Beysenbi, 24 Mausym 2021
Kýbirtke 10198 25 pikir 22 Jeltoqsan, 2020 saghat 11:01

Qazaqiya turaly kartalar ne deydi?

Orystar Qazan handyghyn 1552 jyly jәne Astarhan qalasyn 1556 jaulap alghan son, Shyghysqa qaray jalghasty jaulau joryghyn jýrgize almady, bir mezet toqtap qaldy. Óitkeni olardyng qarsy aldynda qúdiretti Noghay Ordasy Edil-Jayyq arasynda kósilip jatty, olardy attap ótu mýmkin bolmady.

Dәl osy tústa Shyghystaghy Tartariya jeri arqyly (Altyn Orda ydyraghan son, Europalyqtar Batysta Oraldan, Shyghysta Mongholiyagha deyingi jerlerdi jalpylay Tartariya dep ataghan, atalmysh atau Marko Polodan bastau alady) sauda-sattyq jýrgizu jәne onyng qyr-syryn bilu aghylshyndardyng oiyn mazalady. Sonymen 1558 jyly aghylshyn diplomaty Antoniy Jenkinson (Anthony Jenkinson) orystarmen birge Edil boyyna keledi, onan ary Búharagha barady. Qysqasy ol Orys jәne Orta Aziya elderine jeke-jeke tórt ret jihankezdik sapar jasaydy (1558, 1561, 1566, 1571jyldary). Biz ýshin manyzdysy ekinshi saparynan oralghan song syzghan әigili kartasy bolyp tabylady. Zamanauy atlastyng atasy Orteliy Avraam (1527-1598) ózining Theatrum Orbis Terrarum («Dýnie Jýzining Teatry») atty atlasyna Jenkinsonnyng 1562 jylghy kartasyn «Tartariae Sive Magni Chami Regni typus» degen atpen engizedi, әri 1570 jyly Belgiyanyng Antverpen qalasynda baspadan shygharady. 1987 jyly Jenkinsonnyng qabyrgha kartasy tabylghangha deyin, dýniyejýzi tarihshylary men kartograftary Jenkinsonnyng osy atlasyn óz zertteulerinde paydalanyp keldi. Jenkinsonnyng qabyrgha atlasy ghylymda «Nova absolutaque Russiae, Moscoviae, et Tartariae, descriptio authore Antonio Jenkinsono Anglo, Clemente Adamo edita, et a Nicolao Reinoldo Londinensi, ari insculpta. Anno salutis, 1562» (Reseydin, Mәskeuding jәne Tartariyanyng janartylghan (kartasy). Avtory Antonio Djenkinsono Anglo. Klement Adamo men Nikolao Reynalido Londiynensy jariyalady. 1562 jyly oiylghan) degen atpen belgili. Dýniyejýzilik ekinshi soghystan son, osy kartany orta mektep oqushysy óz ýiining jertólesinen tauyp alghan, sonynan tarih múghalimine syigha bergen. Ol múghalim atalghan kartany 1986 jyly Polshanyng tiyisti oryndaryna tabystaydy. Qazir әlgi karta Polshanyng Vroslav uniyversiyteti kitaphanasynda saqtauly, onyng úzyndyghy 101,7sm, eni 81,7 sm.

Jenkinsonnyng qabyrgha kartasynda Noghay ordasy (kartada Nagaia) Jayyqtyng eki jaghalauyna ornalastyrylghan. Noghay ordasynyng Shyghysynda Qazaqiya memleketi túr (kartada Cassakia). Al Ontýstikte, Kaspiy tenizining shyghysynda jeti hannyng sureti syzylghan: Týrikmen jerinde Azim han; Búhara jerinde Blag han; Samarqand jerinde Mahmút han; Tashkent jerinde Apish han; Moghol jerinde Alie han; Balh qalasynyng manynda Kurkot han; Ardavil qalasynyng janynda Ismail Sopy. Áriyne aty atalghan handardy Jenkinson latynsha mәnermen ataghan, bәri de ózi saparlaghan tústa biylik basyndaghy handar, al keybiri basqalardan estigen handardyng esimderi. Mysaly, Azim han – Hadjim Han, ol Hadjim Muҳammed Han (1519 – 1603) dep te atalady, Horezm memleketindegi Shaibanidter әuletinen shyqqan onynshy biyleushi. Jenkinson Týrikmen dep sol kezdegi Manghystaudan Aral tenizine deyingi aumaqty ataghan. Bir qyzyq jeri, Qazaqiyadan tartyp Moghol eline deyingi handar men halyqtar atalmysh kartada sәldeli, shekpendi músylman qauymy retinde syzylghan.

