Dýisenbi, 29 Qarasha 2021
Alashorda 7875 26 pikir 25 Shilde, 2021 saghat 12:28

Qughyn-sýrginder: Sipaty men erekshelikterin zerdeleu

Qazaqstandaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding sipaty men erekshelikterin zerdeleu ýshin aldyn-ala belgilengen uaqyttyq auqym shenberimen shektelmey, mәseleni meylinshe keng jәne tereng qarastyrghan jón. Osynday kózqarastyng tiyisti zertteuler jýrgizu barysyna eleuli jәrdemin tiygizerine kýmәn joq, sol sebepti әngimeni elimizding ótkeni jayyndaghy key payymdardan bastayyq...

1.

Qazaq halqyn qúraytyn ru-taypa birlestikteri ghasyr­lar boyy ghúndardan, kók týrkterden bergi ejelgi memlekettik qúrylymdar qúramynda jasap kelgen. Týrk qaghanaty, Shynghys han qaghanaty, Joshy Úlysy (Úlygh Úlys, Altyn Orda), Aq Orda qúramynda tirshilik keshken zamandarynan keyin, ómir sýru kenistigi, sharuashyl­yghy men túrmys salty, tili, dini, dili bir bolghandyqtan, 1456 jyly tarih sahnasyna «qazaq» degen óz etnostyq atauymen shyqqan da, 1465  jyly  tarihy atamekeninde Qazaq Ordasy, Qazaq Handyghy delinetin ózindik derbes memlekettik  shanyraghyn kótergen (2015 jyly 550 jyldyghy toylandy). Sodan beri qazaqtyng kýlli rulyq-taypalyq birlestikteri jana sapada – memleketting ózindik qúrylymyn týzgen azamattyq qauym instituttary dengeyinde damydy. Qazaq Handyghy derbes tu tikkeli bergi әr kezende el aghalary bayyrghy Shu, Qozybasy, Úlytau ónirlerindegi ordalaryn, kóne Sozaq, Syghanaq, Sarayshyq, Tashkent, Týrkistan qalalaryn astana etip, halyqtyng tynys-tirshiligin Qasym hannyng «Qasqa joly» (15–16-ghgh.), Esim hannyng «Eski joly» (16–17-ghgh.), Tәuke hannyng «Jeti jarghysy» (17–18-ghgh.) syndy zannamalyq qújattarmen  retteudi jolgha qoydy.

Altyn Orda synyqtarynyng birinen qazaq handyghynan kóp keyin boy kótergen orys patshalyghy tez damyp, kýshti qúrylymgha ainalghan. Quatyn kórshi elderge týrli jolmen tanytyp kele jatqandyqtan, oghan arqa sýieuge tyrysu Qazaq Ordasy tarapynan 16-shy ghasyrda-aq qozghalghan edi. Mәselen, qazaqtardyng Mәskeu memleketine moyynsúnuy kerektigi jәne onymen әskery odaq qúru qajettigi jayynda túnghysh ret 1594 jyly orys tútqynyndaghy hanzada Oraz-Múhammed pen Tәuekel hannyng elshisi Qúl-Múhammed arasyndaghy әngimede kóterilgen. Sodan, Tәuekel hannan tiyisti tilek-hat alghannan son, Feodor Ioannovich patsha 1595 jylghy 28 nauryzda qazaqtardy Mәskeu memleketining bodandyghyna qabyldaghany turaly Tәuekel hangha, onyng úldary Shahmúhamed pen Kýshik súltandargha gramotalar jiberedi. Ol ózin, tipti, basqa tituldarymen qosa, qazaq­tardyng da patshasymyn dep atay bas­taydy.

Biraq ol joly qazaq handyghynyng orys memleketine kiriptarlyghy bodandyq gramotadan әrige terendemeydi. Búnday әngime sodan bir ghasyr ótkennen song ghana, 18-shi ghasyrda, shyn mәjbýrlik ahualda qayta kóteriledi. Oghan negizinen tarih sahnasyna jana әri kýshti kóshpendi memleket retinde Jonghar handyghy shyqqandyghy, onyng jayylymdyq keng jer-su aumaqtaryn iyelenu ýshin birden ózindey kóshpendi kórshisine qyrghiday tiyip, ýzdiksiz shabuyl jasaugha kirisui, ishtey baghzy Shynghys han imperiyasyn janghyrtu sekildi ýlken isti armandauy, sóitip, Qazaq handyghymen qyr­qysuyn ondaghan jyldar boyy toqtatpaghandyghy, oghan qosa  elding teristigindegi olardyng qalmaq tuystarynan, sonday-aq kazaktar qauymy men bashqúrttardan tóngen qater sebep  boldy.

Qazaq elin 1680 jyldan biylep otyrghan Tәuke han memleketining údayy Jonghariyamen soghys jaghdayynda boluy sebepti, orys patshaly­ghymen jaqyndasu, onymen әr salada tatu qarym-qatynasta bolu jolyn qarastyrady. Birinshi Petrge sauda-sattyqty, dostyq qatynasty janghyrtu turaly 1694 jyly hat jaza­dy. Sonymen birge ol, jalpaq Qazaqiyany basqarudy ontaylandyru maqsatymen, geografiyalyq jaghdaygha baylanysty qúrylghan ýsh jýzge  ózining namestnikteri retinde jeke biyler taghayyndaydy. Sosyn, jan-jaqtaghy kórshi elder taraptarynan dúshpandyq әreketter jasau yqtimaldyghy arta týsken sonau dәuirde, Úly Dalada jayylyp jatqan alyp memleketindegi basqaru qúrylymyn odan әri jetildirudi kózdeydi. Tәukening sayasy tvorchestvosynyng jemisi sol, qajettilik tughan aumaqta shúghyl әskery sheshim qabyldap,  qorghanys sharalaryn jasaugha qauqarly, memleketting qauipsizdigin qamtamasyz ete týsetin jedel is-әreketke beyim jýie qúrady. Sóitip biyler arqyly basqarylyp kele jatqan aumaqtardyng derbes quatyn arttyrugha tiyis  әskeriy-әkimshilik basshylyqty – әr jýzge óz hany saylanuyn qosh kóredi.

