Júma, 22 Qantar 2021
Sayasat 10833 0 pikir 18 Sәuir, 2014 saghat 10:08

Ukraina daghdarysy «Karib daghdarysyn» eske týsiredi

Beybitshilikke taghy bir qauip tóndi. Búl qauip halyqtyng emes, sayasatkerlerding óktemdigi men memleket basyndaghylardyng parasatsyzdyghynan oryn aluda. Biylik ýshin jәne geosyasat ýshin jantalas taghy bir soghysqa alyp baratynday. U. Uestmorland aitqanday «Soghysty әskeriyler bastamaydy, soghysty sayasatkerler bastaydy» degeni de rasqa keletindey. Ángime Ukrainadaghy daghdarys turaly bolmaq.

Búl qauip әsirese Resey jәne AQSh preziydentterining sózderinen keyin odan әri órshy týsti. Resey Preziydenti Ukrainadaghy jaghdaygha oray «Basqa elderdegi otandastarymyz zәbir kórip shaghymdanatyn bolsa, ol elge әsker kirgizip olardy qorghaugha deyin baramyz» degendey mәlimdeme taratty. Búl sózden keyin Reseymen kórshi respublikalardaghy, yaghniy  búrynghy KSRO qúramynda bolghan elderdegi orystardyng qúlaghy kóterilse, jergilikti últty alandatty. Tipti keybir Reseylik sayasatkerler territoriyalyq tútastyqqa qauip tóndiretin sózder de aitty, aityp da jatyr. Al AQSh preziydenti B. Obama telearnalardyng birine bergen súqbatynda «AQSh-tyng әskery quaty Reseydikinen әldeqayda asyp týsedi» degendey ses te kórsetti. Parasatty sayasatkerler  búlay aitpauy kerek edi.  

Býgingini jәne bolashaqty oilau ýshin de ótkendi eske alyp odan sabaq ala bilu de kerek.  Memleket basshylarynyng júdyryq kórsetuinen bolghan jaghday ótken ghasyrdyng 60-jyldarynyng basynda oryn alghan edi. Búl kezde әlem yadrolyq soghys qarsanynda túrdy.  Búl «Karib daghdarysy» bolatyn.  Ukraina daghdarysynyng qalay órbiytindigin boljau ýshin de ótkenge qóz jýgirtken artyq bolmaydy.

«Karib daghdarysy» atauy AQSh pen KSRO arasyndaghy jappay qarulanu  bәsekelesining eng qauyrt kezeninde, 1962 jyly qazan aiynda KSRO-nyng Kubada óz zymyrandaryn, onyng ishinde yadrolyq qaru tasymalday alatyn zymyrandaryn ornalastyruy men AQSh-tyng Kuba aralyn blokodagha                aluy men  shabuyl jasaugha dayyndaluy kezinde payda boldy. Yadrolyq soghys qauipining tútanuyna shaq qalghan búl daghdarys 1962 jyly kýzde KSRO men AQSh arasynda Kubagha baylanysty payda bolghan sayasiy-әskery janjaldan tuyndady.

Búl janjaldyng tuyndauynyng alghysharttary 1959 jyly 1 qantarda Kubada Fiydeli Kastronyng basshylyghymen bolghan revolusiyadan keyin-aq bastalghan edi. Tónkeris nәtiyjesinde ýkimet basyna kommunister keldi. Qúlatylghan ýkimet jaqtaushylary AQSh-ty panalady jәne AQSh elinen kómek súrady. 1961 jyly sәuirde AQSh-tyng qoldauymen úiymdastyrylghan Kuba emigranttarynyng shabuly sәtsiz ayaqtaldy. Biraq AQSh Kubadaghy kommunistik ýkimetti qúlatudan bas tartpady. KSRO ýkimeti de Kastro biyligin saqtap qalu әreketterin jasap baqty.

