Júma, 26 Aqpan 2021
Qorghan 7704 0 pikir 1 Shilde, 2014 saghat 10:35

ShÁKÁRIM ATAMYZDY TOLGhANDYRGhAN SAUALDAR...

Býginde egemendigimizding bizge bergen enshisi bolsa kerek, Shәkәrim atamyzdyng ósken ortasy men uaqyty, sayasi, әleumettik jaghdayy, alghan bilimi men tanymy turaly az jazylyp, syzylyp jatqan joq. Áytse de býgingi jazylghandardyng bәrin Shәkәrimning oilau jýiesindegi arnany sol ózindik bolmystyq mәnde  tanytyp jatyr dey almas edim. Búlay deuime sebep kóp. Biraq búl jerde aitayyn degenim sebepter emes, Shәkәrimning óz uaqyty men kenistigi, sonyng ishindegi syrly әlem – adam degen múhittyng mәni men maqsatyna kónil bólgendigine toqtalmaqpyn.

Jalpy osy Shәkәrim súraqtaryna bizding elimiz egemendik alghannan keyin ghana bet búra bastady. Sebebi súraq beseu bolghanymen, onyng mәni bireu bolatyn. Ol mәn – Allanyng aqiqatyna negizdelgen edi. Óziniz saralap qaranyz, súraqtar tizbektelgen oidy, tanymdyq ortaq negizdi, qalyptasqan dýniyetanymdyq filosofiyalyq shyndyqty, onyng adamzat tarihyndaghy taghylymdyq, tәjiriybelik synalghan aqiqatyna shaqyryp túrghanday bolady.  Shәkәrim atamyz óz zamanyndaghy tirshilikting «mәni» men uaqytynyng aldy belgisiz «shyndyghyna» synmen, súraqpen qaraydy. Al, jalpy onyng ómir sýrgen zamanynyng «mәni» men «shyndyghy» ne edi? Bәrimizge belgili bolghanday, adamzat ózining ruhany tarihynda ýlken jolayyryqta qaldy. Ótken tarihy men tәjiriybesinen bas tartyp, yaghny búrynghy «mәn» men «shyndyq» ornyna «jalghan qúdaylar men jalghan payghambarlardyn» mәni men shyndyghyn qabyldatugha tyrysqan iydeologiyalar beleng aldy. Alla men adam arasyna syna qyghylyp, ornyna nebir teoriyalar men «izmder», qúdaylyq jýiening ornyn ala bastady.

Mine, Shәkәrim atamyz ózining anyq imanymen, tanymymen, artyna qaldyrghan amanat súraqtarymen óz dәuirining shyndyghyna qarsy túrghan dana, әuliye. Ózining ainymas, iakiny túghyrynan taymady. Sol minezi, túlghasy arqyly, eldi imangha, dinge, týpnegizden ainymaugha ýndedi. Sebebi onyng qoyghan súraqtaryna jogharydaghy «teoriyalar» men «izmderding platformasy» jauap bere almaytyn. Ol qanday teoriyalar men izmder edi? Pozitivizm, Gumanizm, Zkzistensializm, Freydizm, Darvinizm, Ateizm, Materializm, Marksizm  jәne osylay jalghasyp kete beredi.Ol platformalarda "Aqyl" dara qúdaygha ainaldyryldy. Batystyq rasionalizm moda boldy. Yaghny qúdaydyng ornyn Adam basty. Qúdaygha, jangha, syrgha jalpy metafizikagha qatysty barlyq shyndyq joqqa shygharyldy. Búl teoriyalar da Batystyq dialektikalyq ýshtikter negizinde ornyqty. Adamnyng ómir sýruining mәni de, myna dýniyening shyndyghy da bos bolyp shyqty. Adam et pen sýiekten ghana jaralghan. Myna dýniyede eshqanday hikmet te shyndyq ta joq. Al Shәkәrim atamyzdyng dýniyetanymynda, búryn adamnyng da, dýniyening de mәni Alladan tabylatyn. Ony adam aqylmen, újdanmen tabugha tyrysatyn. Adam aqiqatty izdeushi bolatyn. Shәkәrim atamyz tek olargha ghana emes, sol kezde de islam әleminde ornyghyp kele jatqan «Batystyq aurulardyn» ishindegi eng qauiptisi – uahabiylerge de qarsy shyqty. Batystyq auru dep biz búl arada   «aqyldy» joqqa shygharyp, «naqyldy» Allagha ainaldyrghan, Uahabiylerding dialektikalyq «taymiyashy ýshtik» negizining keshegi Batystyq teoriyalar men izmderden júqqandyghyn aityp otyrmyz. Qazirgi uahabiylerding dialektikasynda adamnyng mәni men dýniyening shyndyghy Allada emes (Fillah), Alladan kelgen (anilliyh) naqylda jatyr. Endi adam mәn izdeushi, újdan iyesi emes, kerisinshe, naqyldyng әrpine tanylghan qúbyjyqqa, robotqa ainaldy. Ol degen sóz adam aqyly, erki, qalau erkindigi, oilauy joqqa shygharylyp jatyr degen sóz. Búl ilahy hikmetti joqqa shygharu, yaky Alla men adam arasyna deldaldyq jasau degen sóz. Búdan ótken "shirk" joq. Býgin bizding qogham, jalpy әlem osynday «ifrat pen tafriyt» arasynda túnshyghyp jatyr. Boluy tiyis mәsele tútastyq, tauhidting tarihy qalyptasqan tanymy men mәnine oralu. Mәndi «Alladan» tabu jәne «Alladan» sezinu.