Sodan, jalpyqazaq hany Tәukening kózi tirisinde, obektivti týrde ýsh aimaqty jaylap túrghan ýsh jýzge ýsh han saylanady. (Múny tarihshylardyng kóbi qazaq handyghy ýshke bólinip ydyrap ketti dep esepteydi, is jýzinde búl jәit alyp memleketting basqaryluyn uaqyt talabyna say ontaylandyru joly edi). Tarihy derekkózder mәlimetterine qaraghanda, 1703 jyly Orta jýz ben Kishi jýzding bir bóligine Qayyp, 1710 jyly Kishi jýz ben Orta jýzding bir bóligine Ábilqayyr, 1712 jyly Úly jýzge Abdolla han bolyp saylanghan. (Abdolla han qaytys bolghan son, Úly jýzdi  1720  jyldan  1740 jylgha deyin onyng balasy Jolbarys  han, odan beride birer mezgil Tóle by basqardy). Jalpyqazaq hany Tәuke qahan 1715 jyly dýnie saldy. Odan keyin jalpyqazaq hany (qahan, bas han) saylanghan joq, biraq memleketting birligi, birtútastyghy Tәuke hannyng sayasy shygharmashylyghy nәtiyjesinde, zaman talap etken jaghdayda qajetti týrde jetile, damy otyryp, saqtaldy.

Sol 1715 jyl­dan bastap Orta jýz biyleushisi Qayyp han barlyq kishi handardyng ishindegi handyq ótili әri jasy ýlken bolghandyqtan, basty han, yaghny agha han retinde moyyndalghan. (Orys-qazaq baylanys­tary qújat­tarynan onyng orys memleketining kómegin aludy kózdegenin kórsetetin biraz qaty­nas qaghazdaryn kóruge bolady). Qazaq handarynyng ishindegi birinshi túlgha, agha han Qayyp 1718 jyly baqtalastarynyng qastandyghynan qaza tapty. Sonda qazaqtyng agha hany lauazymyna Qayyp han tandalghan tәrizdi qasiyetterimen say kep túrghan Kishi jýz hany  Ábil­qayyr bahadýr 1719 jyldan agha han mәrtebesine ie boldy. Onyng ordasy sol jyldan bastap, halyqty «Aqtaban shúbyryndygha» úryndyrghan 1723 jylghy alapat jonghar shapqynshylyghy bastalghangha deyin, qazaq astanasy Týrkistanda túrdy.

Tәuke hannyng ýlken úly Bolat súltan 1718 jyldan Orta jýz hany boldy. «Aqtaban shúby­ryndy…» apaty kezinde, әlde onyng qarsanynda – 1723 jyl shamasynda ómirden ótti. Onyng ornyna Orta jýzge onyng inisi, Tәuke hannyng balasy Sәmeke súltan han saylandy. Ol qaytys bolghannan keyin, 1739 jyly, Orta jýzdin  Sәmekege  deyingi  biyleushisi  bolghan   Bolat hannyng ýlken úly, Tәuke hannyng nemeresi Ábilmәmbet súltan Orta jýz hany taghyna otyrghyzyldy. Ábilqayyr hannyng 1748 jyly qaza tabuyna baylanysty, Ábilmәmbet sol jyldan agha han sanatynda jýrdi. Kóp jyldar Abylay súltannyng qamqorshysy boldy. Ábilmәmbet han ólgen son, 1771 jyly, Abylay Orta jýzding jәne Úly jýzding bir bóligining hany, sonymen birge agha han – sol kezgi resmy tilmen aitqanda: «kýlli hanlarnyng aghlasy qylyb» (I. Erofeeva) saylandy.

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Orys-qazaq qatynastarynyng jana kezenine nazar audarayyq. Búl kezeng Ábilqayyr han esimimen tyghyz baylanysty. Ol 1710 jyldan 1730 jylghy tútas qazaq aibynyn asyrghan Anyraqay jenisine jetkenshe jongharlargha qarsy azattyq qozghalysyn, Otan soghysyn jýrgizip, qandy shayqastarda qazaq jasaqtaryn basqarghan adam. Áuelde Ábilqayyr bahadýr 1709 jyly bashqúrt hany bolghan-tyn. Ol sol bashqúrt taghynan 1710 jyly elge shaqyrylyp, Qaraqúmda ótken Kishi jýz ben Orta jýzding bir bóligining bas adamdarynyng qúryltayynda Kishi jýzding túnghysh hany bolyp saylandy. Búl oghan jeke erlikteri men qolbasshylyq asqan daryny, aqyl-oyynyng erekshe zerektigi jәne úiymdastyrushylyq qabileti ýshin kórsetilgen qúrmet әri senim edi. Sol Ábilqayyr han qazaq elindegi barlyq kishi handar ishindegi iri bedeline sәikes, jogharyda aitqanymyzday, 1719 jyldan qazaqtyng agha hany boldy.

Agha han retinde, Ábilqayyr bahadýr «Aqtaban shúbyryndy, Alqakól súlama» apatynda Qaraqúm ónirinen jasaq jiyp, shúghyl batys shekaragha attandy. Sóitip, shyghystan dýley shapqynshylyq jasaghan jonghar basqynshylaryna – ózderining tuystaryna – olardyng terennen oilaghan josparynyng oryndaluyna is jýzinde qoldau kórsetu maqsatymen qazaqtardy batystan kýiretudi kózdegen qalmaq agressiya­synyng aldyn aldy. Sosyn ontýstikke qúighytyp, qazaq astanasy Týrkistandy manyndaghy ondaghan qalashyqtarmen birge jonghar әskerining okkupasiyasynan azat etti. Biraq ústap túra almady, kýsh teng emes edi. Sonda ol 1726 jyly barlyq kishi handar, súltandar, batyrlar, biyler, el ishindegi basqa da bas adamdar qúryltayyn shaqyrdy. Sol qúryltayda agha han Ábilqayyr bahadýrge birikken qazaq qoldarynyng jogharghy komandashysy – bas qolbasy mәrtebesi berildi. Bas qolbasy birden ýlken úiymdastyrushylyq júmysty qolgha aldy. Qazaq jasaqtary 1727–1730 jyldarghy shayqastarda jetken iri jenisterding bәri agha han, bas sardar Ábilqayyr bahadýrding jogharghy qolbasshylyghy nәtiyjesinde, sonyng arqasynda jýzege asty.

