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Tarih 12384 0 pikir 5 Jeltoqsan, 2014 saghat 11:57

ShEYBANY HAN ÁSKERINING QÚRAMY TURALY MÁSELE

Tarihnamada Muhammed Sheybany әskerining sany men sapasy turaly mәsele óte nashar qarastyryldy. Ghalymdar búghan qatysty әrtýrli pikir aitqan. Búl mәseleni meylinshe tereng qarastyrghan T.I. Súltanov. Onyng kózqarasy boyynsha әsker qúramyndaghy ózbekterding sany shamamen 40 mynnan 60 myngha deyin [10, 20], al eger olardyng әrqaysysynyng otbasy bolghanyn esepke alsaq, Muhammed Sheybanigha ketken ózbekterding sany 240 mynnan 360 myng adam [10, 21]. Sonymen qatar T.I. Súltanovtyng esepteuinshe, ol kezde әrbir ortasha otbasynda 6 adamnan boldy, endeshe halyqtyng sanyn anyqtau ýshin, әsker sanyn 6 kóbeytse jetkilikti. Búl jerde atalghan kórsetkishpen kelispeuge bolady. Meylinshe klassikalyq bolyp 1ding 5 ke sәikestigi: әsker sany búl býkil kóshpeli halyqtyng 20 payyzyn qúraydy.

40 myng ózbek әskeri turaly tezisting dәleli, 1509 jylghy joryqqa 10 myng taza ózbek, 20 myng moghol men shaghatay, 10 myng atty әsker men 20 myng sihhy (qosymsha әsker) qatysqany turaly jazghan Ibn Ruzbihannyng aqparatyna negizdelegen [10, 20]. Odan basqa, T.I. Súltanovtyng payymdauynsha, qalalarda garnizan esebinde qaldyrylghan búl әskerden basqa әli de әsker bolghan. Búl jerde qalalarda ýlken garnizondardyng boluy ekitalay ekenin atap ótken jón. Mysaly, Babyr nebary 240 adammen ghana  Múhammed Sheybaniyden Samarqandty jaulap ala alady [4, 105]. Endeshe, ol jerde garnizon bolghan joq nemese tym az boldy. Búl qazaqtargha qarsy joryqpen birge, Orta Aziyada garnizondar shamaly bolghany turaly aituymyzgha mýmkindik beredi. Sonday-aq, Ibn Ruzbihanda 40 myng atty әskerding nebary 10 myny (sihhiydi eseptemegende) ózbekter dep, taghy 20 myny mogholdar men shaghataylar, al taghy 10 myny beytarap bolyp belgilengen. Sonymen, búl jerde T.IY.Súltanovtyng sandary sәl jasandy siyaqty ekenin ótken jón. Ózbekter (kóptegen tarihshylar jansaq payymdaghanday, ózbekter dep biz, tek onyng shyghys bóligin ghana emes, barlyq altynordalyq kóshpendilerdi ataymyz [11, 30] [8]) Múhammeda Sheybany әskerining basym bóligin qúraghan joq. K.A. Pishulina atap ótkendey, Múhammeda Sheybaniymen ketken kóshpendilerding sany kóp bolghan joq [5, 290].

Hijranyng 908 jyly (1503 jyldyng mamyry) shabanda Sheybaniy-han tútqyngha týsken eki moghol hanyn talqandady.Áskery kampaniya mogholdardyng tolyq talqandaluymen ayaqtaldy. Sheybaniy-han moghol handaryn әskersiz Mogholstangha jer audaryp, al mogholdardy ózine qaldyryp, keyin «handar men Mogholstannan alshaq boluy ýshin», olardy Horasangha jaqyn qonys audardy. Sonymen qatar, kelesi moghol hanynyng әskerinde (Súltan Saiyd-han) nebary 4700 jauynger bolghan [12, 241-242]. Yaghni, mogholdardyng basym bóligi 1503 jyly Múhammeda Sheybaniyding әskerine qosylghan.

Hijranyng 911 jyly (1505-1506) Temir súltannyng 5 myng әskeri «ózbekter, sarttar men mogholdardan» qúralghan [10, 14].