 Sondyqtan Shәkәrim atamyzdyng súraqtaryna ózining tanymdyq túghyrlarymen ghana jauap beruge bolady dep esepteymin. «Allanyng adamdy jaratqandaghy maqsúty ne?», «Adamgha tirshilikting eng keregi ne ýshin?», «Adamgha ólgen son, meyli, ne jónmen bolsyn, rahat-beynet, sauap-azap bar ma?», «Eng jaqsy adam ne qylghan kisi?», «Zaman ótken sayyn adamdardyng adamshylyghy týzelip bara ma, búzylyp bara jatyr ma?»

Ári qaray taldap kóreyik… Negizinen súraq onyng súrauly sóileminen emes, sol sóilemdegi úghymdardan, týsinikterden, tanymdardan túrady. Súraqtaghy Alla, adam, jaratylys, maqsat, tirshilik, ólim, aqyret, izgilik, ahlaq mәseleleri Shәkәrim zamanynda óni qashyp, teris týsindirilip jatty. Oghan jogharyda toqtaldyq. Alla bolsa da joqqa shygharyldy; adam - determinizmning qúrbany, maymyldan jaralyp, dialektikalyq sharyqtau shynyna jetken jәndik; jaratylys - joq, bәri ózdiginen; maqsat - erkindik, onda da Alladan, diny soqyr senimnen alystaghan sayyn erkindikke jetedi dep týsindirildi; ólim - jan men tәnning airyluy emes, materiyagha ainaldyratyn ýrey, suisidting kózi; aqyret - joq; izgilik - gumanizmning ólshemi; ahlaq - qoghamdyq kodeks qana...

Endi osy ústanymdargha Shәkәrim atamyz ózi qalay jauap beredi eken, soghan nazar audarayyq. Shәkәrim dýniyetanymynda jaratylys mәselesi de Allanyng hikmetimen tyghyz baylanysta qarastyrylady. Onyng ilimining ózindik erekshelikteri men ústanymdary túrghysynan qaraghanymyzda odan jaratylys, bolmys, ruh jәne t.b. týsinikter men negizgi ústyndyq konsepsiyalardy taldaghanda jaratylys degenimiz – synaq dep tújyrymdaugha bolady. “Hayuandar men Aqymaqtar” degen óleninde, Osy býkil jaratylghan әlemning adam ýshin ekenin bil. Tәnir-erik, aqyl bergen. Jaratu sebebi-synau ýshin dep eskertedi. Shәkәrim dýniyetanymynda Alla adamdy “joqtan” jaratqan jәne ózining jauharynan (zatynan)  “ýrlegen” bolyp, tikeley substansiyalyq tútastyqta qarastyrylmaydy. Sopylyq dýniyetanym ruhtyng bastapqy “birlik” hәlinen (ruhtyng ruhany әlemdegi Allamen birge bolu hәli) fizikalyq әlemge jiberilu qúbylysyn airylysu nemese synaq retinde tanidy.

