Senbi, 8 Mamyr 2021
46 - sóz 2944 0 pikir 24 Aqpan, 2021 saghat 16:28

Singapurdyng jemqorlyqty jong tarihy

2017 jyly Singapur Transparensy Interneshnl (Transparency intrnationals) -ding baghalauy boyynsha sybaylas jemqorlyqpen tabysty kýresken 10 elding ishinde 7-shi oryngha ie boldy jәne Aziyadaghy alghashqy ondyqqa kirgen jalghyz memleket.

Singapurda 1959-1990 jyldar aralyghynda premier-ministri bolghan Ly Kuan Yu sybaylas jemqorlyqqa qarsy kýreste asa auqymdy mindet atqardy dep baghalanady. «Informate Peru» úiymy búl is-shara tómendegi 5 faktor arqyly nәtiyjeli jýzege asty dep kóredi.

Singapurdyng búl jýiesi halyqaralyq naryqtaghy joghary pozisiyanyng tamasha mysaly, sonymen birge naqty ekonomikalyq damugha alyp kelgen sosializmning sәtti bir formasy dep qaraghany qyzyqty.

Endeshe basqa elder Singapurdan ýlgi aluy kerek emes pe?

1. JEMQORLYQQA NÝKTE QOi ShARASY

Singapur 1965 jyly Malayziyadan bólingen kezde, onyng túrghyndarynyng kópshiligi kedey jәne jemqor boldy, al Ly Kuan Yu:-«Eger elimiz boyynsha jemqorlyqtan qútylghymyz kelse, sizder barlyqtarynyz otbasy mýshelerin, jәne dos-jarandaryndy týrmege jiberuge dayyn bolularyng kerek»,-dep turasyn aityp, ýndeu jariyalaghan eken.

Birinshi shara - basqa payda tabugha jol bermeu maqsatynda memlekettik qyzmetkerlerding jalaqysyn ósirgenimen sonshalyqty nәtiyjeli bolmady. Sondyqtan jemqorlyqtyng jelilerin anyqtau ýshin kýtpegen tekseruler jýrgizuge jәne búqaralyq aqparat qúraldaryna sybaylas jemqorlyq jaghdaylary turaly halyqqa habarlap túratyn arnayy baghdarlama ashty. Jogharghy organnyng rúqsatynsyz memlekettik qyzmetkerlerding jәne olardyng baylanysty túlghalarynyn, onyng ishinde otbasylarynyn, tuystarynyn, tipti dostarynyng esepshottaryn tikeley tekseruding erekshe qúqyghyn berdi.

Jemqoryqqa baylanysqandardy júmystan, lauazymdardan, zeynetaqylardan jәne basqa da tólemderden merzimsiz alyp tastaugha sheshim shygharyp, birqatar ministrler men kәsipodaq qyzmetkerleri jemqorlyghy ýshin týrmege qamaldy. 1989 jyly sybaylas jemqorlyq ýshin aiyppúldy 10,0 - 100,0 singapur dollaryna deyin úlghaytty.

2. SOT REFORMASY

Singapur adam basyna shaqqandaghy eng joghary ólim jazasyna ie elderding biri. Ásirese esirtki, kisi óltiru qylmysy boyynsha ólim jazasy óte joghary. Basqa qylmystargha úzaq merzimge bas bostandyghynan aiyru jәne dýre soghu jazasyn qolldandy. Búl jazalar qatal dep tanqaldyrady. Singapurlyqtar búl mәselede ekige jarylyp, jazyqsyz adamdy ólim jazasyna kesu orny tolmas qatelik bolar edi deydi, al dýre soghudy óte qoldaydy.

Singapurdyng qylmystyq zannamasy tym qatal bolyp kórinui mýmkin, biraq adamdardyng sanasyna nening bolatynyn, nening bolmaytynyn týsindirudi birinshi kezekke qoyghany kórinip túrady.

