Beysenbi, 29 Aqpan 2024
Bilgenge marjan 3240 5 pikir 20 Sәuir, 2023 saghat 14:52

Qazaq jer-su attarynyng shetel arhivterindegi ataulary

Jonghar Alatauy ma, әlde Ýisin Alatauy ma? Teke me, әlde Uralsk pe? Qyzyljar ma, Petropavl ma?

Qazaq jer-sularynyng kartalyq derektemeleri

Balqash kólining ontýstigindegi Alatau qazir Jonghar Alatauy (keyde Jetisu Alatauy) dep atalady. Tarihy kartalargha kóz jýgirteyik. 1728 jyly býkil qytaydy biylegen shýrshitting Yunchjen patshasynyng Euraziya kartasy baspadan shyqty. Karta shýrshit tilinde syzyldy. 1760 jyldary shýrshit (Mәnju) patshasy Syanilun fransuz kartograftarynyng kómegimen ózining әigili kartasyn baspadan shyghardy. Ol Yunchjen kartasyndaghy qazaq jerlerin kóshirip syzghannan bólek, qazaq jerining basqa jerlerin tolyqtap, kartagha engizdi. Biz ýshin manyzdysy – atalmysh eki kartadaghy qazaq dalasynyng jer-su attary edi. Balqash kólining janyna Alak alin degen tau syzylady. Alin shýrshit tilinde tau degen maghyna beredi. Alak – Alataudyng jongharsha nemese shýrshitshe aty edi. Óitkeni 1728 jyldary Jetisu әli de Jonghar handyghynyng biyleuinde bolatyn.

(Karta 1) 1728 jylghy shýrshitting Yunchjen kartasyndaghy Alatau

Klaprottyng 1836 jylghy Ortalyq Aziya kartasynda atalmysh tau Alatau dep ataldy, «Jetisu», «Jonghar» degen qúramy joq.

(Karta 2)

Odan erterektegi 1831 jylghy Levshin kartasynda Alatau «Ýisin Alatauy» dep ataldy. Levshin kartasynda Alataudyng kýngey jaghynda Sýiik Ablayhanovtyng jayylymdyq óniri kórsetilgen.

Aghylshyn jihankezi Atkinson [Thomas Witlam Atkinson (1799–1861)] 1847-1853 jj. aralyghynda qazaq dalasyn aralap shyghady. Onyng úly Alatau Tamshybúlaq Atkinson 1848 jyly 4 qarashada qazirgi Qapal jerindegi Tamshybúlaqta dýniyege kelgen. Ákesi oghan tughan jerining atymen Alatau Tamshybúlaq (1848-1906) dep at qoyady. Alatau Tamshybúlaqtyng úrpaqtary Alatau degen familiyasyn qazirge deyin qoldanyp keledi. Sondyqtan Jonghar Alatauynyng 18-19 ghasyrdaghy óz aty «Alatau» nemese «Ýisin Alatauy» bolghan.

Qazaqtar Sýiikti Sók Tóre dep te ataydy, aghylshyn derekterinde Súltan Souk, orys derekterinde Suyk degen atpen tanymal, Abylay hannyng úly, el aitqanday 52 jyl boyy jalayyr, shapyrashty rularyn basqarghan. Levshin kartasynda Sýiikting iyeligindegi jerlerde jalayyr, shapyrashty rulary kórsetilgen. Osy arada eskerte ketetin jәit, Ýisin Alatauy degen atau Sýiikke qarasty úly jýz ýisin ruynyng atynan shyqqan.

1825 jylghy orys arhiyvinde ýisinder turaly mynaday mәlimet kezdesedi: «Ýlken Ordadaghy (úly jýzdegi) qazaqtardy jalpy ýisinder dep ataghan. Olar bes rugha bólinedi: 1) Dulat, 2) Alban, 3) Jalayyr, 4) Shapyrashty, 5) Suan».

Sýiik Súltan jәne onyng otbasy

(Karta 3)

Levshin kartasynda Alataudyng kýngey jaghynda Sýiik Ablayhanovtyng jaylymdyq óniri. Atalghan kartalar qazaq tarihynan syr shertetin manyzdy kartalardyng az ghana bóligi bolyp tabylady. 18-19 ghasyrlardaghy basqa kartalardy tәptishtey qarasaq, múnan da kóp tarihy derekterdi kezdestiremiz. Búlar tek karta emes, qazaq handyghynyng tarihy shekarasynan mәlimet beretin birinshi qol materialdar bolyp tabylady.

19 ghasyrdyng orta sheninen keyin orys ghalymdary atalmysh taugha shartty týrde «jonghar» sózin qosyp, jana atau jasap shyqty.

Abylaydyng úly Sýiikting osy kartadan kezigui qazaqtyng memlekettik shekarasy tarihy ýshin qúndy material bolyp tabylady. Sýiikting әkesi Abylay hannyng ózi de 1766 jylghy Syanilun kartasynda atalady, onda Abylaygha qarasty el «Abylay qazaqtary» dep kórsetilgen.