1730 jyldyng kóktemindegi Anyraqay jenisinen keyin Ábilqayyr han  jongharlarmen  bitim  jasasty. Sodan son  batys  jәne  batys-teristiktegi shekaralargha jana shabuyldar jasau arqyly qater tóndirgen dúshpandarmen araqatynasty retke keltiruge attandy (búl beles Anyraqayda eshqanday da han saylauy bolmaghanyn rastaytyn jana ghylymy dәlelder algha tartylghan osy uaqytqa deyin «Ábil­qayyr ózin ýsh jýzding hany etip saylamady dep ókpelep, maydan dalasyn tastap ketti» degen jalghandyqpen búrmalap týsindirilip keldi). Sol jylghy mamyrda Ábilqayyr hannyng jazghy ordasyna jinalghan Kishi jәne Orta jýz súltandarynyn, batyrlary men ru-taypalar biylerinin, basqa da bas adamdarynyng qúryltayynda orys patshalyghy ýkimetimen kelissóz jýrgizu mәselesi talqylandy. Sonda Reseyding qolastyndaghy qalmaqtar men bashqúrttardyn, sonday-aq orys kazaktarynyng qazaq eline shabuyl­daryn doghartudy kózdeytin bitim jasau jóninde sheshim qabyldanghan. Soghan sәikes Ábilqayyr han orys patshayymy Anna Ioannovnagha hat jazyp, Peter­burgke arnayy elshilik attandyrdy.

Odan әri «orystardyng Orta Aziyagha sauda qozghalysyn jýrgizetin jol salu ýshin, Úly Petrding útqyr sózi boyynsha, ortaaziyalyq elder men halyqtargha aparatyn «qaqpalar men kiltke» qol jetkizu, yaghny qazaq ordalaryna ie bolu qajet («ovladeti kirgiyz-kaysaskimy ordamiy»), tipti búl ýshin million som aqsha júmsaugha tura kelse de» (V. Viytevskiy) degen jospardy jýzege asyrudy kózdegen júmystar jýrip jatty. Birinshi Petrden kózi tirisinde  «...qazaqtardan orys qolastyna qaraghysy keletindigi turaly bir japyraq qaghazdy qaytkende qolgha týsiru» jónindegi tapsyrmasyn alghan tilmәsh Mәmet Tevkelevting diplomatiyalyq is-әreketteri men ailaly ýgiti bar, Ábilqayyr hannyng patshayymgha jazghan hatyn Syrtqy ister alqasynda isteytin әlde Tevkelevtin, әlde soniki sekildi pighyldaghy ózge tilmәshting orys mýddesine oraylastyryp tәrjimalaghany bar, bir jylday qasynda bolghan Tevkelevke sengen, quatty orys memleketining protektoraty sanatynda boludyng jalpaq Qazaq elin bir ortalyqqa baghyn­dyrylghan myqty handyqqa ainaldyrugha jәrdemi tiye­di degen Ábilqayyr hannyng óz ýmiti bar – orys-qazaq qatynastarynyng qily amaldargha toly  jana kezeni  bastalady.

Qazaq oqyghandarynyng birqatary әli kýnge deyin «qazaq­ halqyn Resey patshalyghyna bodan etken – Ábil­qayyr han» degen qasang kózqarasty ústanady. Al orys tarihshylary Ábil­qayyr handy «orystardyng qas jauy» jәne «Orynbor ólkesining Birinshi Petri» atanghan general-guber­nator Nepluevting «jeke dúshpany» dep tanyghan. Ári ólkeni otarlau júmystaryn jýrgizuge ýkimet Ábilqayyr han óltirilgennen keyin ghana kirise aldy dep eseptegen (is jýzinde solay – imperiyanyng protektoratty óz otaryna ainal­dyru әreketi qazaqtyng memlekettiligin, handyq biylik qúrylymyn  birjola joyyp, qazaq jerin basqaru tәrtibin alghash tújyrymdaghan 1822 jylghy «Sibir qazaqtary turaly jarghy», 1824 jylghy «Orynbor qazaqtary turaly jarghy» atty qújattardan bastaldy).

Búl oraydaghy óte tanymdy derekter tariyh­shy Viytevskiyding general Nepluevting ómiri men qyzmetin zerttegen әigili tórt tomdyq monografiyasynda bar (V.N. Viytevskiy. «I.I. Nepluev y Orenburgskiy kray v prejnem ego sostave do 1758 g.». 1–4-tt. g. Kazani, 1897 g.). Degenmen, qazaqtardy Reseyge Ábilqayyr han óz erkimen qosty dep aitu otarlaushy ókimetke tiyimdi edi, búl patsha әkimshiligining sodan beri josparly týrde jýrgizgen qandy joryqtaryn, týrli repressiyalyq sharalaryn býrkemeleuge paydalanghan qolayly tәsili bolatyn.

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Sonymen, Resey imperiyasy 18-shi ghasyrdyng 30-shy jyldary aila men arbau әdis­terin sheber qoldana otyryp, Qazaq handyghyn protektorattyqqa alugha kóndirdi de, sol ghasyr­dyng ayaghyna qaray aldamshy protektor boludan asyp, qazaq jerin óz qúramyna kýshpen qosyp alugha kiristi. 19-shy ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda Orta Aziyadaghy qazaqtar mekendeytin Áulieata, Merke, Týrkistan, Tashkent, Aqmeshit, t.b. qalalar men ónirlerdi әskery kýshpen jaulady. Ontýstik ólkedegi qazaq jer-suy men halqyn qúramyna kýshpen qosyp alyp, qazaqtyng handyq qúrylymyn, dәstýrli basqaru jýiesin, memlekettiligining nyshandaryn tolyghymen joydy. Otarlaushylargha qarsy kóterilgen últ-azattyq qozghalystarynyng bәrin qan-josa etip túnshyqtyrdy.  1867 jyly Jetisu, Syrdariya oblystaryn basqaru jónindegi ereje, 1868 jyly Orynbordyng dalalyq oblystaryndaghy jәne Batys Sibir general-gubernatorlyghyndaghy aimaqtardy basqaru jónindegi erejeler bekitildi.  1886 jyly «Týrkistan ólkesin basqaru jónindegi ereje» qabyldandy.  Týrkistan general-gubernatorlyghynyng ortalyghy Tashkentke ornalasty. 1891 jyly «Dala erejesi» qabyldanyp, Dala general-gubernatorlyghynyng ortalyghy Omby boldy.  Qazaq jer-suyn imperiyagha, onyng әkimshilik bólinisterine sәikestendirip, jekelegen guberniyalar men oblystargha bólshektep qosyp alu osylay ayaqtaldy.

