Jeksenbi, 2 Qazan 2022
Bilgenge marjan 2178 3 pikir 15 Tamyz, 2022 saghat 11:42

Altyn Orda qalalary qanday bolghan?

Óz uaqytynda  Altyn Orda imperiyasynyn  qaramaghyna kiretin, sol kezendegi zaman talabyna say, jan-jaqty damyghan qalalar men eldimekender kóp bolghan. Jәne osy qalalargha kәdimgidey qúbyrlar arqyly auyz su tartylyp, túrghyndardyn  kýndelikti tagham dayyndauyna, sonday-aq, juynuyna jaghday jasalynghan.

Mysaly: V. Deminning «Tayny Evrazii» enbegin oqyp otyrghanda, mynanday sóilemderdi kezdestiresin: «... IYmenno eto znachenie v pervui ocheredi iymeet v turkskih yazykah slovo «orda» - ne  voysko ily tolpa, a «yrta» (pod chem ponimaetsya ne toliko odinochnaya yurta, no y seloe poseleniye).

Stranu pod nazvaniyem Zolotaya Orda do sih por chasteniko obiyavlyait etakim grandioznym kocheviem, skopiyshem «kochevyh» brodyag, kotorye nichem drugim ne zanimalisi, krome kak grabily korennye narody, a potom, svaliv vokrug yurt nagrablennoe dobro, s dikarskim prostodushiyem jarily koninu na bessennyh rukopisyah, otpravlyaly poetov y astronomov pasty stada, a zamlu polagaly ploskoy, kak doska...».

Biraq, osy keybir ghalymdar men jazushylardyng  jazghan derekteri shyndyqqa mýldem say kelmeydi. Óz kezinde, Altyn Orda imperiyasynyng el-júrty kóp jaghdayda, sol tústaghy Kәri qúrlyq túrghyndaryna qaraghanda, әlde qayda mәdeniyetti, sonymen qatar, túrmys-tirshilikti jenildetu ýshin kóptegen ózekti problemalardy sheshude oq boyy alda túrghan. Ony, orys ghalymy V.Demin bylay deydi:

«...Realinosti ne iymeet s etoy ubludochnoy kartinoy nichego obshego. Zolotaya Orda – strana gorodov. Arabskiy puteshestvennik Ibn – Battuta ostavil opisanie stolisy Saraya: «Gorod Saray odin iz krasiyveyshih gorodov, dostigshiy cherezvychaynoy velichiny, na rovnoy zemle, perepolnennyy ludimi, krasivymy bazaramy y shirokimy ulisami.

Soglasno segodnyashnim issledovaniyam, v Zolotoy Orde bylo do sotny torgovyh y remeslennyh gorodov. Potrebnosti v razvitiy arhiytektury, torgovli, nauk y iskusstv – vse eto vesima stranno dlya obraza «dikogo kochevnika», kotoromu podobnye potrebnosty sovershenno chujdy. No poskoliku evropeyskie istoriky ne lubyat vspominati o velichiy drevnih stepnyh kaganatov, nichuti ne ustupavshih evropeyskim stranam, to sploshi y ryadom popadaytsya kudryavye, logichesky protivorechivye frazy tipa: «Yarkaya urbanisticheskaya vostochnaya srednevekovaya kulitura, kulitura polevnyh chash y mozaichnyh panno na mechetyah, arabskih zvezdochetov, persidskih stihov y musulimanskoy uchenoy duhovnosti, tolkovateley Korana y matematikov – algebraistov». Eto – o zolotoordinskih gorodah».

Osy jazylghan jayttargha zerde salyp ýnilsek, orta ghasyrdyng ózinde-aq, kóshpeli elding (Kóshpeli deuge auzyng da barmaydy. Tegi, jaz - jaylau  men qys - qystaugha kóship qonghanymen, ata-babalarymyzdyng túrmys qajettiligin sheshetin, sauda-satyqpen ainalysatyn, óz ónimderin aparyp, saudagha salatyn, ózge de jaghdaylaryn sheshetin, kәdimgidey iyek artyp, arqa tútatyn, túrghyndary tyghyz qonystanghan  qalalary men ýlken eldimekenderi bolghan. Búl aidan anyq.) barar jeri men basar tauy bolghany talas tudyrmaydy.

V.Demin ózining júmystarynyng taghy bir arasynda mynanday mysaldardy keltiredi:  «...Sohranilosi nemalo sviydetelistv o tom, kak Ugedey (Ýkitay. Biz әr uaqytta Shynghys hannyng ózimen jәne onyng úldaryn  sonymen qatar,  nemerelerin  jәne Altyn Orda imperiyasynyng handaryn, qolbasshylaryn týrki tilinde jazugha tiyistimiz. Óz zamanynda , búlardy Europanyng sayahatshylary  men ghalymdary óz tiline jaqyndatyp, grammatikalyq qatelikterimen jazghan. Mysaly: Joshy – búl Jolshy, Ýgedey – Ýkitay, Hubilay – Qúbylay,  Hulagu – Qúbaghúl,  Batu – Batyl, Alguy – Alghyr taghy sol siyaqty. Tipti, Kenes ýkimetining túsynda da bizding de ata – tegimiz (familiya) әriptik qatelermen jazylatyn edi ghoy. Ony keyin, Tәuelsizdik alghan son, týzettik emes pe. Osyny esterinizde ústanyzdar. ) razdaval prosiytelyam y prosto bednym nemalye denigy iz gosudarstevnnoy kazny. Chinovniky ego kanselyariy chasteniko penyaly velikomu hanu na eto rastochiytelistvo – na chto on otvetil tak: «Te, kto v etom (nakopleniy sokroviysh) userdstvuet, liysheny razuma, tak kak mejdu zemley y zarytym kladom net raznisy – oba ony odinakovy v svoey bespoleznosti. Poskoliku, pry nastupleniy smertnogo chasa ( sokrovisha) ne prinosyat nikakoy polizy y s togo sveta vozvratitisya nevozmojno, to my svoy sokrovisha budem hraniti v serdsah, y vse to, chto v nalichnosty y chto prigotovleno, ily postupiyt, otdadim poddannym y nujdayshimsya, chtoby proslaviti dobroe imya». 