1962 jyly shilde aiynda Mәskeuge Raul Kastro bastaghan Kuba delegasiyasy keledi. Olar KSRO basshylyghynan әskery kómek beru turaly kelissózder jýrgizedi. Búl kelissózge N.Hrushev ta qatysyp, Kuba jerinde kenes elining yadrolyq qarulardy tasymalday alatyn zymyrandaryn ornalastyru turaly úsynys jasaydy. Kuba basshylyghy búl úsynysty qabyl alady. Kóp úzamay-aq Kuba aralyna kenes zymyrandaryn jetkizu bastalyp ta ketedi. Búl oqighany bildirmeu jәne әlem nazaryn basqa jaqqa audaru ýshin N.Hrushev ózining biyligi kezenindegi eng úzaq el aralaugha shyghady. Ol eki aigha juyq arada elding soltýstigi Murmanskide, Petrozavodskide, Murmansk oblysynda, ortalyqtaghy Tula, Orlov, Kursk oblystarynda, shilde aiynyng sonynda Ukrainanyng Kremenchuk, Dnepropetrovsk, Herson oblystarnyda bolyp, tamyz aiynyng bir bóligin Qyrymda demalysta bolady. Demalystan keyin Orta Aziya restublikalaryna barady, Ózbekstannyng ózinde ghana bir  apta bolady. Zymyrandar Kubagha jetkizilip, olardy qúrastyru qyzu jýrip jatqan kezde ghana, 10 qazanda Mәskeuge oralady.

KSRO-nyng Kuba eline әskery kómek beru turaly habary amerikandyq sayasatkerler men әskeriylerdi mazalandyrmay qoymaydy. Kuba aralyn baqylau kýsheytiledi. KSRO-nyng Kuba jerinde balyqshylar kentin salyp jatyrmyz degen jeleumen zymyran alandaryn salyp jatqandaghy belgili bolady. AQSh ýkimeti KSRO-nyng Vashingtondaghy elshisi A.Dobrynyn arqyly ózining «alandaushylyghyn» bildiredi jәne Kubagha jaqyn manda 45 әskery keme jәne 10 myng teniz jayau әskerleri qatysqan әskery jattyghu ótkizedi. «U-2» әskery barlau úshaghy Kuba jerindegi suretke týsiru әreketterin jiyiletedi. AQSh preziydenti Djon Kennedy Kongresten 150 myng  adamdy әskerge shaqyru turaly rúqsat súraydy jәne KSRO-nyng Kuba jerinde qanday da zymyrandyq qarudyng ornalastyruyna tóze almaytyndyghyn mәlimdeydi.

KSRO Kubagha zymyrandar men bombylaushy úshaqtardy jetkizu arqyly halyqaralyq normalardy búzbaghan edi. Kuba tәuelsiz el bolghandyqtan әskery kómek beru jәne әskery kómek alu eki elding arasyndaghy uaghdalastyq arqyly sheshiletin. Mysaly, AQSh ýkimeti KSRO-gha jaqyn ornalasqan Týrkiya, Norvegiya, Japoniya, Italiya, GFR elderine yadrolyq qaru tasymaldaytyn úshaqtar men zymyrandardy ornalastyruda KSRO-nyng rúqsatyn súraghan da joq. Týrkiya jerinen KSRO–nyng evrolyq bóligine jiberilgen  zymyran osy bóliktegi kez kelgen nýktege 10 minutta jetse, KSRO zymyrandary AQSh jerine 25 minutta ghana jetetin. AQSh armiyasy KSRO-gha qarsy kez kelgen qashyqtyqtaghy zymyrandaryn paydalana alsa. KSRO tek alys qashyqtyqtaghy qúrlyqaralyq zymyrandaryn ghana paydalana alatyn. Osy tensizdikti jon ýshin de KSRO ýkimeti Kubanyng әskery kómek beru ótinishin paydalanyp qalugha tyrysty. Biraq N.Hrushev AQSh-tyng әskery quattylyghy men Kenes Odaghy zymyrandaryn Batys jarty sharynda ornalasuyna batyl qarsy túratynyn jәne ony boldyrmau ýshin barlyq mýmkindikti, onyng ishinde yadrolyq qarudy da paydalanugha bartyndyghyn eskermegen edi. AQSh-tyng joghary biyligi Kubada Kenes raketalaryn ornalastyrmau ýshin barlyq jaghdaydy, sonyng ishinde ýlken soghystyng boluyna da dayyn túrdy.

