Jeksenbi, 26 Qyrkýiek 2021
Alashorda 10041 0 pikir 25 Jeltoqsan, 2014 saghat 08:36

QAZAQSTAN RESEYDING OTARY BOLDY MA?

Últ tarihyn zerdeleudegi betbúrys әldeqashan pisip jetilgen desek, qatelespeymiz. Sebebi keyingi jyldary Otan tarihyn orta jәne joghary mektepterde oqytu men ghylymy zertteu salasy kýrdelenip, tarihshylardy alandatatyn, dýrliktiretin mәseleler oryn alghan-dy.

Otan tarihynda әli de naqtylay týsetin, keybir jaghdayda orynsyz dau-damay, artys-tartys tughyzyp jýrgen, biraq arnayy zertteudi, saliqaly pikir alysudy qajet etetin mәseleler de barshylyq. Olardyng ishinde Reseyding at tóbelindey, biraq biyliktegi tarihshylary jasandy týrde jasyryn pighylmen tughyzyp jýrgen bir kýrdeli jaghday – «Qazaqstan Resey imperiyasynyng otary boldy ma?» degen negizinde ghylymy emes, sayasy mәsele de әredik-әredik qozghalyp jýr.

Sonymen, Qazaqstan Resey imperiyasynyng otary boldy ma? Búl óte manyzdy mәsele jәne ol Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng kóptomdyq tarihynda, әsirese Jana tarih pen Kenestik dәuirlerge arnalghan tomdarda jan-jaqty bayandaluy kerek. Resey Ghylym Akademiyasy Resey tarihy instituty diyrektory Yu.A. Petrov: «óte ótkir mәsele – әrtýrli halyqtar men aimaqtardyng Resey memleketi qúramynda boluyn týsindiru», – dep meylinshe dúrys aitady, sony aita otyryp, «Otan tarihshylarynyng kópshiligi (shamasy, Resey Federasiyasyn núsqaydy) Resey imperiyasyn otarlyq imperiya dep sanaudy qalamaydy (búl jerde Ottoman jәne Gabsburg imperiyalary siyaqty, kontiynentaldyq-qúrlyq imperiya degen ondy bolar edi), osyghan oray olardyng Resey memleketi qúramynda bolghan uaqytyn otarlyq dәuir dep ataugha bolmaydy», – dep qorytyndylaydy.

Ókinishke oray, Reseyding otandyq tarih ghylymynyng asa qúrmetti jetekshisi Yu.A. Petrov búl jerde Resey imperiyasynyng memlekettik aktileri men onyng kóptegen resmy qújattaryn, sonymen qatar KSRO GhA akademikteri A.M. Pankratova, N.M. Drujinin jәne ataqty M.P. Vyatkin men basqa belgili kenes tarihshylary zertteulerin joqqa shygharyp, qarama-qarsy pikir aityp otyr. «Kópshilik» emes, shynynda at tóbelindey azghana reseylik tarihshylar Resey imperiyasynyng otarshyldyq sipatta bolmaghandyghy turaly pikirdi ústanyp otyr, olardyng qatarynda tek RGhA etnologiya jәne antropologiya institutynyng diyrektory V. Tishkov, RGhA TMD elderi institutynyng diyrektory K. Zatuliyn, sonymen qatar, A. Knyazev, A. Lobanov, V. Tretiyakov, A.D. Dugiyn, S. Kozlov jәne basqalary bar, biraq olardy «kópshilik» dep ataugha bolmaydy. Sonymen, búl reseylik qúrmetti әriptes-ghalymdar tarih ghylymynda A.IY.Soljenisynnyn, M.S. Gorbachevtyng jәne V.V. Jirinovskiyding aitqandaryn ózderinshe, jana sarynmen qaytalauda. Songhysy Qazaqstanda «persona non grata» (diplomatiyalyq ókildikting elge keluin ýkimet qalamaytyn adamy) atandy.