Sopylyq dýniyetanymda jaratylys turaly eng keng jayylghan týsinik Allanyng “Men qúpiya qazyna edim. Tanylghym keldi. Mahluqatty (jaratylghan әlemdi) ózimning tanyluym ýshin jarattym” mazmúnyndaghy hadiske negizdelgen. Al, adam bolsa, barlyq bolmystardyng ishinde  “Allanyng didaryn” ózining kórkemdigimen, әsemdigimen jәne úlylyghymen әldeqayda tútas kórsetetin aina. Álem esepsiz fenomenderden (kasrattan) túrady. Álemdegi әrbir bolmys qúdaylyq birlikting (ilahy uahidiyiat) dәleli bolyp, Alla әlemde birdey uaqytta kórinis (tajally etedi) beredi. Osy әlemning aqiqaty Lahut (qúdaylyq) әlemde jinaqtalghan. Qúdaylyq ústyndar nemese aqiqattar (ayany sabita), osy әlemde kórinis bermey túryp “joq” bolatyn. Mine, sondyqtan da Shәkәrimning “O basta joqty bar qylghan, joqtan bolmystardy jaratqan – jan bolatyn. Qozghalysqa engizgen quatty meyli jan de, meyli “mәn” de-әlemdi sol mәn jaratqan» -degen týsinigi Qúrannyng “joqtan jaratu” (ex nihilo) ústanymyna say keledi.

 Islamda Alla ýzdiksiz jaratu ýstindegi eng belsendi, әrdayym yqpal etushi absoluttik qúdiret iyesi.  Yaghni, әlem belgili bir uaqytta Alla tarapynan jaratylghan jәne búl jaratylys әrbir uaqyt pen kenistik ishinde ýzdiksiz jalghasyp jatady.

Islam filosofiyasy boyynsha, adam ózindik maqsaty bar, moynyna paryz mindettengen, jauapkershilik tasushy yaghni, erkindikke ie bolmys retinde jaratylghan. Demek, adamnyng jaratyluynda maqsat bar. Yaghni, adamnyng jaratylys maqsaty – qúldyq. Qúldyq mahabbat jәne yqylaspen jasalghanda ghana mәndi bolady. Ol mәn Allany tanumen ashylady. Shәkәrim “Aqiqatty (Shyndy) bilging kelse, aldymenen “jandy” bil”-deui de sondyqtan bolu kerek.

Shәkәrim shygharmalarynda Tәnirding jaratqan әlemining barlyghy “jandy” yaghni, Jaratylghan bolmystardyng bәrinde mәn, mazmún bar. Osy býkil jaratylghan әlemdi Alla adam ýshin bar qyldy. Tәnir adamgha erik, aqyl beru arqyly ózining jaratu sebebining synaq ekendigin eskertti. Synaq alany da adamnyng tirshilik etu alany – osy dýniye. Sondyqtan dýniyening súmdyghy joq, jazasy joq - ol Allanyng jaratqany. Allanyng jaratqanyn sógu -taghdyrgha narazylyq. Óitkeni, seni aldaghan ómir de emes, dýnie de emes, ol -ózin ózi aldap jýrgen adamnyng ózi. Dýniyeni, ómirdi jamandatqan – ózinning kóz toymastyghyn, ólmeytindey, óshpeytindey, qartaymaytynday bolyp, qamdanbay, saqtanbay jýruin.

Taghy bir shygharmasynda Shәkәrim «deneshil (materialist), pәnshil (filosoftar) keselderding «dәlelsiz sózben» negizderin synaydy. Ol jan joq degen Avgust Konttyng (1797-1857) dәlelsiz sózderi bolatyn. Búghan Shәkәrim shygharmalarynda «Qaydan Keldim, Maqsatym ne? (Paydam ne?), ólgennen song ne bolam?» dep, jaratylys júmbaghynyng ólsheusiz syr ekenin tolghaydy. «Qúday joq, qiyamet joq desen-daghy, Aryn, Ynsap-moyyndap, maqúl dep túrghan joq pa?» dep, A.Kontqa ózi jauap beredi. Újdandy adam-ólgen song tirilmeymin dep oilap, Yrazy qylam dey-túghyn Qúdayy da joq, sonda da ar dep, ynsap dep, azap shegedi. Osyny tereng oilanayyq, ol sorlyny osy azapqa iytergen, qanday kýsh? Onyng maqsaty «Ólgen song júrt maqtasyn dey me meni?»-Al, júrt maqtasyn deu-baryp túrghan jaman is, riyakerlik emes pe? Osy isimmen el týzeymin dep, sol jolda ózin qúrban qylamyn der. Biraq, onyng paydasy ne? Adal jolda ólgennin-armany joq degeni-“qúrghaq maqtan” emes pe? Ar, ynsaptyng qúmary osy-aq bola qoysyn, al zúlymdyqtyng qúmary ne? Zúlymdyq pen Ar, ynsap ekeui eregisken eki dúshpan, artynda rahat ta joq, azap ta joq, aqyl-zúlymdyqtan qalay jiyrenedi? Ar, ynsaptyn-jaqsy isten ýmiti ne? El týzelse, ólgen son, oghan ne payda? Din ýshin emes, tynysh ómiri ýshin de emes,  ólgennen song atym tarihta qalsyn dep arpalysa ma? Búghan aqylym toymaydy. Jan mәngilik joghalmaydy. Jan-eki ómirding azyghy-újdan, ar, ynsaptyng paydasyn sezinedi. Jan ólgen song mәngilikke qauyshyp “bәige alaryn” biledi. Újdannyng osy syryna qanyqpaghan aq jýrek adal niyet bola almaydy. Eger jan joghalyp, óletin, joyylatyn bolsa, syy almaytyn bolsa aq, aram, újdan, zúlym dep aiyryp, mynau jaman mynau jaqsy deuding mәni joq. Álemdegi dinderding týp maqsúty ýsheu: “Qúday bar”, “Újdan dúrys”, “Qiyamet shyn” degendegi osy ýsh anyghy da óz súraqtaryn jauaptandyruynyng jemisi bolsa kerek. Dinning maqsaty - adamdy bauyrlastyqqa shaqyryp, tuys qylu. Qúday anyq, sondyqtan “aq jýrek” pen “ziyankesti” synau ýshin beyis, tozaghyn jaratqan. Biraq búlardy “Soqyr oily” “bir ezu”-ózimshil jan-qansha ghylym bilse de, úgha almaydy.