Eger Múhammed Sheybany әskerining әuelgi qúrylymy men sanyna qarasaq, biz hijarynyng 906 jyly (1500-1501) Múhammed Sheybaniyde 3-4 myng ózbek pen sonsha jergilikti jauynger bolghanyn atap óte alamyz [4, 101]. Muhammed Salihtyng kórsetkishi boyynsha, Múhammed Sheybanding 10 myndyq әskerining basym bóligin shibandyqtar, olardyng 300 kýshshi taypasynan, 1000 dúrmannan, 700 naymannan, «ichky taypasynyng qarsylysy» 4000 adamnan qúralghan [10, 22]. T.I. Súltanov Ichky taypasy tolyq qúramymen Deshti-Qypshaqty tastap ketti dep esepteydi. Búl jerde Ichky atauy ilatiyanyng 92 taypasynyng tiziminde kezdespeytinin atap ótu qajet. Sonymen qatar,  Múhammed Salih 1503 jyly turaly atalghan rulardan basqa Múhammed Sheybaniyding qolastynda sihiut, qiyat, qonyrat (Huseyn Aliyding basshylyghymen), býrkit, nayman (Qanbar biyding basshylyghymen), dúrman (Djanvefa-biyding basshylyghymen), ýshin, kýshshi (Kópek-biyding basshylyghymen), jalayyr, qarlyq, súldúz, nýkiz, tama, tatar, ichki, oirat, adlu-oghly (Hamza-biyding basshylyghymen), manghyt jәne adghu (manghyttar men Adghu uruganyng basynda Hadjiy-Ghazi) bolghanyn jazady [10, 10]. Bizding pikirimizshe, Adgu urugty Edige urug (Edige ruy) retinde payymdaugha bolady, sondyqtan nege Hadjiy-Ghazy manghyttar men Adgu urugty bir mezgilde basqarghany týsinikti bola týsedi. Ol, Edigening úrpaghy bolyp, onyng Múhammed Sheybanigha qyzmet etken úrpaghynyng klanyn, sonday-aq, barlyq manghyt taypasyn basqaruy mýmkin.

Múhammed Salih atap ótkendey, ong qanatta qiyat, qonyrat, manghyt, dýrmen, ýisin, oirat siyaqty taypalar bolghan. Sol qanat 1500 adamnan qúralghan, onyng 700 nayman bolghan [10, 10].

Búl jerde, 19 taypa men tek 6 taypalyq bekterding atauy atalghanyn atap ótken jón. Búl 6 bek Múhammed Sheybaniyding qolastyndaghy eng iri taypalardyn  jetekshileri boluymen baylanysty shyghar. Tanqalarlyq fakti, kýshshi taypasynyng begi (300 adam) dep atalyp ótken de, al  «ichky taypasynyn» (sany 4000 adam) begi joq. MIKH qúrastyrushylar jazghanday, : «Ichky – әdette búl termindi etnonim retinde qabyldaydy. Alayda, ol әleumettik maghynagha ie jәne asa rúqsatty talap etpeytin hannyng ishki bólmesine kiru qúqyghyna iye, nókerlerding tobyn bildirui mýmkin [6, 493]. Búl etnonim emes, әleumettik maghyna boluy tolyghymen yqtimal. Ekinshi jaghynan, 10 myng adamnyng 4 myny han bólmesin kiru qúqyghyna ie dep joramaldaugha da qiyn. Ichky búl Orta Aziyagha Múhammed Sheybaniyden búryn qonys audarghan «ishki ózbekter» boluy mýmkin. Ózbekterding Orta Aziyagha qonys audaru prosesi bir mezettik akti bolmaghanyn búl jerde atap ótu qajet.  15 ghasyrdyng ortasynda timurid Abu Seyidke qyzmet ete bastaghan Argun taypasy tútas búl aimaqqa qonys audardy [7]. Abu Yusuf Argun Múhammed Sheybaniyding Samarkandty beybit jolmen basyp aluyna yqpal etken adam [4, 98]. Bizding biluimizshe, hijarynyng 913 jyly (1507-1508) Aughanystanda Argundardyng Babyrdan [4, 215] jenilisinen keyin, olar Múhammed Sheybaniymen kelissóz jýrgizdi [4, 217-218]. Sindige ketkenge deyin, Shah bek pen Mukim Argun Múhammed Sheybanigha qyzmet etip, әskerining bir bóligi boluy tolyghymen mýmkin.