Búryn tarih ghylymynda, Resey imperiyasy men KSRO-da, sonymen qatar Kenes Odaghyna kiretin basqa últtyq respublikalar men oblys- okrugterde búl mәsele eshqanday pikirtalastar da, kelispeushilikter de tudyrmaghan, sonymen qatar sol kezding naqty shyndyghy retinde dәleldengen bolatyn. Tek keyingi jyldary ghana Resey men Kenes Odaghynda ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan tarih ghylymyndaghy jan-jaqty jәne naqtyly dәleldengen tújyrymdy qayta qaraugha әreket jasaluda. Bayqauymyzsha, búl jana jaghday Resey Federasiyasy basshylyghynyng Kedendik Odaq týrindegi ekonomikalyq integrasiyany damytu ýshin ghana emes, Ortaq ekonomikalyq kenistik qúru, Kenes Odaghyna engen búrynghy respublikalardy óz tóniregine jinau siyaqty geosayasy maqsatqa baylanysty órbip otyrghan siyaqty. Osyghan baylanysty әlemge әigili qoghamdyq faktini jasyrugha bolmas. Kenes Odaghyna deyingi dәuirde, Gabsburg, Ottoman jәne Britan imperiyalary sekildi Resey de otar imperiya bolyp tabylatyn. Tek aiyrmashylyq mynada boldy: Britan imperiyasy tenizding ar jaghyndaghy aimaqtardy otar etti, al basqalary – jaqyn jәne alys shektesken elderdi otar etti. Keybir qadirmendi reseylik tarihshylar myna bir jaytty eskermeydi: Resey halyqtardyng týrmesi bolghan, al basqany ezip otyrghan halyq eshqashan azattyqqa qoly jetpeydi, – dep kórsetken osy elding talay úly klassikteri. Tek qana Resey imperiyasy ghana emes, sonymen qatar basqa imperiyalar da polietnikalyq, polikonfessionaldyq memleket bolghan, al onyng jeke bólimderi, últtyq ólkeleri әleumettik-ekonomikalyq damuynda әrkelki boldy, metropoliyadan artta qalghan edi. Búl belgili jaghday. Dau joq, velikoroster otar ólkelerding ókilderimen salystyrghanda, kóptegen artyqshylyqtargha ie boldy. Mәselen, júmyspen qamtu mәselesinde, bilim aluda, qyzmette ósu boyynsha jәne t.b. Til jaghynan kemsitushilikti aitpasa da týsinikti. «Búratanalardy» temir jolgha, әsirese poyyzdar jýrisine baylanysty qyzmetterge almady. Basqa diny de, ózge de, últtyq ta tózimdilik bolghan joq. Kiyevtegi kirpish zauyttyng prikazchiygi, evrey M. Beylis (1913 j.) isin eske alayyq. XIX gh. sony XX gh. basynda Reseyde evreylerdi qyrghyngha úshyratu, basqa dindegilerdi qughyndau, jabayy әreketterge baru oqighalary oryn aldy. Esterinizde bolsa, Reseyde basqa últtyng ókilderin bylaysha ataghan: jidter, samoedter, kalbitter jәne t.b. V.I. Lenin 1922 jyly «últshyldyq jóninde tarihy tәjiriybede әrdayym derlik biz, ýlken últtyng ókilderi, sansyz kóp zorlyq jasap, kinәli bolyp jýrmiz, tipti odan da asyp – ózimiz bayqamaytyn sansyz kóp zorlyq, zәbir kórsetemiz, – búl jóninde mening Edildegi este qalghandarymdy eske aludyng ózi-aq jetkilikti: bizde búratana halyqtardy ylghy kemsitetin, polyakty basqasha emes, «polyachishka» dep ataytyn, tatardy basqasha emes, «knyazi» dep kelemejdeytin, ukraindy basqasha emes, «hohol» dep ataytyn, gruzindi jәne Kavkazdyng basqa da halyqtaryn – «Kapkaz adamy» dep ataytyn» – dep jazghan-dy. Ol kezdegi Resey imperiyasynda otar halyqtardyng mәselesi boyynsha ýilesimdi sayasat ta jýrgizilgen joq, kerisinshe kazaktardyng «izdestiru sharalary» jýrgizildi, sonymen qatar últ-azattyq qozghalystargha qarsy qatigez ekspedisiyalar úiymdastyryldy, olardy patshalyq Reseyding iri qandyqol qolbasshylary – general-jaulaushylar Ermolov, Skobelev, Chernyaev jәne t.b. basqardy. Bizding kózqarasymyzsha, sondyqtan, Resey imperiyasy qúramynda «últtyq qúrylymdardyng sinisu» teziysi syn kótermeydi. Búl jaghdaygha Resey tarihshylarynyng keybireuleri aitqanday, imperiyanyng biyleushi toptary jýrgizgen etnikalyq elitalarmen tyghyz baylanysta bolu turaly dәstýrli ústanym bolghany da, osylardyng nәtiyjesinde kópetnikalyq jýiening biriktirilgeni de, imperiyalyq «beriktik» bolghany da shyndyqqa janaspaydy. Múnday aty shuly imperiyalyq «beriktik» bolghan da joq. Búl «beriktik» 1917 jyly aqpan men qazanda tas-talqan bolghan-dy, onyng kýireuine Reseyding qúramyndaghy ezilgen halyqtardyng últ-azattyq qozghalystary da ózining qomaqty ýlesterin qosty ghoy. Ezilgen últtar júmysshy jәne sharua qozghalysymen odaqtasa otyryp, basqa elderdi tonau ýshin bastalghan birinshi dýniyejýzilik soghysty toqtatu ýshin kýres nәtiyjesinde, aldymen Resey halyqtaryn «biriktirgen» patshalyq «fenomendi», sonynan irip-shirigen, darynsyz Uaqytsha ókimetti qúlatqan-dy. 1730 jyly 19 aqpanda Reseyding bodandyghyn qabyldau turaly Anna Ioanovna patshayymnyng Ábilqayyr hangha jibergen Gramotasy, 1917 jylgha sheyin patsha biyligining barlyq jarlyqtary men erejelerinde, general-gubernatorlardyng esepterinde jәne t.b. Qazaqstannyng otarlyq jaghdaylary kórsetiledi. Qazaqstandy Reseyge baghyndyru Imperiyanyng Aziyanyng basqa elderindegi mýddelerin jýrgizudegi strategiyalyq maqsat bolatyn. I Petr 1722 jyly erekshe basyp kórsetti:«Barlyq Aziya elderi men jerlerine búl (Qazaq) orda kilt jәne qaqpa. Sol sebepti búl ordany Reseyge baghyndyru qajet, sol arqyly barlyq Aziya elderine baylanys jasap, Resey ýshin paydaly jәne jaghymdy sharalardy iske asyru kerek». I Petr A.Tepkelevke tómendegidey tapsyrma berdi: «Eger ol orda naqtyly týrde bodandyqqa kirgisi kelmese, onda qansha bolsa da qarajatty ayamay, million bolsa da, tek Resey imperiyasyna bodan bolugha mindettengen bir bet qaghaz berse de bolghany».

