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Talqy 2846 25 pikir 27 Qantar, 2020 saghat 11:14

Latyn әlipbiyi: sana janghyruy jәne zamanauy qajettilik

Adamzat balasy tarihy ýzdiksiz damudyng әrtýrli kezenderinde bir sapalyq qalyptan ekinshi bir sapalyq damugha ótip otyratynyn bilemiz. Eger olay bolmasa, búl dýnie damymas ta edi. Osynday sapalyq ózgerister HH ghasyrda jedel jýre bastasa, HHI ghasyrda onyng jyldamdyghy tipten arta týsti.

Qazaq halqy da san ret osynday sapalyq ózgeristerdi basynan keshirgen. Biyl 175 jyldyghy keng týrde atalyp ótiletin Abay qazaq oiynyng jana sapaly ózgerisin jasaghan danyshpan túlgha bolsa, HH ghasyr basyndaghy Alash qayratkerleri jalpy qazaq qoghamyn sayasi, mәdeny jaghynan reformalaugha bardy. Tәuelsizdikke jetken uaqyttan beri bizding elimizde san salaly reformalar jýrdi. Tәuelsiz elimizding irgetasyn qalaghan Elbasy Núrsúltan Ábishúly Nazarbaevtyng Ruhany janghyru bastamasy osynday ýlken reforma bolsa, onyng ózegi de, arqauy da – til. Asyly, qanday janghyru ne qanday reforma bolsyn, ony jýzege asuy ýshin mazmúny da, formasy da ózgerui kerek. Eger biz tilding mazmúnyn onyng sóz baylyghymen, sol aluan baylyqty qúbylta, týrlendire qoldanumen baylanystyra aitsaq, al onyng formasy – tilding grammatikasy, emlesi, әlipbiyi. Osy retten kelgende, biz tilimizding barlyq әleueti men mýmkindikterin jarqyrata kórsetkimiz kelse, onyng qoldanys ayasyn barynsha keneytumen birge, yaghny mazmúnyn tolyq qoldanumen qatar, tilimizding formalyq sipatyna da mәn beruimiz kerek. Álbette, biz ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan tilding grammatikasyn ózgerte almaymyz, olay jasau da, qajet te emes. Biraq kezinde bizge sayasy kýshpen tanylghan әlipby arqyly ózgergen emlemizding keybir tústaryn dúrystaugha mindettimiz. Ol ýshin aldymen qazaq әlipbiyin retke keltiru qajet.

Qazaq tilin latyn әlipbiyine kóshiru jóninde bastama kóterilgeli beri kóptegen oilar men pikirler, aluan úsynystar aityldy. Onyng ishinde jerine jetkizilmey aitylghandary, asyra aitylghandary da boldy. Álipbiyding de birneshe núsqalary úsynyldy. Eki núsqa resmy bekitildi. Eng bastysy, qoghamnyng basym bóligi jana әlipbiyge kóshudi qoldady. Ýkimet janyndaghy Últtyq komissiyanyng mýshesi retinde osy júmysqa tikeley qatysym bolghan song kópshilikting osynday yqylasyn anyq anghardym. Memleket tarapynan josparly, maqsatty kóp sharualar atqaryldy, atqarylmaghy odan da kóp. Jalpy elimiz, halqymyz ýshin osy manyzdy júmystardy uaqtyly әri sapaly atqarugha bizding әleuetimiz tolyq jetedi dep oilaymyn. Egemen elimiz, halqymyz din aman, mamandar jetkilikti. Endigi jerde búl mәseleni qaytadan talqygha salyp úzarta beru qajetsiz.

Baspasóz aqparat qúraldarynda, әleumettik jelilerde osy birer aidyng kóleminde latyn әlipbiyine kóshuge baylanysty keybir qobalju, tipti keybir qarsylyqtar bayqalady. Áriyne, qogham bolghan song әr aluan, tipti qayshylyqty pikirlerding boluy da zandy. Desek te, eldik mәselede tilimiz siyaqty asa manyzdy mәselede múrat birligi, oy yntymaghy, últ birligi kerek. Álbette, әlipbi, onyng emle erejeleri, engizuding baghyttary men tәsilderi jóninde oigha oy qosu, ortaq júmysqa kýsh qosu qajet. Osynday oilarmen bólisip jatqan janashyr azamattar barshylyq. Búl osynday eldik mәselede óte paydaly. Biraq halyqtyng basym kópshiligi qoldap otyrghan, dәuirlik manyzy bar, eng bastysy, әlipby auystyrudyng barlyq alghysharttaryn uaqyttyng ózi dәleldep jatqanda, odan at tonymyzdy ala qashudy dúrys dep eseptemeymiz.