Kenes basshylyghy AQSh preziydentining múnday batyl әreketin jәne amerikandyq flottyng Kuba jaghalauyndaghy iri әskery jattyghu jasauyn eskermedi. N.Hrushev Kenestik zymyrandardy Kubagha ornalastyru arqyly amerikandyqtardy qorqytyp, yadrolyq shabul jasau tepe-tendigin jasaugha bolady dep oilady. Biraq búl oy jýzege aspady, Hrushev qatelesti.

12 qyrkýiek kýni Kenes Odaghy telegraftyq agenttigining (TASS) habarlamasy shyqty. Onda «KSRO Ýkimeti Kenes Odaghynyng basqa elge, onyng ishinde Kubagha jaudyng soqqysyna jauap qaytaru ýshin óz zymyrandaryn ornalastyruynyng eshqanday qajettiligi joq. Óitkeni, bizding yadrolyq qaruymyzdyng kýshtiligi jәne ýlken qashyqtyqqa jetkiziluining jyldamdyghy óte zor. Sondyqtan da Kenes Odaghy ózining yadrolyq qarularyn basqa jerlerge ornalastyrugha zәru emes» dep mәlimdedi. N.Hrushevting AQSh preziydenti Djon Kenedenge jazghan jeke hattarynda da osylay dep aityldy. Al búl kezde aralgha KSRO-nyng 42 yadrolyq zymyrandary jetkizilip bolghan edi.

Qyrkýiekting sony men qazan aiynyng basynda Kuba aumaghy búltty bolghandyqtan AQSh suretke týsiru úshularyn jasay almady. Osyny paydalanghan Kenes әskerining basshylary zymyrandardy әskery dayyndyqqa keltiru júmystaryn jedeldete týsti. N.Hrushev pen F.Kastro AQSh barlau qyzmeti Kubadaghy zymyrandardy bayqap bolghansha onyng tolyq dayyndyqqa keletinine kәmil sendi. Hrushev ózining keyinnen jazghan estelikterinde «Bizding Kubadaghy yadrolyq qarudyng kýshtiligi sonday, Niu-York, Chikago jәne basqa da iri óndiristik qalalardyng kýlin ghana qaldyrady. Al Vashington turaly aitudyng qajeti de joq. Ol shaghyn auyl ghana»  dep jazghan edi.

AQSh barlau úshaghynyng 10 qazanda týsirgen sureti amerikandyqtardy qatty alandatty. Búl surette on kýn búryn ghana djungly ormany bolghan jerde avtomobili joldary men qúrylystyng jýrip jatqany aiqyn kóringen edi. Kennedy suretke týsiru barlauyn jalghastyrugha tapsyrma beredi. Biraq  Kubagha tayfun jaqyndap, suretke týsiru 14 qazanda ghana mýmkin bolady. Amerikandyq barlau úshaghy joghary biyiktikten ghana emes, 130 metr biyiktikten de suretke týsiru jasay alady. Kuba jerinde zenittik zymyrandar emes, yadrolyq qarular tasymalday alatyn «Jer-Jer» zymyrandarynyng ornalastyrylyp jatqany aiqyn belgili bolady. 17 qazan kýni jasalghan suretterden zymyrandardyng túmsyqtary da anyq kórinedi.