Altynordalyq Ming taypasynyng keybir ókilderi Babyrgha (Ibragim Saru) [4, 55] qyzmet etken, yaghni, olar Múhammed Sheybaniyden búryn Orta Aziyagha qonys audarghan. 

Keyin Ubaydullanyng (1534-39) [1, 218] nemese Abdallah II túsynda [3, 309] Deshti-Qypshaq dalasynan  Orta Aziyagha manghyt pen keneges taypalary qonys audardy. Endeshe, keybir ózbek rulary búdan da búryn Timuridter territoriyasynda bolghanyn, sondyqtan osylar Muhammed Salihte ichky retinde, yaghny ishki ózbekter dep sipattalghanyn naqty aita alamyz Ichky termiynining kelesi núsqasy - búl ichkiyler, ata-babasy Ábilqayyrgha (Múhammed Sheybaniyding atasy) qyzmet etken, Múhammed Sheybaniyding janyndaghylar men onyng malaylary. Bәri bir de T.IY.Súltanov sanaghanday, Ichky ýlken taypany bildirui ekitalay.

A.A.Semenov «Mogholdar men shaghataylar ózbek úlystarynyng arasynda túryp, (ózbekterdin) ishki jauy bolghan; ózbek súltandary men bekterine adal qyzmet etken olar endi ózbek memleketindegi biylik ýshin tartysty kórip, olardan shet ainalyp, Babyr súltannyng jaghyna shyqqanyn» atap ótti [9, 115]. Hijranyng 913 jyly (1507-1508): «Ár týkpirdegi jәne әr aimaqtaghy týrikter men shaghataylardyng bireuleri payda ýshin, ekinshileri eriksiz týrde ózbekterge qosyldy»- deydi Babyr [4, 218].

Biz biletindey, Babyrdyng qolastynda 20 myng moghol men 5 myng shaghatay bolghan [9, 117]. Múhammed Sheybaniyding óliminen keyin, Shibanidterge qarsy bas kótergen osy 20 myng moghol [9, 115]. Endeshe, osy 20 myng mogholdyng bir bóligi 1503 jyly Múhammed Sheybaniyge tútqyngha týsken mogholdar boluy mýmkin.

Sonday-aq, qazaq jauyngerleri de Múhammed Sheybaniyding әskery joryghyna qatysqanyn úmytugha bolmaydy. N.A.Atyghaev pen Z.A.  Jandosova alghashqy derekten Múhammed Sheybaniyding Qasymgha qatysty  sózderi turaly mәlimet keltiredi: «Týrkistannyng basshylary turaly habar maghan  [Týrkistāngha] qarsy shyghatyn oy tughyzdy. Býgingi tanda ótinish bildirushining qolastynda әskermen birge jinalyp, Samarqandqa qarsy shyghyp, әmir Temirding úrpaghynan astanany tartyp alyp, al keyin Andijangha bet alyp, odan Omar-Shayhtyng úly Babyrdy quyp jiberip, Shynghys han úrpaghy ýlken úlynyng joryghy nәtiyjesinde múragerlik tәj ben taqqa ie bolu ýshin, Ýlken han men Shynghys hannyng úrpaghyna maghan janashyrlyq tanytyp, kómekke 12 myn  adam beruine ótinishpen jýginemin». … «Shāhybek-hannyng ótinishi Deshti- Qypshaqtyng patshasy  Qāsym-hangha jetkende, ol kelisim berip, [Shāhybek-hangha]  qansha súrasa, sonsha súraghan әskerin kómekke jiberdi» [2, 275].