Álipby auystyru – ýlken dayyndyqty, әjepteuir uaqytty qajet etetin kýrdeli ýrdis. Biraq mәselening erekshe manyzdylyghy bizden osynday qiyndyqtardy enserudi, uaqyt júmsaudy talap etedi. Mәselening osynday erekshe manyzdylyghynyng eng bastapqy alghysharty – tildi saqtau, búzylghandy retke keltiru. Til saqtalmay – últ saqtalmaytyny, til retke kelmey – ruhany dýniyemiz retke kelmeytini týsinikti. Ony Alash kósemi Ahmet Baytúrsynúlynan bastap, osy kýnge deyin qaytalap aityp kelemiz.

Álemde kóptegen elder osyghan tәuekel etken, jana ornaghan sayasy jýieler qiyndyqqa qaramay soghan barghan. Oghan mysal jeterlik. Jalpy әlemde әlipby auystyrudyng negizgi eki sebebi bar. Birinshisi – basqa halyqtargha ýstemdigin jýrgizgen otarshyl memleketter sol halyqtardyng әlipbiyin ózgertip, óz әlipbiylerin engizgen. Oghan bәrimiz jaqsy biletin keshegi kenestik imperiyanyng tarihy kuә. Ghalymdardyng aituynsha, sol kezende jetpiske juyq halyqtyng tili kiril әlipbiyine auystyrylypty. Ishinde biz de barmyz. Ekinshi sebebi, ózgergen әlipby tilge de ózgerister әkele bastady. Mәselen, kiril әlipbiyine auystyrylghan tilder sol әlipbiyding tanbalaryn óz әlipbiyine kóshiruge mәjbýr boldy. Sodan qazaq tilining 28 dybysy 42 tanbadan túratyn әlipbiyge ie boldy. Sol arqyly ózge tilding erejeleri bizding tilimizge engizildi. Biz ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan tilimizge orys tilinde jasalghan sózderdi qaz qalpymen kóshiruge, solay aitugha, solay jazugha mindetti boldyq. Sóite kele, tilimizding әuezin búzdyq, óz sózderimizden góri basqa tilding sózderin belsendi qorgha engizdik, terminderdi sol qalpynda kóshiretin boldyq. Mine, osynyng «arqasynda» qazir ózgergen, búzylghan osynday nәrselerdi qalpyna keltirmek bolyp әurege týsudemiz. Óitkeni til siyaqty halyqtyng san ghasyr soqqan sarayynyng keybir tústaryna aqau týsti, tabighilyghy kómeskilene bastady. Bastapqy oiymyzgha oralsaq, tilding formasyna, yaghny sóz túrqy men әlipbiyine syrttan kýshtep tanylghan әserler onyng mazmúnyn da ózgerte bastady. Mazmún men forma sәikes bolghanda ghana qúbylys ta, zat ta ózining tabighy qalpyn saqtaydy. Birining ózgerisi ekinshisin ózgertpey túra almaydy. Osyny jazyp otyrghan sebebimiz biz әlipbiyimizdi, búrmalanghan emle erejelerimizdi ózgertpey, qazaq tilining tabighy mazmúnyn da qalpyna keltire almaymyz. Sondyqtan qazaq ýshin osynday taghdyrly mәseleni sheshuge resursty da, uaqytty da oilamay kiriskenimiz qajet hәm mindet. Búl – qazaq tilin latyn әlipbiyine kóshiruding eng manyzdy, eng sheshushi birinshi alghysharty. Ekinshiden, HH ghasyrdyng mәdeny tarihyna kóz salsanyz, otarshyldyqtan shyghyp egemendik alghan elderding basa mәn bergen bastapqy qadamy – әlipby auystyru. Búl arada keybir aghayyn «Afrikadaghy birqatar elder sol otarshyl fransuzdardyn, aghylshyndardyng әlipbiyinde auyspay qaldy ghoy»  dep  qarsy uәj aituy mýmkin. IYә, solay bolghany ras. Biraq olar auyspayyn degen joq, kóbisining jazu-syzuy bolmaghandyqtan auysa almady nemese latyn әlipbii siyaqty keng taralghan әlipbiyde qalghysy keldi.