Múqiyat barlau nәtiyjesinde Kubada KSRO-nyng 42 zymyrany men 40 myng әskerining ornalastyrylghany mәlim boldy. Kennedy «Últtyq qauipsizdik kenesining atqaru komiytetin» qúrady. Djon Kennedy jәne onyng inisi Robert Kubany teniz arqyly tolyqtay oqshaulaugha (blokodagha) aludy úsynady. Áskeriyler Kubada ornalastyrylap jatqan zymyran alandaryn tolyq bombylau qajettigi turaly aitady. AQSh ýkimeti KSRO syrtqy ister ministrliginen Kubadaghy ornalastyrylyp jatqan qaru jóninde naqtyly jauap ala almaghannan keyin 22  qazan kýni Kubany tenizden de, әueden de qorshaugha alyp, oqshaulaydy. AQSh preziydenti Kubagha shabuyl jasau turaly úsynysty keyinge qaldyra túrady.

Karib tenizi aumaghynda AQSh-tyng 180 әskery kemesi ornalasady. Álemning týkpir-týkpirindegi amerikandyq әskerler de tolyq dayyndyqqa keltiriledi. Atom sýnguir qayyqtary da ózderining búrynghy baghyttaryn ózgertip, búiryqty kýtip túrady. Strategiyalyq bombalaushy úshaqtar da yadrolyq qarumen jabdyqtalyp, biri úshyp kelip qonyp jatsa, ekinshisi aspangha kóterilip jatty. Ontýstiktegi Florida týbeginde 6 diviziya ornalastyrylyp, olar da múzday qarulandyrylady.

22 qazan kýni Djon Kennedy telearna arqyly sóz sóileydi. Ol Kubanyng tolyq oqshaulanugha alynghanyn, jәne AQSh-tyng múnday qadamgha nelikten barghandyghyn týsindiredi. «Búl bizding alghashqy qadamymyz. Pentagongha әskery qimyldardy odan әri jýrgizu turaly búiryq berildi» dep mәlimdeydi. Onyng búl mәlimdemesi AQSh-ty ghana emes Batys elderin de, әlemning basqa da elderin shoshytty. Álemde yadrolyq soghys qaupi tóndi. AQSh-tyng әskery ministri R.Maknomary Kubany bombylau jәne basyp alu jospary úsynady. Búl jospardy jýzege asyru ýshin ministrding esebi boyynsha 250 myng soldat, 90 myng teniz jayau әskeri jәne jýzden astam desanttyq kemeler qajet boldy.

Kenes basshylyghy da AQSh-tyng búl әreketterinen tolyq habardar bolyp otyrdy. Aq ýy men Kremlide sayasatkerler men әskeriylerding kenesteri ýzilmedi. Kuba jerindegi zymyrandardy dayyndyqqa keltiru júmystary tәulik boyy jýrgizildi. Búl zymyrandardyng tolyq dayyndyqqa keltirilui ýshin әli de birneshe kýn qajet boldy.  Degenmen de Hrushev yadrolyq soghysty qalamady, ol tek Kuba jerinde kýshti әskery baza ornalastyrghysy ghana keldi.

24 qazan kýni KSRO ýkimeti AQSh-tyng Kubany tolyq oqshaulaugha aluyn jәne basqa da әskery әreketterin batyl aiyptaghan mәlimdeme taratty jәne Birikken Últtar Úiymynyng Qauipsizdik Kenesin shúghyl týrde shaqyrudy talap etti. KSRO Qorghanys ministri elding qaruly kýshterin joghary dayyndyqta ústau turaly jәne qyzmet merzimi jetken jauyngerlerdi әskerden qaytarudy keyingi qaldyru turaly búiryq berdi. Kenes basshylyghy Kubada yadrolyq qarudyng jetkizilgenin moyyndamady, ol jerde tek qorghanys sanatyndaghy qarular bar deuden tanbady.