Kartadaghy Qazaqiya ordasynyng túrghyndary qyrghyzdar (kartada Kirgessi) dep ataldy. Jenkinson atalmysh ataudy orystardan alghan sekildi.

Jenkinsonning qabyrgha kartasyndaghy Qazaqiya (kartada Cassakia)

Jenkinson kartasynda Qazaqiyanyn aumaghy anyq kórsetilgen: ontýstigi Tashkent jәne Samarqandpen shektesip, batysy Noghay ordasymen jalghasyp jatyr, qazirgi Qazaqstan aumaghyna úqsas. Eskersek, Noghay ordasy ydyraghan son, Qazaq handyghynyng qúramyna Qasym han túsynda ene bastaghan.

Tarihty sayasat ýshin qyzmet ettiru nemese bir últtyng tarihyn búrmalap, odan jalghan tarih jasau totalitarlyq, otarlyq jýiening kertartpa, synarezu ailalarynyng biri bolyp tabylady. Búl olardyng tarih jónindegi óz-ózine kýbirleui ghana. Últtyq bolmys últtyq bolmys bop qala beredi. Jana teniz joly ashylghangha deyin, dýniyejýzi tarihynyng tizgini kóshpelilerde boldy. Olar kóshpelilerding dýniyetanymymen ómir sýrdi, kóshpeliler biyik qorghandarmen qalalaryn nemese memleketin qorshap alghan joq! Qayta otyryqshy elderding kópesteri kóshpelilerden soghys oljalaryn satyp alu ýshin, olardyng jyljymaly ordalaryna ilesip sauda jasady. Jyljymaly ordalar qazaq arba dep atalatyn arbalargha tigilgen kiyiz ýilerden qúram tapty. Kóshpeliler otyryqshy kórshilerine el biyleu dәstýri men әlemdik soghys taktikasyn ýiretti, adamzatty atqa mingizdi. Kóshpeliler tobyr emes tolqyn boldy. Qarsy kelgenderin tolqyn ekpinimen juyp-shayyp, audaryp tastady. Kabiynette otyryp alyp tarih jóninde oiyna kelgenin aityp búrmalau, jar salu – ol onay; ony týsinu, zertteu nemese halyq jadynan óshiru – ol qiyn. Dúrys, Orys otarshyldary Qazaq dalasyn basyp alghan son, otarshyldargha tәn qasiyetpen, jer-su attaryn ózgertip, oryssha at qoydy, ejelgi týrkilik nemese qazaqtyq jer attary úmyt boldy. Alayda úmyt bolghan jer attary halyqtyng jadynda nemese Shyghys kartalarynda saqtaldy: Óskemen – Kengir-túra; Oral – Teke; Atyrau – Ýishik; Shalqar – Aqsaqal-barby, t.b. qaza bersek fakt kóp.

Orys imperiyasynyng odan song Reseyding qol astyndaghy Tatarstan óz tarihynyng 17 tomdyghyn jazyp shyghypty, olardy orys 1552 jyly basyp alghan.

Al Qazaqstan she? 1847 jyly handyq jýieni ýzdik deyik, sonda 1991 jylgha deyin Orys ýstemdiginde bolghan jyly 140 jylgha da jetpeydi. Qazaqtyng tarihshy ghalymdary neshe tomdyq kitap shyghardy? Kinә kimde? Tarihshylarda ma, biylikte me? Menshe eki jaqta da bar. Tarihshylardyng basy qosylmaydy, bir-birin ayaqtarynan shalady; basqa últ ókilderi nemese shetel ghalymdary jazyp bergen Qazaq tarihyn memlekettik dengeyde dәripteydi; al biylik bergen aqshasynyng tiyn-tebenin eseptep, jegenin jelkesinen shygharady; ghalymdargha orynsyz talap qoyady, Scopus (skopus) ta maqala shyghar, bolmasa bergenimdi qaytar dep. Múnday jәit Batysta joq! Al shetelden әspettep aghylshyn tildi ghalymdardy Qazaq tarihy jóninde dәris ótuge shaqyrady, olar otarlyq tarihty nemese shetelge býiregi búratyn tarihty sóileydi. Áriyne otarlyq tarihtan ary asa almaghan eldi kim kóringen basynghysy keledi. Qazaq memlekettiligi men tarihy arasyndaghy talas-tartys pen qiqu sózder sonau XVI ghasyrdaghy Brunonyng taghdyryn eske týsiredi: aqiqat pen keragharlyq arasyndaghy talas-tartys!

Núrlan KENJEAHMET,

Tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory, sinolog, shyghystanushy, Ferbenk Qytay zertteu ortalyghynyng (Garvard Uniyversiyteti) zertteushi professory

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