Mústafa Shoqay kezinde tura atap aitqanday, myltyq kezengen orys soldatynyng artynda údayy soqa sýiretken orys mújyghy ilesip jýretin. Yaghny ishki guberniyalardaghy 1861 jylghy reformadan keyin óristegen agrarlyq shiyelenisterding sebepkerleri retinde sharualardy jana jerlerge qonys audartu sayasaty keng qoldanylghan. Sonyng negizinde krepostnoylyqtan (qúldyqtan) azat bolghanmen, jer tapshylyghynan jana qiynshylyqqa úshyraghan júrtty kóshirip әkelip qazaq jerine ornyqtyru arqyly, patsha ókimeti basyp alghan aumaqtaryn orys jerine ainaldyryp jiberudi basty maqsat etti.

Óstip, Resey imperiyasy otarlaudyng eng qatygez de arsyz, repressiyalarmen astasyp jatqan meylinshe zymiyan týrimen shúghyldandy.

Búl júmystyng mýldem qarqyndata jýrgizilgeni sonday, kýlli qazaq jer-suy memleket menshigi dep jariyalandy. Sonyng negizinde qazaqtardyng shúrayly jerleri ýkimet tarapynan qily materialdyq kómektermen qamtamasyz etilgen orys qonys audarushylary ýshin ozbyrlyqpen tartyp alyna bastady. Búl sharalargha qarsy jergilikti halyqtyng kóterilui mýmkin ekenin eskerip, olardyng tolqularyn bolghyzbau mәselesin 1901–1906 jj. Dala general-gubernatory bolyp istegen general-leytenant N.N. Suhotin múqiyat nazarda ústady. Onyng búl taraptaghy núsqaularynyng ishinde «kóshpendi halyq tarapynan qarsylyq-jaulyq әreket boy kórsetui yqtimaldyghyna oray sharualardy oq-dәrili qarumen jabdyqtau» («snabditi krestiyan ognestrelinym orujiyem na sluchay vozmojnosty vozniknoveniya vrajdebnyh deystviy so storony kochevogo naseleniya)» sharasy da qarastyrylghan bolatyn.

Halyq ruhany qyspaqqa týsirildi, meshitter salugha tyiym salynyp, shirkeulerdi kóbeytu jәne jergilikti júrtty shoqyndyru әreketteri oryn aldy. Búl rette otarlaushy kirmelerding ozbyrlyghy әdette shekten shyghyp jatatyn. Ondaygha shydamaghan kózi ashyq azamattardyng biri 1905 jyldyng basynda «ózin jәne ózining músylmandyq ar-ojdanyn, músylman dinin ghaybattaghany ýshin» patshalyqtyng biylik organdaryna shaghynady. Aqmola svyashenniygin jauapqa tartugha tyrysady. Sonda oghan Omby diny konsistoriyasy (mekemesi) qaytarghan jauap, ondaghy biyik dinbasy Arhipastyridyn: «Betimen ketken  jalaqor  qazaq  ózinin  Týrkiyada  emes,  pravoslaviyelik-hristiandyq Reseyde túratynyn úmytqan eken. Gharyzy qanaghattandyrylmasyn», – dep týsirgen sheshim-búryshtamasy otardaghy ahualdyng ashy shyndyghyn anyq beyneleytin. («Omskaya duhovnaya konsistoriya iymeet chesti pokorneyshe prositi... obiyaviti kirgizu vverennogo Vam uezda, Akmolinskoy volosti, Kabyshu Buranbaevichu, chto na proshenie ego, preprovojdennoe na imya Ego Preosvyashenstva, gospodinom mirovym sudiei Akmolinskogo uezda 23 marta za № 233, o privlecheniy k otvetstvennosty Akmolinskogo svyashennika, oskorbivshego ego y muhammedanskuy veru, rezolusiya Arhipastyrya 4 aprelya za № 124 posledovalo takaya: «Derzkiy klyauznik kirgiz zabyl, chto on jiyvet ne v Tursii, a v Rossiy pravoslavno-hristianskoy. Ostaviti bez posledstviy»)...

Imperiya ýkimeti, óz otaryndaghy qazaq halqy ishinen biylikke berilgen senimdi oryndaushy-qyzmetshilerin әzirleu ýshin, bolystargha arnayy kvotalar bólip, balalardy orys mektepterinde oqytu­gha  mәjbýrledi. Qazaq qyzdaryna bolashaq analar retinde erekshe ýmit artyp, «óz otbastaryna orys mәdeniyetin engizudi qamtamasyz etedi» degen eseppen, olar ýshin arnayy oqu oryndaryn ashty.  Semey oblysynyng әskery gubernatory qyzmetine 1903 jyly taghayyndalghan general-mayor A.S. Galkin oblystaghy chinovnikterge Dala general-gubernatory bergen núsqaulargha qosymsha hat jazdy, onda imperiyanyng negizgi maqsatyn bylay tújyrymdap, yqtiyatty týrde oryndaudy tapsyrdy: «Óz tarapymnan mynany úsynamyn: barlyq túrghyndarmen, últtaryn ajyratpay, әrdayym zang negizindegi qarym-qatynasta bolu qajettigi eshqanday da esten shygharylmasyn, әrqashan jәne barlyq jerde orys aty men orys mýddesi jetekshi orynda túrugha tiyistigin әrdayym este túta otyryp, tuzemdiktermen qatys-baylanystarda airyqsha bekem bolu kerek. Oblysta bizde birinshi orynda – kazaktar jәne olarmen birge krestiyandar men meshandar, al ekinshi orynda tuzemdikter túrugha tiyis, óitkeni, bir ýlken otbasynyng mýsheleri retinde bәri teng bolghanmen, alayda bir oshaq basynda da aghalar men iniler, ýlkender men kishiler bar».