Sana bolmysty biyleydi, yaghni, jan tәnning biyleushisi. Dinshilder, anyqty bilmes-kýnshilder “Janyndy joldan qosty” dep, Sharighat aityp kýnkilder. Qúran “ruh” tәnge Alla tarapyna ýrlengen. Osyny kalam ghylymy, fiyqhshylar, ruhty keyinnen jaratylghan” deydi. Maghynasyn anyq bile almay “ruh” degen sózdi “jan” deydi.

Shәkәrim, Ruh pen jandy eki týrli, bólek bolmys dep qaraydy. Ruh-taza aqyl. Búl Shyn, minsiz-Tәnirding isi. Ony aiuandaghy aqylmen shatastyrugha bolmaydy. Ruhsyz jandy-nәpsi deydi. Múny “bir ezu”-pәnshi (jaratylystanu, filosofiya) men dinshi (sharighatshy, moldalar) tyndamas. Pәnshi men dinshi-anyq, taza aqylgha jýginbey, noqtadan (tar qalyptan) basyn ala almas. Taza aqyl-aqty barlaydy, “tanityn jangha” kez bolsa, Haqiqat jerde qalmaydy. Mine osy joldardan-aq Shәkәrim atamyzdyng «Bilimdilerge bes saualyn» aldymen ózi saralap alyp, óz qanaghatyna basqalardyng oiyn bilgisi keledi.

Ómirdi-bosqa ótkizuding arty ókinish. Sondyqtan erik jiger barda ómirdi tanu kerek. Ómirdi-oryndy, mәndi ótkizsen, ol-ólmes dәri. Sondyqtan basta mi, bette ar barda-ómirding qasiyetin bilu kerek. Ómirding qasiyetin bilu –estilik.

Ómirdi ókinbey, mәndi qylyp ótkizuding ailasy-qiyanatsyz, oy tazalyghy, meyirim, ynsap, әdilet, adal enbek, taza jýrek, osylar adamnyng tatu-dosy, sharasy. Ómirden maqsút-haqiqatty tabu, nәpsige ermeu, ony joi. Ersen-ol seni otqa salady. Ómir týbi-ólim. Ózgermeytin, ólmeytin ómirdi talap etemin.

Adamshylyq - hayuannan artyq bolu, yaghni, ayaushylyq, meyirim, ómirding ótkinshi ekenin bilu, jyghylghangha, jylaghangha jәrdem etu, marhabbatty bolu-kemel-adamshylyq”-deydi. Adamshylyq negizi-óner men bilim.

Adamshylyq-ótirik, aldamau, bireuge qiyanat qylmau, Ar, Ynsaptyng sýigeni-taza júmys. “Aq jýrek”, “Taza aqyl”, “Adal enbek”-keyingige jol kórsetetin ýsh-anyq-haqiqat. “Tirshilikti jaqsy ótkizuding hәm sonyra paydasyn kóruding jalghyz joly bar: Ol jol jalghyz ghana ózindi jaqsy kórip, jalghyz ghana óz paydandy oilaumen tabylmaydy. Barsha jan iyesine shyn janyng ashyp, shyn mahabbat etumen tabylady.

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