Sәrsenbi, 10 Tamyz 2022
Kýbirtke 5209 26 pikir 12 Qazan, 2020 saghat 11:26

KSRO-ny qayta tiriltiru jayly nege jii aityla bastady?

KSRO-nyng birinshi jәne songhy preziydenti Mihail Gorbachev Kenes Odaghynyng qalpyna kelu yqtimaldyghyna bagha berdi. «Govorit Moskva» radiostansiyasyna bergen súhbatynda Gorbachev «KSRO-ny qalpyna keltiru mýmkin be» degen súraqqa jauap bere otyryp, búl óte úzaq uaqytty qajet etedi dep týsindirdi.

Onyng pikirinshe, búrynghy kenestik respublikalar ózderining sayasy tәjiriybelerin joghaltty. «Tarih barysy búghan jauap beredi, men onday istermen ainalyspaymyn. Biriktiru prosesteri óte qiyn, olar ne istese de, nәtiyje bermeydi», - dedi Gorbachev. 

«Mening oiymsha, búl súraqqa jauap beru ýshin әli kóp uaqyt ótu kerek jәne biz aqyl men tәjiriybe jinap, salystyrar edik. Mening oiymsha, endi osynday diyrektivalar shyghara bastaydy - búl aqymaqtyq», - dep qosty KSRO-nyng eks-preziydenti.

Eske salayyq, 3 qazanda KSRO-nyng alghashqy әri songhy preziydenti Mihail Gorbachevting eskertkishi Germaniyanyng biriguining 30 jyldyghynda Dessau - Roslau qalasynda (Germaniya, Saksoniya - Anhalit federaldy jeri) ashylghan bolatyn. 

Sonday-aq, biyl 10 sәuirde Mihail Gorbachev tarihtaghy eng úzaq ómir sýrgen reseylik biyleushisi atandy. Búghan deyin búl ataq biraz uaqyt 1917 jyly Uaqytsha ýkimetting ministri – tóraghasy bolghan jәne eldi is jýzinde basqarghan Aleksandr Kerenskiy tiyesili bolghan edi. Ol 1881 jyly 4 mamyrda dýniyege kelip, 89 jas, 1 ay 7 kýn ómir sýrip, 1970 jyly 11 mausymda qaytys boldy. Gorbachev 1931 jyly 2 nauryzda dýniyege keldi. Býgingi tanda onyng jasy 89 jas, 1 ay 8 kýn. Mihail Gorbachev 1985 jyly 54 jasynda KPSS Ortalyq Komiytetining Bas hatshysy boldy. 1986 jyly 6 nauryzda Gorbachev Bas hatshy qyzmetine qayta saylandy, al 1990 jylghy 15 nauryzda Kenes Odaghynyng tarihyndaghy alghashqy preziyden boldy (әri songhy).

Gorbachev biylikke kelgende, KSRO tereng daghdarysta boldy – qarulanu jarysy, barlyq saladaghy óndiristing bәsendeui, sybaylas jemqorlyq, kenes halqynyng kommunizm iydeyalarynan kónili qaluy, KSRO halqynyng kóp bóligi arasynda maskýnemdik, biylikting qart basqarushylardyng qolynda bolda boluy jәne t. b. Gorbachev týbegeyli ózgeristerding qajettiligin týsindi, sondyqtan «Qayta qúru arqyly bәrine týzetuding uaqyty keldi» dep sanady.

Qayta qúru 6 jylgha sozyldy jәne ýsh negizgi kezennen ótti:

1-kezeng (1985 – 1988), alkogolige qarsy baghdarlama jasalyp, sybaylas jemqorlyqqa qarsy kýres bastaldy, jogharghy basshylyq qúramyndaghy kadrlar jasartyldy. Biraq osynyng bәrimen qayta qúrudyng naqty jospary bolmady, adamgershilik qúndylyqtar búzyldy, últtyq mýddeler Batysty quantu ýshin jii eskerilmedi.

2-kezeng 1988 jyldan 1989 jylgha deyingi kezeng boldy. Búl kezde senzura aqyry jenildetildi – halyqty demokratiyalandyrugha qadam jasaldy, kәsipkerlik qyzmetti damytu ýshin alghysharttar qalyptasa bastady – kooperativter, jeke enbekke jol berildi, shygharmashylyq erkindigi men ónerding damuy bastaldy. Sonday-aq 1989 jyly Aughanstannan әskerler shygharylyp, Amerika Qúrama Shtattarymen qarym-qatynasty jaqsartu әreketteri jasaldy, yaghny KSRO basqa elderding sosialistik rejimderine qoldau kórsetudi dogharady. Jaghymsyz jaqtargha Qaruly Kýshterding jauyngerlik dayyndyq dengeyining tómendigi, biyleushi partiyanyng bedelining tómendeui, Chernobyli apaty, pornografiyanyn, nashaqorlyqtyng taraluy, yaghny jastardyng moralidyq dengeyining tómendeui jәne últaralyq janjaldardyng payda boluy (1986 j. Qazaqstanda bolghan oqighalar jәne t. b.) jatady.

3-kezende (1989 j. mausym – 1991 j. qyrkýiek) eldegi barlyq prosester baqylaudy toqtatty. KOKP partiyasy óz kýshinen airylyp, fraksiyalar arasyndaghy kýres bastalady. Osy uaqyt aralyghynda kóptegen oppozisiyalyq qozghalystar tuyp, damy bastaydy. Egemendik sherui ótip jatty – elder Kenes Odaghynan shygha bastady. 1977 jylghy Konstitusiya da joyylyp, halyqtyng materialdyq jaghdayy edәuir nasharlady. Ghalymdardyn, kórnekti qayratkerlerding shetelge ketui bastaldy.

Gorbachevting qayta qúruymen 1986 jyly jeltoqsanda «KSRO-daghy jariyalylyq jәne demokratiyalandyru» sәuletshisi beybit jәne senetin student jastardyng úrandaryna qarsy qandy repressiyalar jasaghandyghymen әigili boldy. Jeltoqsandaghy Almatydaghy narazylyq Ortalyqtyng dәstýrli komandalyq is-әreketi men Gorbachevting qayta qúruynyng jariyalanghan demokratiyalyq qaghidalary arasyndaghy aiqyn qayshylyqtan tuyndady. 1986 jylghy jeltoqsannyng sebebi Qazaqstannyng jogharghy basshylyghynyng auysuy boldy.

Alayda, búl demokratiyalyq jolmen bolady dep kýtilgen, sondyqtan adamdar odan әri oqighalardy Gorbachev biyligining ózderining jariyalaghan qaghidalaryn búzuy retinde qabyldady. 1986 jyly Almatydaghy Jeltoqsan oqighasy Gorbachevting býkil Kenes Odaghynyng sayasy ómirin demokratiyalandyrudyng katalizatory bolghanyn jәne KSRO halyqtary ýshin de, býkil әlem ýshin de manyzdy tarihy manyzy baryn atap ótken jón. Sonymen qatar, búl búrynghy KSRO aumaghynda qalyptasqan sayasy jýiege qarsy alghashqy demokratiyalyq kóterilis boldy, ol qazaq halqynyng tәuelsizdik pen egemendikke qol jetkizuine jol ashty.

Kerimsal Júbatqanov

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