«Agha halyq» jayynda úzaqqa ketken úghymdy jappay sanagha siniru osylay eske salynyp, týp-maqsat mýldem aiqyn etip sabaqtaldy...

«Bizding barsha qyzmet babyndaghy júmysymyzdyng baghdarlamasyna jalpy myna qarapayym kózqarasty salghan jón: biz orys elementi әli de әlsiz, endi-endi ghana engizilip kele jatqan Aziyada ómir sýrip otyrghan joqpyz, biz aziyalyq kóne ghúryptar men әdepter әli de uaqytsha saqtalyp túrghan orys oblysynda ómir sýrip kelemiz, al әlgilerding taghdyryna tek qana bir-aq jol qalmaq: ne – jalpyimperiyalyq, azamattyq ýlgide sinisip ketu, ne – joyylu.

Tuzemdikter bizdi jaqyn bolashaqta, tipti músylman dinine senetin bolyp qalsa da, kәdimgi orys sharualary jasalatyn material retinde ghana qyzyqtyrugha tiyis. Sondyqtan da olardy orys atymen atalatynnyng bәrine asa qatang qúrmetpen qaraytyn ruhta ústau kerek. Olardyng búghan baghynbaudy oigha alatyndary bola qalsa, ondaylardyng qayghyly taghdyr kesherine kýmәn joq: olar yaky jer-susyz qayyrshy bop qalyp, ólip tausylady, yaky Rossiya olardan at-qúiryghyn ýzedi.

Múnyng bәrin әrdayym miynda ústau qajet, biraq búl taqyrypqa artyq-auys әngime qozghay bermegen jón...»

(«So svoey storony rekomenduy otnudi ne upuskati iz vidu neobhodimosty byti vsegda na pochve zakona po otnoshenii ko vsem obyvatelyam, bez razlichiya nasionalinostey, byti vsegda osobo tverdym v snosheniyah s tuzemsami, pomnya, chto vsegda y vo vsem russkoe imya y russkie interesy doljny glavenstvovati. V oblasty u nas na pervom plane doljny byti kazaky y s nimy krestiyane y meshane, a na vtorom plane – tuzemsy, ibo hotya vse ravny, kak chleny odnoy velikoy semii, no y v semie esti bratiya starshie y mladshiye.

V programmu voobshe nashey vsey slujebnoy raboty sleduet polojiti tot prostoy vzglyad, chto my jiyvem ne v Azii, gde russkiy element eshe slab y lishi nachinaet vodvoryatisya, a v russkoy oblasti, gde vremenno eshe dojivait starye aziatskie obychay y nravy, sudiba koih mojet byti toliko odna: ily slitisya s obsheimperskoy grajdanstvennostiu, ily ischeznuti.

Tuzemsy nas doljny interesovati toliko kak material, iz koego v blizkom budushem doljny vyrabatatisya russkie krestiyane, hotya musulimanskogo veroispovedaniya. Poetomu ih y nado vvesty v duh strojayshego uvajeniya ko vsemu russkomu. Te iz niyh, kto vzdumaet etomu ne podchinitisya, ispytait nesomnenno pechalinui sudibu: ony ily ostanutsya bezzemelinymy nishimy y peremrut, ily Rossiya s nimy rasstanetsya.

Vse eto nado iymeti na ume, no bez izlishnih razgovorov na etu temu...»)

Búl, әriyne, imperiyada kópten jýrgizilip kele jatqan barsha ózge tekti halyqtardy jappay orystandyru sayasatyn emissarlar tarapynan pysyqtap,  jalghastyrudyng bir kórinisi bolatyn. 1764 jyly Ekinshi Ekaterina general-prokuror knyazi Vyazemskiyge joldaghan qúpiya kenesnamasynda bylay degen edi: «Kishi Rossiya, Liflyandiya jәne Finlyandiya olargha berilgen artyqshylyqtar arqyly basqarylatyn provinsiyalar bolyp tabylady, osy tәrtipti kenetten búlardyng bәrinen bastartu arqyly búzu óte әdepsizdik bolar edi, alayda olardy bóten elder dep atau da, sóitip olarmen qarym-qatynasty osynday negizge qúru da qatelikten de góri, odan zoryraq bolyp sanalady, dúrysyn aitqanda, aqymaqtyq dep ataugha bolady. Búl provinsiyalardy, sonday-aq, Smolensk provinsiyasyn asa jenil tәsildermen mynanday dәrejege jetkizu kerek – olar orystanatyn bolsyn jәne ormangha qarap úlyghan qasqyrday bolghandy qoysyn. Búghan qol jetkizu óte onay, búl ýshin sol provinsiyalarda [biylikke] parasatty adamdar saylansa bolghany; Malorossiyada getman bolmaytyn kezde, qanday lauazymdy adam jasalsa da, getman atynyng ózi de joyylyp ketuine qol jetkizuge tyrysu lәzim».  («Malaya Rossiya, Liflyandiya y Finlyandiya suti provinsii, kotorye pravyatsya konfirmovannymy priviylegiyamy y narushiti onye otresheniyem vseh vdrug vesima nepristoyno-b bylo; odnako-j, y nazyvati ih chujestrannymy y obhoditisya s nimy na takovom je osnovaniy esti bolishe, nejely oshibka, a mojno nazvati, s dostovernostiu, gluposti. Siy provinsii, takje Smolenskui, nadlejit legchayshimy sposobamy priyvesty k tomu, chtoby one obrusely y perestaly by glyadeti, kak volky v lesu. K tomu pristup vesima legkiy, esly razumnye ludy izbrany budut v teh provinsiyah; kogda je v Malorossiy getmana ne budet, to doljno staratisya, chtob y imya getmana ischezlo, ne tokmo-b persona kakaya byla proizvedena»).