(Karta 4)

Syanilun kartasyndaghy Abylay Qazaqtary

Handarymyzdyn, súltandarymyzdyng әlemdik kartalarda kezigui qazaq memlekettiligi jәne onyng shekarasy turaly qúndy derek bolyp tabylady. Eki kartada da qazaq handyghynyng shyghys shekarasy taygha tanba basqanday kórsetilgen.

19 ghasyrdaghy Europa jihankezderining enbekterinde qazaq jerindegi jer-su attary kóbinese qazaqsha ataular boyynsha ataldy. Mysaly, majar ghalymy, týrkitanushysy Arminiy Vambery ózining «Ortalyq Aziyagha Sayahat» atty enbeginde Petropavldy «Qyzyljar» dep ataydy. Áygili ghalym Zәky Uәlididding 1942 jyly syzghan Týrik eli kartasynda Qazaqstannyng soltýstigindegi qalalar týgel qazaqsha atymen kórsetilgen: Qyzyl-yar (Petropavlovsk), Ombi (Omsk), Talqala (Orsk), Teke (Uralsk), Üyšik (Guryev), Yedi-tam (Alash Orda. Semipalatansk). Áriyne, Zәky Uәlidy múny oidan qúrastyrghan joq, qazaqsha atauyn tarihy derektermen qosa, sol kezde qazaqtardyng óz atauy boyynsha alghany anyq. Qazirgi Atyrau qalasynyng tarihtaghy qazaqsha aty Ýishik, ol «kishkene ýi» degen maghyna bermeydi, kóne týrkilik úsh+yq sózinen qúralghan: úsh birdenening úshy, ózenning úshy, yq-júrnaq. Osydan orystyng uchug sózi shyqty. Atalmysh sózding maghynasy «ózenning tómengi jaghyn buyp, balyq ústaytyn jer», nemese «ózenning úshyn buyp, balyq ústaytyn jer». Ýishikte ejelden balyq ústaytyn osynday jer bolghan.

(Karta 5)

Zәky Uәlididding 1942 jyly syzghan Týrik eli kartasyndaghy qazaq qalalary.

Jer atynda tarih hattalghan. Osy atalghan qazaqsha jer attary 1766 jylghy Syanilun patshanyng shýrshitshe kartasynda da kezigedi.

Jeti-Tam qazirgi Semeyding qazaqsha aty. Orys derekterinde Semi palat toponiymi XVIII ghasyrdyng basynda payda boldy. 1718 jyly orys soldattary Semi palat qamalyn saldy. Qamaldyng aty sol jerdegi dini qúrylystyng atymen ataldy. Mihayl Fedorovich patshanyng Týmen gubernatoryna 1616 jylghy jarghysynda búl monastyri Tas meshit degen atpen atalady. Tarihy әdebiyetter men kartalarda ony Dorjihit (Dorjy monastyri) dep te ataydy. Mysaly, Filipp Yohan fon Shtralenberg (1676–1747) kartasynda Semeyding oryssha aty (Semy Palat) men jongharsha aty (Tarhan Djurchy Zumee) atalady. Osy aradaghy Tarhan Djurchy budda lamasynyng aty, Zumee jongharsha sýme nemese monastyr degen maghynada.

Semey (oryssha Semiy-ding qazaqsha dybystaluy) óz atauyn osy hitting (búthananyn) aman qalghan jeti ghimaratynan aldy. Jeti-Tam atauy Semy Palat atauymen qatar shyqsa kerek. Qazaqtyng jer-su attary tarihynda qos tildi nemese ýsh tildi jer aty qatar ómir sýrdi. Mysaly, Klaprottyng 1836 jylghy kartasynda Taldyqorghannyng shyghysyndaghy Aqsu ózeni Saghan-usu nemese Aqsu dep kórsetildi. Jongharsha-Qazaqsha bir maghyna beretin ózen aty. Áriyne, Jeti-Tam atauy da osy zandylyqqa sәikesedi.

Abramov N.A. Oblastnoy gorod Semipalatinsk. — Zapisky Russkogo geograficheskogo obshestva po otdel. etnografii. Kniga I. Spb, 1861, 115, 116, 117.

(Karta 6)

1730 jylghy Shtrahlenberg kartasyndaghy Semey.

(Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University)

Atalmysh maqala avtordyng myna monografiyasy boyynsha qysqartylyp jazyldy: Nurlan Kenzheakhmet. European-Chinese Imperial Maps and Gazetteers Related to the Kazakh (Qazaq) Khanate and Its Adjacent Regions from the 16th to the 19th Centuries. OSTASIEN Verlag, 2023.

Opisanie rodov Starshego juza 1825 g. Kazahsko-Russkie Otnosheniya v XVIII-XIX vekah (1771-1867 gody).

Atkinson Thomas Witlam. Oriental and Western Siberia: A Narrative of Seven Years' Explorations and Adventures in Siberia, Mongolia, the Kirghis Steppes, Chinese Tartary and Part of Central Asia. Hurst and Blackett, Publishers (London), 1858.

Vámbéry Arminius. Travels in Central Asia. New York, 1865, 438.

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