Kubanyng revolusiyalyq basshysy Fiydeli Kastro da býkil elde jappay shaqyru jariyalady. Qauipsizdik Kenesining shúghyl týrde shaqyrylghan otyrysynda Kenes elining uәkildi ókili V.Zorin Kuba jerinde birde-bir yadrolyq qarudyng joq ekendigin mәlimdedi. Búl uaqytta Kubagha qaray Kenes Odaghynyng taghy da 20 kemesi kele jatty jәne onyng alghashqy toby Kubany oqshaulau aimaghyna jaqyndap qalghan edi. N.Hrushev sezik tudyrmau ýshin ózin sabyrly ústady, syrtqy jaulardyng onyng әrbir qadamyn anditynyn bilgen ol 23 qazan kýni keshke Ýlken teatrgha baryp konsert tamashalady. Osy kýni AQSh preziydenti Djon Kennedy Karib tenizine kenestik atom sýnguir qayyqtarynyng kelip kirgeni turaly habar aldy. 24 qazan kýni tanerteng kenestik eki keme Kubany oqshaulau aimaghyna jaqyndady, ony sýnguir qayyqtar qorghap jýrdi. Oghan qarsy amerikandyq úshaq tasymaldaytyn «Esseks» kemesi shyqty. Búl keme sýnguir qayyqtargha qarsy kýres qarularymen jabdyqtalghan bolatyn. AQSh-tyng әskery ministri R.Maknomary qajet bolghan jaghdayda kenestik atom sýnguir qayyghan atqylaugha búiryq berdi.

Búl jaghdaydan habardar bolghan Hrushev tәuekelge bara almady, kemelerge toqtaugha búiryq berdi jәne Kennediyge tez arada kezdesu turaly úsynys jasady. Kennedy Kubadan kenestik zymyrandar tolyq әketilgen jaghdayda ghana kezdesuge әzir ekendigin jetkizdi. Amerikandyq  barlau úshaqtary búl zymyrandardyng birneshe kýn ishinde dayyn bolatyndyghy turaly mәlimetter berdi. Kubagha kenes eli basshylarynyng biri A.IY.Mikoyan úshyp keldi. Hrushev Kastro jaghdaydy ushyqtyratyn sheshim qabyldap qoyar dep qauiptendi.  Mikoyangha Kenes jәne Kuba ýkimetterining is-әreketterin ýilestiru turaly tapsyrma berilgen bolatyn. Sol kýni kenestik zenitshiler Kuba ýstin barlap jýrgen AQSh úshaghyn atyp týsiredi, úshqysh Anderson da qaza tabady.

26 qazan kýni Kennedy Kubagha shabuyl jasaugha  dayyndalugha búiryq beredi. Keshke qaray Hrushev Kennediyge jana hat jiberedi, ol Kubada kenestik yadrolyq qarudyng bar ekendigin moyyndaydy jәne yadrolyq soghystyng bastaluy býkil әlem ýshin ýlken zardap bolatyndyghyn, sondyqtan da eki jaqtyng da sabyrlylyq saqtau qajettigin, zymyrandardy kenestik ofiyserlerding tolyq baqylauynda ekendigin, búl qarulardyng AQSh-qa baghyttalmaghandyghyn aitady. Hrushev búl hatynda Kennediyge Kubany oqshaulaudy alyp tastaudy jәne Kubagha AQSh-tyng shabuyl jasamaytyndaghy turaly uәde beruin súrady. Osynday jaghdayda ghana KSRO Kubagha jetkizilgen qarulardy alyp ketedi jәne olardy joyady degen uәde berdi. Búl hatqa jauap kelmey jatyp ertenine tanerteng Hrushev Kennediyge ekinshi hatyn jiberedi, búl hatta AQSh-tyng Týrkiyadaghy zymyrandaryn alyp ketui turaly aitylady. AQSh preziydenti Kennedy 28 qazan kýni sheshim qabyldaugha tiyis bolatyn. Osy kýni tanerten Kenes Odaghy Kubadaghy óz әskerleri men zymyrandaryn alyp keteteindigin mәlimdedi. Osylaysha, әlem birer saghat qalghanda ghana yadrolyq soghys qaupinen qútylady.