Samoderjaviyening alyp imperiyany jappay orystandyru pighyly kýlli qanaushylyq, ezushilik isterimen qosylyp, halyq narazylyghyn tughyza berdi jәne ol uaqyt ótken sayyn tek ýdey týsken edi. Semey әskery gubernatory osy orayda Qarqaraly ýiezining bastyghy  B.A. Ossovskiyding aqparaty jayynda 1905 jyly Dala general-gubernatoryna: «...nelikten ekenin, shtabs-rotmistr Ossovskiy óz raportynda, ózining jeke baqylauyna sýienip, dalanyng mazasyz kýige engenin habarlaydy, qazaqtar Rossiyada bolyp jatqannyng bәrin múqiyat baghyp otyr, qyrgha kórshi oblystardan, tipti Bókey ordasynan әrkimder kelude, olar ýstimizdegi jylghy 18-shi aqpandaghy asa jogharghy reskriptti óz qalaularynsha týsindirude jәne barlyq ýkimet jarlyqtaryn kópe-kórneu búrys taldaumen ainalysuda...»  – dep habarlaydy. («... nezavisimo chego shtabs-rotmistr Ossovskiy v svoem raporte donosiyt, chto po lichnym ego nabludeniyam stepi nespokoyna: kirgizy vnimatelino sledyat za vsem proishodyashim v Rossii, v stepi pronikait lisa iz sosednih oblastey y daje iz Bukeevskoy ordy, raziyasnyaishie po sobstvennomu usmotrenii vysochayshiy reskript 18-go fevralya s.g. y yavno nepravilino tolkuishie vse praviytelistvennye rasporyajeniya...»)

Ýkimetting qazaq jerindegi emissarlary tekten-tek seskenbegen edi...

4.

20-shy ghasyr basynan imperiyada jalpy revolusiyalyq jәne músylman qozghalystary payda bolghan-dy.  Otarshyl ýkimetting qyspaqtaryna oray tuyp otyrghan maqsat-mindetterdi talqylau ýshin Kókshetau qalasyndaghy din qyzmetshileri 1902–1903 jj. qazaq oqyghandaryn bas qosugha shaqyrdy. Ýkimetting qúpiya polisiyasy, әriyne, olardyng әreketterin tez әshkerelep, repressiyalyq sharalar qoldandy. El-júrtty tiksintken sol oqighadan qazaqtyng jalpymúsylman úmtylysymen ýndesken, órkeniyetke say, býginderi Alash atymen atalatyn  últ-azattyq qozghalysy da bastau aldy.

Birinshi orys revolusiyasy mәjbýr etken patsha biyligining sheginisteri  – halyqtyng mún-múqtajyn aityp ýkimetke tilek-hat joldauyna mýmkindik bergen patshanyng 1905 jylghy 18 aqpan reskripti, diny tózimdilik jayyndaghy 17 sәuir pәrmeni – jer-jerdegi qazaq oqyghandaryn petisiya nauqanyn qyzdyrugha qúlshyntty. Sonymen birge alghashqy demokratiyashyl qayratkerlerding biri Baqytjan Qarataev batys ólkening bir top belgili adamdarynan qúralghan deputasiyany bastap Peterburgke bardy. Patsha sarayyna emin-erkin kirip-shyghatyn general Ghúbaydolla Jәngirhanúly Shynghyshannyng kómegi arqyly, imperatordy bala múragerding (sesarevichtin) tughan kýnimen qúttyqtau jeleuimen, II Nikolaydyng qabyldauyna kirdi. Monarhqa qazaq halqynyng ruhany múqtajdyqtaryn óteuge jәne qúrylghaly jatqan Memlekettik dumagha ókilderin jiberuge púrsat beruin súraghan tilekterin jetkizdi.

Osy 1905 jylghy 17 qazanda ar-ojdan bostandyghy, sóz bostandyghy, jinalystar ótkizu erkindigi, odaqtar qúru erkindigi jәne jeke adamnyng bas bostandyghy, yaghny jeke basqa qolsúghylmaushylyq sekildi sayasy qúqtar men bostandyqtardy jariya etken  maniyfest shyqty. Patshanyng osy «Memlekettik tәrtipti jetildiru turaly»     maniyfesining tarihy manyzy zor bolatyn. Búl manyzdylyq búrynghy tәrtipti búzyp, zang shygharu bastamasyn sol uaqytqa deyingi jeke-dara qúqyqty bolyp kelgen monarh pen halyq ókilderining qatysuy arqyly janadan qúrylmaq zang shygharushy organ – Memlekettik duma arasynda  bólisudi zandastyruynda jatqan edi.

Ziyalylar «imperator halyqqa bostandyq syilady, konstitusiya berdi» dep quanghan  17 qazan maniyfesin jergilikti biylik júrtshylyqtan jasyrdy. Búghan narazylyq kórsetken halyq, mәselen, Qarqaraly ýiezinde is jýzinde respublikalyq rejim ornatty, patshanyng Qazan Maniyfesine say osylay boluy tiyis dep sanap, ansaghan qúrylymyn biraz uaqyt boyy ústap túrdy. Nildi mys kenishinde shetel kapitalyna qarsy Orys-qazaq odaghy úiymdasty.  Oral qalasynda túnghysh qazaq sayasy partiyasy qúryldy. Qazaq elinde bolashaq sayasy qúrylymdardyng osynday proobrazdary Birinshi orys revolusiyasynyng alghashqy jylynda jasalghan-dy.

Jergilikti biylik Memlekettik dumanyng túnghysh shaqyryluyna qazaqtardan deputattar saylau júmystaryna kedergi jasap baqty. Nәtiyjesinde saylau nauqany kesh jýrgizilip, saylanghan deputattar Peterburgke Duma júmysyn bastap qoyghannan keyin ghana jetip jatty. Semey oblysynan saylanghan Álihan Bókeyhanov Piyterge Memduma taratylghan kýni ghana kelip ýlgerdi. Al Aqmola oblysynan saylanghan Shәimerden Qosshyghúlov «orys tilin bilmeydi» degen oblystyq komissiyanyng bekip ýlgermegen syltauy saldarynan astanagha mýldem barghan joq.