Kórdiniz be, sol zamannyng ózinde-aq, alystaghy ata-babalarymyz, jetim men jesirge, túrmysy әlsizder men qinalyp jýrgenderge kómek kórsetudi  jәne jaghdaylaryna qarasudy әrdayym esterinde ústaghan. Múny, olar qúrmetti, sonday-aq, sauapty júmysqa balaghan.

«... Mnogie iz detey y vnukov Chingishana vybraly religii v sootvetstviy so svoimy naklonnostyamiy: nekotorye prinyaly islam, drugie – hristianstvo ily staly idolopoklonnikami, nekotorye primknuly k starinnym verovaniyam svoih otsov y dedov... ony osteregalisi proyaviti hoti maleyshiy fanatizm y ne otklonyalisi ot zakonov Chingishana: umeti uvajati vse very y ne delati razlichiya mejdu nimiy».

Kәri qúrlyq elderi (Europa) múnday shydamdylyqqa jiyrmasynshy ghasyrdyng ayaghynda ghana keldi. Osyghan qarap, Úly dala adamdarynyng aitarlyqtay ústamdylyghy men tózimdiligin anyq kóruge bolady.

Endi bir aitpaghymyz, Euraziya kenistigin tútastay alyp jatqan Altyn Orda qaghanatyndaghy bilim men ghylymnyng qay dengeyde ekendigin kórsete keteyik. Ony, A.Bushkovtyng Úly qaghanat turaly jazghan enbeginen angharugha bolady: «... V stihah zolotoordynskogo poeta Sayfy – Saray (1321 – 1396) esti prelubopytneyshie strochki:

«Uznala lubvy prityajenie dusha,

Zemley vokrug Solnsa krujenie versha».

Za sto pyatidesyat let do Kopernika... To, chto Zemlya obrashaetsya vokrug Solnsa, predstaet ne kak oshelamiytelinaya nauchnaya sensasiya, a kak prohodnaya fraza, soderjashaya vsem izvestnye istiny...».

Marko Polonyng kitabin zerde salyp oqyghanda, sol kezende Europa әli paydalana qoymaghan, kómir jaghudyn, әdis-tәsili keninen sóz bolady.

«Pravda, chto vo vsey provinsiy kochevnikov esti sposob priymeneniya chernyh kamney: ety kamny dobyvayt v gorah, y ony goryat, ispuskaya plamya, kak poleniya: ony sgorayt polnostiu, kak drevesnyy ugoli. Ony dolgo goryat, y gotoviti na nih legche, chem na drevesiyne… potomu chto ony luchshe y stoyat menishe, chem drevesina, kotorui takim obrazom ekonomyat.

V Zolotoy Orde, kstati, nikakih mongolov net. Kuda ny glyani – povsudu turki, turky y eshe raz turki. Zolotaya Orda yavlyaetsya chisteyshim turkskim mirom».

Biz, sóz qylghan Altyn Orda imperiyasy shynymen de Úly daladaghy (әsirese, Deshti Qypshaq túrghyndarynyn) týrki júrtynyn, qaytalap aitamyz, tek qana týrki júrtynyng Úly qaghanaty bolghandyghyn týsinemiz (Búl imperiyalardy qúrugha : qazaq, qyrghyz, ózbek (ózbek bolyp jazylghan sart-tәjikter emes, osy elding qúramyndaghy, kezinde kóshpeli bolghan týrki taypalary), qaraqalpaq, týrkmenderding ata-babalary at salysqan). Keybir sóilemderde «tatarlar» dep jazylghanymen, ol qazirgi «tatarlargha» eshqanday qatysy joq. Olar, atam-zamannan kele jatqan Povoljielik Bulgarlar. Olardyng «tatar» ataluy, Altyn Orda imperiyasynyng túsandy emes, birneshe ghasyrdan keyin. Ivan Groznyidan bergi uaqytta aityla bastaghan. Altyn Ordany ózderine «tartyp»  jýrgendigi , ol imperiyanyng daqpyrtyna qyzyqqandyghy, kóralmastyghy. Qazirgi tatarlardyng da jәne mongholdardyng da Deshti Qypshaq azamattary túrghyzghan Úly da alyp imperiyalargha eshqanday qatysy joq. Ol, bos sóz. Europalyq sayahatshylar men saudagerlerdin   kezinde jibergen  qatelikteri.

Beysenghazy Úlyqbek,

Qazaqstan Jurnalister Odaghynyng mýshesi

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