Kenestik biylik ydyraghanan keyin tilderining tabighatyn saqtau ýshin, keshegi otarshyldyq atributynan arylu ýshin әzerbayjan, ózbek aghayyndar, olargha qosa, avtonomiyalyq qúrylymdaghy tatar, qaraqalpaq, ghaghauyzdar latyn әlipbiyine kóshti. Biraq bir memlekette bir әlipby degen sayasy jeleumen tatar aghayyndar 1999 jyldan bastap 2004 jylgha deyin latyn әlipbiyinde bolyp, kiriylgha qaytaryldy. Biz ishki demografiyalyq jaghdayymyzgha, elimizdegi tildik jaghdayatqa baylanysty әlipby mәselesin tәuelsizdik alghannan beri kýn tәrtibinde ústap, 2017 jyldan bastap sheshim qabyldadyq. Yaghni, tilimizdi latyn әlipbiyine kóshiruding barlyq jaghdayattary men mýmkindikteri tolyq pisip jetildi degen sóz. Álipby auystyru qazaq tilinin, últtyq bolmysyn saqtaudyng ýlken mýmkindigi boluymen birge taghdyr talayymen elimizden tys ómir sýruge mәjbýr bolghan 4 millionnan astam qazaqtyng da qamy ekendigin úmytpaghanymyz jón. Biz qandastarymyzdy kóshirip alu, jenildikter jasau, mәdeny baylanystar ornatu siyaqty qamqorlyqpen birge, olardyng atamekeni men aqparattyq qarym-qatynasyn da onaylatuymyz kerek. Osynyng negizi – әlipbi. Latyn әlipbii halyqaralyq әlipby jәne onyng tanbalary sheteldegi qazaqtargha tanys bolghan sebepti, qazaq tilining latyn әlipbiyine kóshui atamekendegi Alash balasy men ózge elderde túryp jatqan Alash balasyn jaqyndastyrady. Al qazirgi әlipbiyding oghan mýmkindigi shekteuli. Sonda Qazaqstanda әlipby reformasy jýzege asqanda әlemge taryday shashylghan 16 millionnan astam qazaq  ózara týsinikti ortaq әlipbiyge ie bolady. Mine, osynyng ózi әlipby auystyrudyng qanshalyqty manyzdy ekendigin pash etse kerek dep oilaymyz. Asyly, til tútastyghy siyaqty, әlipby ortaqtyghy da últ tútastyghyn qalyptastyratyn zamanda túrmyz.

Álipby auystyrudyng asa manyzdy kelesi, ýshinshi alghysharty qazirgi miday aralasqan dәuirding talabymen oraylas. Qalasaq ta, qalamasaq ta jahandanudyng kýimesi aulamyzgha enip, sol kýimening jolaushysy bolmaqpyz. Álemde jahandanudyng bolmysy men bayany jóninde pikir óte kóp. Qabyldaghysy kelmeytinder de bar, qoldaytyndar da bar. Bizding oiymyzsha, dúrysy – osy eki jikting arasynan qazaqqa paydaly, ziyan keltirmeytin arnany tabu. Osy oraydan kelgende jahandanugha jútylmay, zor qúbylyspen talasyp emes, jarasyp ómir sýruge qazir biz ýshin latyn әlipbiyinen qolayly balama bayqalmaydy. Eger mynaday búltartpas derekterge nazar audarsaq, búl әlipbiyding qazirgi damyghan jәne damu qarqyny kýn sayyn artyp bara jatqan jasampaz dәuirding halyqaralyq dengeydegi әlipby mәrtebesin әbden iyemdenip alghanyn angharar edik. Ghalymdardyng aituynsha, әlemde  jeti jarym myngha juyq til bolsa, osylardyng jartysynda jazu-syzu bolsa, olardyng ýshten birinen astamy osy latyn әlipbiyinde eken. Ayta keterligi, latyn әlipbiyindegi halyqtardyng sany ýnemi kóbeng ýstinde. Kelesi orynda shamamen 20 payyzgha juyq mólsherdegi qytay jazuy, onan keyingi orynda arab әlipbii túr. Álemning eng damyghan 20 elining 18-i latyn әlipbiyinde. Jana tehnologiyalardyn, bilim men ghylymnyng 70 payyzdan astamy osy әlipbiyde jasalady. Álemdegi aqparattyng taralu kólemi de osynday mólsherde. Yaghny latyn әlipbii –  әlemdegi әri jetekshi, әri әmbebap әlipbi. Býgingi sózben aitsaq, latyn әlipbii әlemdegi eng bәsekege qabiletti әlipbi. Endi osynday jaghdaydan keyin qazaq tilin bәsekege qabiletsiz әlipbiyden bәsekege qabiletti әlipbiyge kóshiru qajet pe degen saualdyng jauaby latyn әlipbiyining paydasyna sheshiletinine kýmәndansaq, onda aqiqatqa qayshy kelgenimiz.