Qazaq azattyq qozghalysyn damytushy qayratkerler últ mýddesi ýshin parlamenttik jolmen kýresuge belsene qatysty. Bes jylgha saylanyp, 72 kýn ghana júmys istegen 1906 jylghy I Memlekettik duma minberinen Torghay oblysynan kelgen deputat, Memduma mýshesi Ahmet Birimjanov sol shaqtaghy asa ózekti mәselemen shúghyldanu ýshin qúrylyp jatqan Agrarlyq komissiyadan «saylau kesh ótkendikten әli jetip ýlgermegen qazaq-deputattar ýshin oryndar bólinuin» talap etip sóiledi.  102 kýn júmys istegen 1907 jylghy II Memlekettik dumada Semey oblysynan saylanyp kelgen deputat, MD mýshesi Temirghaly Núrekenov pen Oral oblysynan saylanghan deputat, MD mýshesi Baqytjan Qarataev minberge shyqty («Stenograficheskie otchety Gosudarstvennoy dumy, 1906–1917, Parlamentskaya istoriya Rossiy nachala HH veka»). Núrekenov Ertis boyyndaghy júmyssyz, bosyp jýrgen qazaqtargha jәrdem beru mәselesin kóterdi. Qarataev ýkimetting orys sharualaryn qazaq jerine qonystandyruda jergilikti júrttyng atamekenin, shúrayly jer-suyn tartyp alyp jatqanyn әshkerelegen, pereselen sayasatyn synap, qazaqtyng jer-suyn qorghaghan ataqty sózin sóiledi. Ol qazaq oblystarynan kelgen Memduma mýshelerin bastap, ýkimet basshylarynda, Halyq bostandyghy partiyasynyng ortalyq komiytetinde boldy, parlamenttik komissiyalarda belsendi júmystar jýrgizdi. 2-shi Duma da tarqatylyp, qazaqtar saylau jәne saylanu qúqtarynan airylghan son, 3-shi MD Músylmandar fraksiyasy arqyly qazaq halqyn jerge ornalastyrudy kózdeytin zang jobasyn talqylaugha ótkizuge tyrysty.

2-shi MD mýshesi Shәimerden Qosshyghúlovtyng Duma qabyrghasynda demeushilik júmystargha belsene qatysuymen tatardyng «Ýlfat» gazetine qosymsha retinde «Serke» gazeti shyghyp, ekinshi nómiri tútqyndaldy da, biylik tarapynan mýldem jauyp tastaldy. Sol jyly Troiskide «Qazaq gazeti» jaryq kórgen edi, ol da ókimetke jaqpay, tez jabylyp qaldy.

5.

1905–1907 jj. revolusiyadan keyin qazaq qayratkerleri negizinen oqu-aghartu salasyna kýsh saldy. Júrttyng mún-múqtajyn últtyq basylymdar betterinde qozghap jýrdi. Áueli Ordada (Hanskaya stavka), odan Oralda eki tilde «Qazaqstan» gazeti (1911–1913), Troiskide «Ayqap» jurnaly (1911–1915), Orynborda «Qazaq» gazeti (1913–1918) shyghyp túrdy.

Birinshi dýniyejýzilik soghys kezinde, 1916 jylghy 25 mausymda,  Dala jәne Týrkistan ólkelerindegi búratanalardy maydannyng qara júmysyna alu jayyndaghy patsha jarlyghy últ-azattyq kóterilis órtin tútatty. Ólkelerge ýkimet jazalaushy әskery kýshter shygharyp, qarsylyq oshaqtaryn qaruly kýshpen basty. Oryn alghan zansyzdyqtar 4-shi Memduma mәjilisinde qaraldy.

Batys maydandaghy soldattargha jәrdem beru mәselelerimen shýghyldanatyn «Zemgorsoyz» qúramynda Álihan Bókeyhanovtyng tikeley is-әreketi arqasynda Ózge tektiler (Búratanalar, Inorodcheskiy) bólimi ashyldy. «Qazaq» gazetining úiymdastyrushylyq júmystary nәtiyjesinde qazaq oqyghandary әr taraptan Minskige attanyp, osy bólimge keldi de,  kóterilis basylghan aimaqtardan maydannyng qorghanys qúrylystaryn salugha alynghan júmysshylargha qyzmet kórsetuge atsalysty.

Osynda olar Aqpan revolusiyasyn qarsy aldy. Osy jerden, Álihan Bókeyhanov bas bolyp, qazaq elindegi eldik isterde kózge týsip jýrgen oqyghan azamattargha 1917 jylghy 15 nauryzda manyzdy jedelhat joldady. Onda bostandyq tany atqany quana habarlandy. Qúryltayshy jinalysqa (Uchrediytelinoe sobraniyege) delegat etip saylaugha layyq azamattardy tanday beru kerektigi, eski qazaqy kiykiljindi qoyyp, el taghdyryn terennen oilau qajettigi aityldy.

1917 jylghy Aqpan revolusiyasy imperiya tarihyndaghy asa zor, dәuirlik oqigha bolatyn. Monarhiyanyng qúlauy otarlanghan halyqtar ýshin últtyq azattyqqa shyghudyng jaqsy mýmkindikterin tughyzghan-dy.  Jarqyn bolashaq jayyndaghy quanyshqa toly arman-qiyal men tәtti ýmit túnghan kónil-kýidi is jýzinde samoderjaviyening kýireui ornatty. Jer-jerden  Petrogradqa halyqtyng shat-shadyman ahualyn tújyrymdap alghys aitqan, shynayy azattyq, tendik, aghayyndyq ornauynan ýmittengen jedelhattar týsip jatty. Zertteushilerding izdenisterine qaraghanda, Sankt-Peterburgtegi Ortalyq memlekettik arhiv qorlarynda qúlaghan imperiyanyng týkpir-týkpirinde ótken jinalystardan, týrli qoghamdar men birlestikterden, әrtýrli halyqtar ókilderi men jeke adamdardan joldanghan myndaghan jedelhat bar. Qazaqtar mekendeytin alyp aumaqty da tolqytqan jalpygha birdey shattyq jayyn beyneleytin sonday jedelhattardyng birimen tanysyp kórelik...