Qazaqstan Reseyding otary bolghany turaly patshanyng generaldary, agha ofiyserleri, otarlyq biyliktegi sheneunikter, ghalymdar jәne t.b. óz uaqytysynda jazghan bolatyn. Solardyng ishinen birnesheuin atap ótetin bolsaq: Terentiev M.A., Bartolid V.V., Abaza K.K. jәne t.b. Resey imperiyasynyng otarlau sayasatynda manyzdy ról atqarghan kazak әskerleri turaly enbekterdi de kórsetuimizge bolady. Búl turaly Qazaqstannyng kenes tarihshylarynyng alghashqy buynynan S. Asfendiyarov, T. Rysqúlovtyng jәne t.b. jazghan zertteuleri jariyalandy. P.G. Galuzo 1934 jyly Tashkentte «Týrkestan – koloniya» — degen kitap shyghardy. Qazaqstandaghy kenes tarihshylarynyng ekinshi buyny ókilderining qatarynda B.S. Sýleymenov, E. Bekmahanov jәne t.b. enbekteri Reseyding Qazaqstandy otarlau dәuirine arnaldy; búl jerde aita ketetini, olar Reseyge qosyluynyng progress bolghanyn da kórsetti. Búl jerde airyqsha mәn beretin mәsele, KSRO GhA-nyng akademiygi A.M. Pankratova Qazaqstan men Reseyding otary bolghany jәne de kóp otarlarynyng biri bolghany turaly óz ústanymynda nyq túra aldy.

