dannyh y nachinaishihsya antropologicheskih issledovaniy. – Sankt-Peterburg, 1895. – 74–75-bb.

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[20] Qaydary Á., Tólepbaev B., Núrpeyisov K., Karl Baypaqov j.b. Bәidibek baba// Bәidibek baba – Alyp Bәiterek.Úrpaqtar shejiresi. Qúrastyrghan A.Bayghazyúly. – Almaty, 2006. – 11-b.

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Beybit Qoyshybaev

(«Ruh-Saray», 5-tom, «QazAqparat» baspasy, 2012 j.)

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