1917 jylghy 5 sәuirde Petrogradtaghy ýsh adreske: Memlekettik duma Tóraghasyna, Ministrler Kenesi Tóraghasyna, Memlekettik duma Músylman fraksiyasynyng Tóraghasyna joldanghan jedelhatta bylay delingen:

«Týrkistan. Týrkistan qalasy men onyng tónireginen jinalghan qalyng qauymnyng jinalysynda shattana sóilengen sózderden keyin júrt birauyzdan:  býkil Reseydegidey, kýlli músylman halyqtarynyng shynayy qúrmeti men tolyq senimine ie halyq ókilderinen qúrylghan jana halyqtyq ýkimetke qarsy alu sәlemin jәne qúttyqtau joldaugha qauly etti. Qazirgi tandaghy  saltanatty tarihy sәt bizding jýregimizdi ashyq ta jarqyn bolashaghymyzgha degen senimge lyq toltyrdy, Reseyde aghymdaghy sәtte algha shygharylghan birlesuli halyq bostandyqtarynyng tezirek jýzege asyryluyn jәne eski ýkimet túsynda úly Reseyding ógey balasy sanalghan  músylmandar ýshin qoyylghan shekteulerding joyyluyn nәsip et dep Alla-Taghalagha  jalbarynamyz. Týrkistan ólkesinde, Qazaq dalasynda jәne Kavkazda bolghan oqighalar kezinde eski ýkimetting músylmandardyng jany men tәnine salghan jaraqattaryn jana ýkimetting jazyp-dúrystauyn zor ýmitpen sarghaya kýtemiz.  Býkil Resey tәrizdi bir ortaq tilekke birigip-qosylghan músylmandar jana ýkimetti qoldaugha bekem bel buyp otyr. Biz jana ýkimet mýshelerin, jasalghan ózgeristing barlyq qaharmandaryn jәne solar arqyly jana Reseydi  birauyzdan jәne quanyshpen qúttyqtaymyz. Janarghan, erkin, birtútas jәne teng qúqyqty Resey jasasyn! Músylman jinalysynyng uәkiletti tóraghasy Sadyq Ótegenov». («5/IV-1917. Petrograd. Try adresa: Predsedatelu Gosudarstvennoy dumy, Predsedatelu Soveta Ministrov, Predsedatelu musulimanskoy fraksiy Gosudarstvennoy dumy.

Turkestan. Mnogoludnoe sobranie goroda Turkestana y ego okrestnostey posle vostorjennyh rechey edinoglasno postanovilo priyvetstvovati y pozdraviti novoe narodnoe praviytelistvo, obrazovannoe iz narodnyh predstaviyteley, polizuyshihsya istinnym uvajeniyem y polnym doveriyem vsego musulimanstva, kak y vsey Rossii. Nastupivshiy torjestvennyy istoricheskiy moment napolnil nashy serdsa veroy v svetluy budushnosti, molim Vsevyshnego o nisposlaniy skoreyshego osushestvleniya narodnyh svobod obediynennoy v tekushiy moment Rossiy y otmeny organicheniy dlya musuliman, schitavshimsya pry starom praviytelistve pasynkamy velikoy Rossii. Tomim sebya nadejdoy, chto novoe praviytelistvo sgladit nanesennye starym praviytelistvom musulimanam rany pry sluchivshihsya sobytiyah v Turkestanskom krae, v kirgizskih stepyah y na Kavkaze. Musulimane, slivshisi v odno obshee jelaniye, kak y vsya Rossiya, prinimait reshimosti podderjivati novoe praviytelistvo. My edinoglasno y radostno priyvetstvuem chlenov novogo praviytelistva, y vseh geroev proisshedshey peremeny, y v liyse ih novui Rossii. Da zdravstvuet obnovlennaya, svobodnaya, edinaya y ravnopravnaya Rossiya!  Upolnomochennyy predsedateli musulimanskogo sobraniya Sadyk Utegenev»).

6.

Qazaq últ-azattyq qozghalysy maqsatty týrde qarqynday damydy. Barlyq qazaqtar mekendeytin oblystarda 1917 jylghy sәuir, mamyr ailarynda qazaq sezderi ótkizilip, qazaq atqaru komiytetteri saylandy. Shilde aiynda Orynborda  alghashqy jalpyqazaq sezi ótti. Jeltoqsandaghy II Jalpyqazaq sezinde Alash (Qazaq) avtonomiyasy, onyng ortalyq ýkimeti («Alash-Orda» Halyq Kenesi) saylandy. Resey imperiyasy 19-shy ghasyrda mýldem joyghan qazaq memlekettiligi osylay, 20-shy ghasyrda,  1917 jylghy 12 (25) jeltoqsanda qayta janghyrdy. Aldaghy uaqyttarda eldegi ózge últ ókilderin bauyryna tarta otyryp, birtútas qazaq últtyq memleketin jasap shyghu mindetin jýzege asyru kerek-túghyn. «Alash-Orda» Halyq Kenesindegi 25 portfeliding 10-yn orys jәne basqa últtar ókilderine berudi, yaghny Alash ýkimeti qúramynda qazaq halqynan 15 ministr jәne orys pen basqa últtar ókilderinen 10 ministr bolatynyn sezd arnayy atap kórsetken bolatyn.

Alayda Resey Respublikasynda әskery tónkeris jasap, biylikti qolyna alghan bolishevikter búrynghy imperiya aumaghyndaghy halyqtargha azattyq әkelemiz degen jalghandyqqa jaqyn úrandy jalaulatyp, búrynghy imperiyanyng últtyq birlikterge úiysqan synyqtaryn qyzylәsker kýshimen qayta jinastyrudy qolgha alghan-dy. Ol qúlaghan patshalyq imperiyanyng ornyna, is jýzinde, qatang ortalyqtandyrylghan janasha túrpatty sovettik imperiya qúrumen shúghyldanghan edi. Qoqanda shanyraq kótergen Týrkistan avtonomiyasy men onyng ýkimeti bolishevikter tarapynan 1918 jylghy aqpan aiynda qúlatyldy, qala qausatylyp, halqy qyrghyngha úshyratyldy. Qazaq ólkesin basqaru jónindegi әskeriy-revolusiyalyq komiytet 1920 jylghy 5 nauryzdaghy qaulysymen  «Alash-Orda» ýkimetin birjola joydy, Batys Alashorda basshylaryn Mәskeuge jiberip, olardy qazaq eline sovet ókimeti әbden ornyqqansha qaytarmau jayynda sheshim shyghardy.

Sovet ókimetining últtyq qúrylymdargha qarsy jasaghan búl әreketteri bolashaq sayasy repressiyalardyng basty sipatyn aiqyndady. Búl jayynda aldaghy uaqyttarda tolyghyraq әngimeleymiz.

Beybit Qoyshybaev,

jazushy, tarih ghylymdarynyng kandidaty, Repressiya
qúrbandaryn tolyq aqtau jónindegi memlekettik komissiya mýshesi.

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