Degenmen, keyin N.A.Atyghaev pen Z.A. Jandosova bylay jazady: «Sonymen,  Shaybānū-han jiyrma myng jauynger súrady, Qasym han onyng ótinishin oryndady. Al keyin Shahybek-han Samarqandqa jiyrma myng jauyngerimen tayap kelgeni turaly aitylady», endeshe búdan, Shaybānū-hannyng barlyq әskeri dalalyq-qazaqtardan qúralghany turaly qorytyndy shygharugha bolady [2, 275]. Degenmen, atalghan pikir jansaq boluy mýmkin. Audarmada Múhammed Sheybaniyding 12 myng әsker súraghany turaly aitylady, al jalpy 20 myng әskeri bolghan, sonymen, biz 8 myny Múhammed Sheybaniyding әskeri, onyng jartysyn ózbekter, al kelesi jartysyn sarttar, shagataylar men mogholdar  (6 - 8 myng sanyn jәne osynday qúrylymdy Babyr keltiredi ) qúrauy mýmkin degen joramal jasay alamyz. Búl jerde Múhammed Sheybaniyding Samarqandty qazaqtardyng belsendi kómeginsiz alghanyn atap ótken jón. Múhammed Sheybaniyding әieli boludy oilap, qalany erikti týrde bergen (Samarkandtyng biyleushisi Súltan Aliy-myrzanyng anasy) Zuhranyng aqylsyzdyghynan Samarkandty basyp aldy [4, 98-99]. Sondyqtan nege Múhammed Sheybaniyding Qasym hannyng atynan aqsha shygharmaghany jәne hutba oqymaghany týsinikti. Sonday-aq, (shamamen 1498-1500 jyldary) Samarkandty baghyndyru josparynan birneshe jyldan keyin, Qasym hannyng әskeri onyng iyeligine (1500- jj. ekinshi jartysynda) shabuyl jasaghanda, Múhammed Sheybaniyding tanqalauy da týsinikti. Qasym hannyng әskeri Samarkandty basyp aluda eshqanday roli atqarghan joq, sondyqtan Múhammed Sheybany óz uәdesin oryndaudyng esh qajeti joq dep sheshti. Qasymnyng әskeri Múhammed Sheybaniyde úzaqqa qalmaghan boluy kerek. Múhammed Salihting mәlimetine say ( 1500 j. 6-8 myng +12 myng qazaq әskeri), biz tipti 1503 jyly Múhammed Sheybaniyde taghy nebary 10 myng әsker bolghanyn kóremiz.

Jogharyda aitylaghannyng barlyghyn týiindey kele, biz, әueli (1500- jyly) Múhammed Sheybany әskeri 3-4 myng ózbekten qúralghanyn, sonday-aq, sonshama san shaghatay, sart jәne mogholdyng bolghanyn payymday alamyz. 1503 jyly  Múhammed Sheybaniyde basym bóligin (minimum 6 myn) ózbekter qúraghan, 10 myng әsker bolghan. Múnday ósim Múhammed Sheybaniyding Orta Aziyany jaulap alghanynan keyin, olar onyng әskerine qosyluy jәne Temir úrpaghynyng iyeligine qonys audarghan ichky ózbekterding qosyluymen týsindirilui mýmkin. Ibn Ruzbihannyng mәlimetine say, endi 1509 jyly  Múhammed Sheybany әskeri 40 myng atty әskerge jәne 20 myng qosymsha әskerge deyin kóbeydi (Múhammed Sheybaniyding 60 myndyq әskeri turaly aitatyn búl mәlimetter basqa da parsy derekterinde dәleldenedi [2, 276]). Ózbekter búl әskerde basymdyqqa ie bolghan joq. Olar shamamen 15 myng boldy (bir 10 myndyq jasaq «taza ózbekter» men taghy 10 myndyq jasaqtyng bir bóligi «әskery saltattylar»). Oghan qosa búl ózbekterding basym bóligin ertede osynda qonys audarghan ózbekter (ichki) qúraydy. Sonymen, Múhammed Sheybaniyding túsynda Orta Aziyagha 240 mynnan 360 myngha deyin ózbek qonys audardy degen boljam dәleldenbedi. Múhammed Sheybaniymen birge qonys audarghan ózbekterding sany 10 myng jauyngerden (nemes 50 myng adam) aspaydy. Keyin býgingi Ózbekstangha tek «Ózbek» atauyn berip, Orta Aziyanyng etnogenetikalyq kartinasyna asa әser etpegen, 16 ghasyrdyng birinshi onjyldyghyndaghy Joshy úlysynan (Deshti-Qypshaqtan) ózbekterding migrasiyasy asa mardymdy bolghan joq. Kelimsek ózbekter Orta Aziyanyng basqarushy elitasyna ainalyp, múnda Resey isperiyasynyng jaulap alghanyna deyin ýstemdik etti.

Jaqsylyq Sәbitov

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