Kenes dәuiri kezeninde qazaqtardy Mәskeu biyligining otarlauynyng sipaty men tamyryn tereng saralap kórsetuimiz kerek. Ol ýshin myna jaghdayattargha tereng mәn bergen jón: Alash qayratkerleri men Qazaq kommunisteri arasyndaghy aitys-tartys, sayasy kýres, onyng sebepteri men saldary, Qazaqstandaghy 1918, 1921, әsirese 1931-1933 jj. jappay asharshylyqty Ortalyq biylik – Mәskeu әdeyi úiymdastyrghan degen tújyrym qanshalyqty dúrys? 1970-1980 jj. Qazaqstanda «toqyrau» boldy ma? – degen siyaqty kóptegen mәselelerge biz dúrys tújyrym jasauymyz kerek, ony on tomdyqta kórsete otyryp, onyng ishinde búl jergilikti kommunister men «Alash» qozghalysynyng qayratkerleri arasyndaghy kýresti anyqtap aludy taghy da qajet etedi.

Tarih ghylymy tóniregindegi keybir qalamgerler Áliby Jangeldindi, Sәken Seyfullindi, Baqytjan Qarataevty, Túrar Rysqúlovty, Múhamediyar Túnghanshindi jәne de basqa Kenes biyliginde bolghan qayratkerlerdi «әshkereleydi», 1917-1930 jj. qarqyndy sayasy qarama-qayshylyqtar arasyndaghy jaghdaydy sayasiy-taptyq túrghydan qarastyrmay, tarihymyzdy iygere almaymyz. Últ kommunisteri de, «Alash» qayratkerleri de, olardyng barlyghy ózderinshe qazaq halqynyng әleumettik-mәdeny jәne sayasy damuy ýshin, jarqyn bolashaghy ýshin enbek etti jәne kýresti. Búl mәselede RSFSR Halyq Komissarlar kenesi tóraghasynyng orynbasary T. Rysqúlov pen Qoqan avtonomiya ýkimetining tóraghasy, Uaqytsha ýkimetting Jetisudaghy komissary M. Tynyshbaevtyng Týrkistan-Sibir temirjolyn saludaghy birlesip atqarghan qyzmeti jarqyn ýlgi bola alady. Qazaq elitasynyng osy eki tobynyng qasiretti taghdyry tek birin-biri joyghanynda ghana emes, «bólip al da, biyley ber» degen otarlyq sayasattyng iske asuynda da jatyr. Búl Ortalyqtyng últtyq respublikalardy basqarudaghy synaqtan ótkizu әdisi, әr 5-10 jyl sayyn qazaqtyng últtyq qaymaghy – qazaq intellegensiyasy ókilderin joyyp otyrdy. Dәl osy jaghday Kenes Odaghynyng basqa últtyq respublikalarynda da, oblystary men okrugtarynda da oryn alghan edi. Osy kóptomdyq «Qazaqstan tarihynda» M. Shoqay da layyqty ornyn aluy kerek. Bizge Kenes uaqytysyndaghy Músa Jalildi ardaqtay alghan tatar tarihshylarynyng qyzmeti ýlgi bola alady. Jalpy soghysta jau qolyna tútqyngha týsken óz azamattaryna kórsetken qughyn-sýrgini boyynsha Kenes ókimeti shekten shyqqan qatigezdik kórsetkenin arnayy zerttegen jón.

Áytkenmen Otan tarihynda әli de naqtylay týsetin, keybir jaghdayda orynsyz dau-damay, artys-tartys tughyzyp jýrgen, biraq arnayy zertteudi, saliqaly pikir alysudy qajet etetin mәseleler de barshylyq. Ásirese Kenes Odaghynyng fashistik Germaniyagha qarsy 1941-1945 jyldary jýrgizgen Úly Otan soghysy kezindegi Qazaqstan jaghdayy jóninde әli de zerttey týsetin mәseleler de jetkilikti, sonyng ishinde soghystyng nәtiyjesinde jau qolyna týsken tútqyndar taghdyry, eldegi әleumettik-demografiyalyq jaghday, qazaqtardyng shyghyny jәne t.b jayttar arnayy zerdelenui tiyis.

Qoryta aitqanda, tarihymyzdy janasha zerdeleude tarih salasyn zertteytin tórt ghylymy zertteu instituttary men uniyversiytetterdegi tarih kafedralarynyng jauapkershiligin kýsheytu qajet.

Mәlikaydar ASYLBEK,

QR ÚGhA akademiygi,

tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory, professor.

Abay.kz 

 

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