Keyinnen sayasatkerler men әskeriyler aitqanday «Álemge yadrolyq soghys qaupi «Karib daghdarysy» kezenindegidey eshqashan tóngen emes». Shyndyghynda da yadrolq soghys qaupining kýsheygeni sonshalyqty, AQSh preziydenti Djon Kennedy KSRO-nyng Kuba jerinde ornalastyryp jatqan әskery nysandaryn zymyranmen atqylau turaly mәlimdemesin óz qolymen qaghazgha jazyp, dayyndap qoyghan edi. Keyinnen jariyalanghan búl mәlimdemede «Men amerikandyq otandastarym aldyndaghy ýlken jauapkershilikti sezine otyryp, әskerge búiryq berdim. AQSh әue kýshteri qazir Kuba jerinde yadrolyq qarulardy joi ýshin atom qaruyna jatpaytyn zymyrandarmen әskery qimyldar jýrgizip jatyr» dep jazylghan edi. Álem elderining baqytyna qaray búl mәlimdeme sol kýii jýzege aspay qaldy.

Garvord uniyversiytetining Belfer ghylymy ortalyghynyng diyrektory jәne «Karib daghdarysyn» zertteushi Grem Allison: «Búl qújattargha qarap AQSh preziydenti Kennediyding Kubadaghy zymyrandardy әueden atqylaugha búiryq beruge shaq qalghanyn bayqaymyz. Eger Kennedy KSRO-nyng Kubagha yadrolyq zymyrandaryn ornatyp qoyghanyn bilgende 48 nemese 72 saghat ishinde shabuyl jasau turaly búiryq beruge mәjbýr bolatyn  edi. Onyng sony yadrolyq soghysqa úlasar edi» dep jazdy.

Osylaysha, eki el basshylarynang syn saghatta sabyrlylyq tanytuynyng arqasynda ghana «Karib daghdarysy» beybit týrde sheshildi.  Búl teke-tireste eki jaq ta jenilgen joq. Karib daghdarysynan keyin Hrushevting da, Kennediyding de halyqaralyq dengeydegi bedeli artty. Biraq Vashingtonda da, Mәskeude de jәne Kubada da búl soghystyng bolghanyn qalaghandar da boldy. Bir jyldan keyin Kennedy qastandyqpen óltirildi, al Hrushev býkil qyzmetinen aiyryldy. Álem býgingi kýnge deyin Karib daghdarysynyng sabaqtaryn úmytqan joq. Búl oqigha memleket basshylarynyng qiyn sәttarde erik-jigerlik tanyta alsa kez kelgen janjaldy beybit týrde sheshe altyndyghyn da kórsetken edi.

Ukrainadaghy daghdarysta da sayasatkerlerding parasattylyq pen erik-jiger tanyta alatynyna seneyik. Búl әsirese AQSh jәne Resey preziydentterining ústanymyna baylanysty bolmaq. «Karib daghdarysy» kezindegi basty sayasy oryndaushylar da  osy eki elding basshylary bolatyn. Ukraina qazir Kubanyng kebin kiygendey kýide. Ukraina halqy jәne býkil әlem júrtshylyghy Ukraina daghdarysynyng diplomatiya arqyly sheshiletine ýmitti. Soghys eshkimge de jenis әkelmeydi. Onyng әkeletini qayghy-qasiret pen býlinshilik jәne qirandy ghana. Uolter Mondeyl degen danyshpan «Ýshinshi dýniyejýzilik soghystyng ardagerleri bolmaydy» degen sәuegeylik aitypty. Solay bolyp jýrmesin dep tileyik. Búl daghdarys  diplomatiya arqyly sheshilse AQSh pen Resey preziydentterining de bedeli kóterilip, әlem júrtshylyghynyng olargha alghys ta aitatyndyghy anyq.

Keshegi Jenevada 3+1(AQSh, Resey, Europa odaghy jәne Ukraina) túrpatynda ótken  kelisimde jaghdaydy sauyqtyrugha baghyttalghan uaghdalastyqqa qol jetkizildi. Kelissózge qatysqandar, әsirese Resey men Ukraina osy uaghdalastyqty oryndar bolsa  әlemge tóngen qauipting beti de qaytar edi.  Álem halqy da osyny kýtedi.

 

Bekmyrza   SYRYMBETÚLY, Qyzylorda qalasy

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