Ólim jazasy, týrme, dene jazasy, mýlkin tәrkileu jәne auyr aiyppúldardyng barlyghy eldegi zang men tәrtipti saqtaugha baghyttalghanyn Singapur biyligi óz halqyna týsindire alghany tanqalarlyq nәtiyje boldy.

3. JÚMYS ORNY

Maonyng mәdeny tónkerisi Qytaydan sheteldik investorlardy Gonkongqa, Tayvangha jәne Singapurgha tartty, múnda alghashqy fabrikalar 1960 jyldardyng ayaghynda salynghan, alghashqy elektronika 1970 jyldary, Al 1980 jyldary Singapur әlemdik tehnologiyalyq ónimer ortalyghyna ainaldy.

Sheteldik investorlar ýkimetting investorlardyng qyzmetine qatyspaugha jaghday jasau, sonday-aq arzan júmys kýshi men tómen salyqtar ýshin jaghdaylar jasauyna baylanysty aghyla bastady dep aitugha bolady. «Biz investorlardy qoldap qana qoymay, olardy bastaugha kómektesu ýshin kóp júmys jasadyq», - dedi Ly Kuan Yu.

Alayda, bizding maqsat olardy tartu emes, singapurlyqtardy sheteldik kompaniyalarda oqytu jәne bәsekege qabiletti ózderining últtyq kompaniyalaryn qúru. Sebebi ol kezde bizde ýlken fabrika nemese últtyq kompaniya salugha aqshasy men tәjiriybesi bar adamdar bolmady. Sondyqtan biz jastarymyzdy tehnologiyalar, marketing jәne menedjment salasynda osylay dayyndadyq jәne búl jastar bizding últtyq industriyamyzdy qúratyn jas mamandar bolady dep kýttik ».

4. BILIM BERU REFORMASY

1960 jyldardyng sonynda Singapur júmyssyzdyqpen kýreste sheteldik kompaniyalardy sәtti paydalandy. Sonymen qatar, sheteldik kompaniyalardyng barlyq qyzmetkerlerinen ózin-ózi ústay biludi, úqyptylyqty, jauapkershilikti jәne joghary sapaly ónim óndirudi ýirenu talap etildi.

Oqu baghdarlamasyn ózgertuden basqa, jalpy akademiyalyq pәnderden basqa oqulyqtaghy bilimmen qatar, óz betinshe izdenuge, sheshim qabyldaugha, tereng oilaugha baghyttalghan baghdarlamalar jasaldy. Singapurdyng innovasiyalyq damu jәne ekonomikalyq damudaghy ónimdi is-qimyl jónindegi kenesining búrynghy preziydenti Filipp Yo: «Bizge ejelgi tarih pen әdebiyet sarapshylarynan góri ghylym men tehnologiya mamandary qajet. Halyq osynyng nәtiyjesinde qanaghattanyp ómir sýretin bolady”,-dep ýnemi nasihattau býginde jýzege asty.

5. MEMLEKETTIK KÁSIPORYNDARDY QÚRDY

Ýkimet qúrghan alghashqy kompaniyalardyng biri - qazirgi uaqyttaghy Singapur aviakompaniyasy (Singapore Airlines). Búl әue kompaniyasynyng búrynghy bas diyrektory Lim Chen Ben: «Biz әuekompaniyany bedel ýshin emes, aqsha tabu ýshin qúrdyq. Sondyqtan, shyghyn bolghan jaghdayda, kýmәn oilanbastan jabatyn edik. Biraq olay bolmady»,-dep maqtanyshpen aitypty. Áuekompaniya qyzmetterdi dayashylyq әdisine týbegeyli ózgeris jasady, jolaushylardyng jaylylyghy,susyndary men tamaghynan bastap qúlaqqaptyng dauysyna deyingi nәrselerdi qayta eseptep janalaghan eken. Nәtiyjesinde jýzdegen júmys oryndaryn qúryp, әlemdegi jetekshi aviakompaniyagha ainaldy.

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