Dýisenbi, 5 Jeltoqsan 2022
Alashorda 8321 28 pikir 12 Shilde, 2017 saghat 14:08

Alashorda qayratkerlerining keybirining úrpaqtary krest taghyp jýr

HIH ghasyrdyng ortasynda Kenesary Qasymov basqarghan kóshpeli memleketting Últ-azattyq soghysy jeniliske úshyrady. Búl eng sondy legitimdi, zandy, otarshyldyqtan azat etu soghysy edi. Resey ol kezde ózderine loyaldy isteblishmentin qalyptastyryp ýlgergen. Otarshyldyq isteblishment pen ólkelik elita Kenesary hannyng kóterilisining janshyluyna kómektes, tilektes jәne odaqtas boldy. Sonymen qatar el ishinde birqatar sayasy faktorlar damyp jatty

1) Qazaqta alghashqy biznes orta – ortang qol jәne dәuletti adamdar payda boldy. HIH ghasyrdyng 80-jyldarynan bastap qazaq dalasynda jappay qazaq biznesi órkendey bastady. Qazaq mal satyp bay jolyna týsti. Orys kópesteri men alypsatar tatarlargha jylqy, qoy, jýn, sýiek mayy, mal terisin satudy әr auyl kólemdi biznes kózine ainaldyrdy. Biznesting damuymen birge aqsha jinaldy. Elding jalpy 15 payyzy ortanqol jәne dәuletti túrmysqa jetti.

2) Jinalghan qarjylar arqyly qazaq ata-analary balalaryn oqytugha bel budy. Olardyng deni úrpaghyn oryssha oqyta bastady. Birte-birte sol zamangha sәikes intelliygensiya qalyptasty. Qazaq baspasózi: gazet, jurnal, kitapshalar shyghyp keng taray bastady. Intelliygensiya últ talaptary men kerektigin beybit jolmen jýzege asyrudy maqsat etti. Búl manyzdy, qazaqqa әserli jәne yqpaldy sayasy tehnologiyalyq qúral boldy.

3) Qazaqta týrli sayasy mobilizasiyalar bastaldy: Qarqaraly petisiyasy, hattargha qol jinau,  shoqyndyrugha qarsy, zansyz týrde jerdi tartyp alugha qarsy, t.b.s.s..

Últtyq tirshilik mobilizasiyadan bastalady. Mobilizasiyany yqpaldy qauym toby jasaydy.  Qazaqqa yqpaldy toptyng eki tipti boldy. Olardyng biri – ólkelik jәne auyl iygi jaqsylary, ekinshi top – alash ziyaly adamdary edi. Auyl aqsaqaldary emosiyanaldyq narazylyqqa ilesip – halyqty 1916 jylghy kóteriliske apardy. Kóterilis qatty janshyldy. Sayasy mobilizasiyalardyng ekinshi baghyty – alashshyl últshyldar tarapynan bastaldy. Olar 1916 jylghy Patsha Ýkimetining qazaqty okop qazugha jiberuin qoldady.

4) 1905-1907 jyldary burjuaziyalyq-demokratiyalyq revolusiya bastalyp, Reseyding sayasy rejiymi halyqqa birqatar liyberaldyq erkindik berdi. Olar jinalys jasau erkin qúqyghy, baspasóz ashu jәne taratu erkindigi, az últ ókilderine Memlekettik Dumagha deputat saylau mýmkindigin berdi. Endi qazaq ziyaly qauymy saylau kompaniyasyna qatysyp, óz júrtshylyghy atynan saylanu qúqyghyn aldy.

5) 1905-1917 jyldarda qazaqtyng ziyaly qauymy burjuaziyalyq demokratiya talaptaryna sәikes sayasy kýres tәjiriybesin jinady. Búl parlamentke – Memlekettik Dumagha saylanyp, onyng júmysyna qatysu, fraksiyalarda júmys isteu, gazetter men kitapshalar arqyly sayasy nasihat, talaptar qoyylghan hattar tapsyru әreketterine úlasty. 1917 jyly Alash qozghalysy eki sezd úiymdastyryp, Alashorda Ýkimetin taghayyndap, әsker jinady. .Alash әskeri әlsiz bolghan joq, biraq Kenes Ókimeti әskeri tym tәjiriybeli, sony ýlgidegi qarulanghan әlemdegi eng myqty armiya bolatyn, sondyqtan da janadan qúrylghan Alashorda әskeri jenilis tapty.

6) Alash-Orda ýkimeti 2 jyl ýsh ay ómir sýrdi. Alash-Orda birneshe mәjbýrli qadamdargha barghanyn da moyyndauymyz kerek:

a) Jergilikti óktem biylikti moyyndap (Omskidegi Sibir ýkimetine, Orynborda biylikke kelgen Dutovqa) tek avtonomiya talabyn oryndamaq boldy;

ә) Elde qazaq ýlesi 60 payyzdan kóp bolghanymen, qalada qazaqtyng ýlesi joqtyng qasy edi.Búl jaghday Alash-Ordanyng jenilisining alghysharttarynyng biri boldy;

b) Alash-Ordashyldar Kenes Ýkimetimen ymyralaspaq bolyp kelissózder jýrgizip – Kenes Ýkimetining basshylyghyn moyyndap, Qazaq avtonomdyq Kenes respublikasyn qúrugha da bel sheshe kiristi. Osylaysha qazaq elining shekarasy, avtonomiyalyq statustaghy legitimdi Ýkimeti, últaralyq qúqyq tendigi aiqyndaldy;

v) Alash-Ordashylar Kenes Ýkimetinen raqymshylyq alghannan keyin, bilim men halyq aghartu isine kiristi. Alash qayratkerleri búl enbegi jemisti boldy.

g) Alash-Orda qayratkerlerining bir toby Qytaydyng Shyghys Týrkistan ólkesine ótip, sol ólkening qazaghyna alash iydeyalaryn nasihattady. Bir top alash qayratkeri Ekinshi dýniyejýzilik soghysy jyldary Týrkistan legionynda boldy. Olardyng ishindegi Mústafa Shoqay Batys Elderinde belgili personagha ainaldy;

d) Kezinde mәdeniyet sayasaty Institutynda istegende biz Alash-Ordashylardy fotosuretterin jinaudy maqsat qoyyp, alash qayratkerlerining úrpaqtarymen habarlasytyq. Mening jeke basymnyng bayqauymsha, Alash orda qayratkerlerining úrpaqtarynyng basym kópshilikgi orystanyp ketipti, keybireui tipti orysqa ainalghan. Keybir úrpaghy (aty- jónin aitpayyn) krest taghyp jýr. Onyng sebebi alash ziyalylarynyng orys pen tatarlarmen aralas nekege túruy. Repressiyalanghan alash ziyalylary orystanuy sol zamannyng bir zardaby dese de bolady.

Alash qayratkerlerining enbegi zaya ketken joq, qazir olardyng demokratiyalyq burjuaziyalyq dәstýri jalghasyn tabu kerek. Biraq qazirgi deputattar korpusynda orysshyldyq basym, búl jaghdaydy barlyq basqarushylyq elita men isteblishmentke qarata aitugha bolady. Maghan qazir alash ziyalylary qaldyrghan sayasy dәstýr – últshyldyq pen últjandylyq jalghasyn tappay qalghan siyaqty bolyp kórinedi.

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