Búl әlipbiyge kóshuding tórtinshi alghysharty Qazaqstanda latyn әlipbiyine kóshuding bastapqy  qadamdary resmy sheshimnen búrynyraq bastalghan. Mektepten bastasaq, himiyadaghy elementterding tanbalary, fizikadaghy birlikter jýiesi, matematikadaghy formulalar latyn әlipbii negizinde ekenin bәrimiz bilemiz. Býgingini aitpaghanda, tipti keshegi kenestik kezende de biz osy pәnder arqyly latyn әlipbiyining tanbalaryn mengerdik. Búghan әrqaysymyz oqyghan shet tili pәnin qosynyz. Sonda latyn әlipbii biz jatyrqaytynday beytanys dýnie emes. Al qazir latyn әlipbiyimen tanystyghymyz arta týsti. Qaltamyzdaghy qújatymyz, qolymyzdan týspeytin telefonymyz, ýstimizdegi kiyimimiz, ýtigimiz ben ydysymyz, kóligimiz, kóshedegi ataular bәri bolmasa da basym kópshiligi latyn tanbalarymen jazylghan. Ony týsinbey adasyp ketip jýrgenimiz joq. Solardy paydalanyp, satyp alyp tiyisinshe qajetimizge jaratyp jýrmiz. Yaghny alghan bilimimizding bir bóligin latyn әlipbii arqyly iygersek, túrmysymyzgha da osy tanbalar enip alghan. Jәne latyn әlipbiyindegi tanbalardyng bizdi qorshaghan kenistiktegi kólemi artyp keledi. Men búl arada jastar jappay bolmasa da biluge qúshtarlyq tanytyp otyrghan aghylshyn tilin qosyp otyrghanym joq.

Latyn әlipbii týrki halyqtarynyng da negizi ortaq jazuyna ainalyp keledi. Aytalyq, qazirgi kezde 200 milliongha juyq týrkitildes aghayyn bar desek, osylardyng 55,6 payyzy latynda, 25 payyzy arab jazuynda, 17,7 payyzy kirill tanbasynda jәne az bóligi ózge әlipbiylerdi qoldanady eken. Osy mәlimetterding ózi bizding әzirshe azshylyqtyng ishinde ekendigimizdi, latyn әlipbii arqyly kópshilikke qaray bet alghanymyzdy anghartady. Búl –  latyn әlipbiyine kóshuding negizgi besinshi alghysharty.

Latyn әlipbiyine kóshu, jogharyda aitqanymyzday, uaqytty da, resursty da qajet etedi. Jalpy qay reforma da onay bolmaydy. Sebebi jyldar boyy qalyptasqan bir jýieden ekinshi jýiege ótuding ótkinshi de, birazgha sozylatyn túraqty da qiyndyqtary boluy mýmkin. Búl arada enseretin eng ýlken qiyndyq –  adamdar sanasynyng eskiden janagha beyimdelui. Tәuelsizdik túsyndaghy reformalar kórsetkendey, bizding halqymyz jaqsygha beyimdeluge әzir ekenin, elmen birge enseruge qúlyqty ekenin jәne halyqtyng basym kópshiligi janadan keletin jaqsylyqqa senetinin kórsetti.  Búl, ainalayyn halqymyzdyng aq peyili men taza niyetinen bolsa kerek. Biz qazir bizge keshegi sayasattyng yqpalymen tanylghan birqatar nәrselerden aryludamyz. Tozyghy men ozyghyn aiyratyn shaqqa jettik, es jidyq, әlem tanydyq, óz qolymyz ózimizding auzymyzgha jetti, nebir qiyndyqtardy ótkerdik, kóshimizdi týzedik, kememizdi qayrannan aidyngha shyghardyq, tәuekelge bel budyq, tәubә dedik! Áli saparymyz úzaq, almaghymyz kóp, jetpegimiz mol. Álipby auystyru – tanba týgendeu ghana emes, tilimizdi tazartu, tilimiz arqyly janymyzdy tazartu, janymyz arqyly ruhymyzdy asqaqtatu hәm jana jahandyq jaghdayda janghyru. Búl – zor júmys, úly maqsat. Latyn әlipbiyine kóshu  isi – tәuelsiz Qazaqstannyng óz sharuasy. Sondyqtan da búl mәseleni sheshu ýshin jan-jaqqa qaraylaudyn, bolmasa múny sayasilandyrudyng qajeti joq dep sanaymyn. Qanymyzdyng birligi ruhymyzdyng birligine bastauy tiyis. Kemenger Abaydyn: «Birindi, qazaq, biring dos, Kórmeseng isting bәri bos» degenin bәrimiz bilemiz. Dostyq niyet birliginde. Niyeti taza aghayynnyng arqasynda búl sharuany da enserermiz.

Múrat Baqtiyarúly,

QR Senat deputaty, Áleumettik-mәdeny damu jәne ghylym komiytetining tóraghasy, sayasy ghylymdar doktory, professor.

Abai.kz 

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