Dýisenbi, 22 Shilde 2024
Ádebiyet 2249 4 pikir 2 Tamyz, 2023 saghat 13:04

Biz – qazaq ejelden... (jalghasy)

Basy: Biz – qazaq ejelden...

Jalghasy: Biz – qazaq ejelden...

Jalghasy: Biz – qazaq ejelden...

Jalghasy: Biz – qazaq ejelden...

Jalghasy: Biz – qazaq ejelden...

Ózindi-ózing tanu tәjiriybesinen

20.

VIII ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Shapyrashtynyn, Matay–Qazybek bek shejiresi boyynsha, – tórt balasy bolghan. Olardyng esimderi – Ystyq, Qystyq, Abaq, Sayaq. Al «qazirgi Shapyrashty atyn alyp, bórili bayraq astyna shoghylyp tu kóteretinder – bir ghana úl Ystyq túqymy»[1].

Búl kezde Jetisu Batys týrki qaghanatyna qaraytyn. Qaghanat ejelgi ýisin jerlerin – Qarataudyng shyghys baurayynan Jonghariyagha deyingi aumaqty alyp jatty. Ortalyghy – qaghanattyng astanasy jәne qaghannyng qysqy ordasy – Jetisudaghy Shu angharyna salynghan Suyab qalasy edi. Ekonomikasy kóshpendi mal sharuashylyghy men otyryqshy-jer óndeushilik kәsipke negizdeldi. Qalalarda túratyn soghdy jәne týrki halyqtary saudamen de, qolónermen de, eginshi-dihandyqpen de shúghyldandy. Qala men dala qaghanattyng birtútas sharuashylyq-sayasy organizmining birin-biri tolyqtyryp túratyn jәne ózara baylanysqa múqtaj bólikteri boldy. Ishki-syrtqy sauda aiyrbasy  aqsha ainalymynyng payda boluyna әkeldi. Búl ainalysqa shyghys qaghanat týrkileri de, ózge elder de tartyldy.

Batys týrki qaghanatynyng basshysy shyghys týrki qaghanyna tәueldi dep sanalatyn. Shyghystyq qaghan batystaghy әriptesinin  taqqa otyruyna óz kelisimin beretin, bermey de qoyy mýmkin delinetin. Biraq, is jýzinde shyghys týrki qaghanaty batys qaghanatyna  talay ret baghynyshtylyq jaghdayda boldy.

Batystýrkilik qaghan memleketting ishki jәne syrtqy sayasatyna basshylyq etken. Rubasylaryn taghayyndau da qaghan qúzyryndaghy mindet bolghan. Ol tek jogharghy әmirshi ghana emes, sonymen qatar, qaghanattyng barlyq jerin menshiktegen qojayyn da bolghan tәrizdi.

Dәuletining osal bolmaghanyn sol zamanghy jazbalardan andaugha bolady. Mәselen, qaghan men onyng manyndaghylardyng baylyghy haqynda Batys týrik qaghanatynyng biyleushisi Yabghu-qaghannyng ordasyna kelip qaytqan budda monahy Suani Szaninyng jazghandary (VII gh.) edәuir qyzyqty maghlúmat beredi. (Múny zertteushi Yu. Zuev «Suyab turaly qytay habarlary» degen maqalasynda keltirgen).  Sayahatshy monah qaghandy ang aulap jýrgeninde kezdestirgen eken. Sonda ol anshylardyng kiygen  kiyimderining sәn-saltanatyna tan-tamasha qalady: «Qaghan jasyl jibekten tigilgen shapan kiygen. Onyng qasyna eki jýzden astam tarqan erip jýr, olardyng ýstinde – zerli matadan tigilgen shapan, shashtaryn búrymdap órip qoyghan. Qalghan jauyngerleri ang terisimen astarlanghan kiyimder men júmsaq bórikter kiygen, qoldaryna aibalta, sadaq pen jalaular ústaghan. Mingen attary ghajap, shetinen  sәigýlik. Týie men at minip kele jatqan adamdardyng kóptigi sonsha, bәrin qamtugha kózing jetpeydi». Al qaghannyng kiyiz ýiining barsha bólshegining altynmen aptalyp,  bezendiriluining ghajaptyghy sonshalyq, samsaghan sary altyn qaraghan adamnyng kózin búldyratyp jiberedi[2].

Jetisu jerindegi batys-týrik memleketinde qaghannan keyingi lauazymy biyik ekinshi adamdy «úlyq» degen. Odan tómengi yabghu, shad jәne elteber dep atalatyn jogharghy lauazymdardy  qaghan ruynyng adamdary iyelengen. Olardy qaghan vassal taypalardy basqarugha  qoyghan. Búryqtar men tarqandar sot funksiyalaryn atqardy. Al ru-taypalardyng rubasylary men kórnekti ókilderine bek lauazymy berildi. Olar jergilikti jerlerdegi aqsýiekter sosloviyesining basty tiregi bolghan.

Solarmen qatar, qaghanatta taghy  ýi-qaghan degen lauazym boldy. Onyn  dәrejesi derek kózderinde yabghudan tómen dep sipattalady. Sonday-aq, bir shanyraqta túratyn bir atadan taraghan kóp adam da ózderining ýlken otaghasyn ýi-qaghan, yaghny týrki qauymynyng týsiniginde – ýidin, әuletting qaghany dep atalghan.

Qalyng búqarany, yaghny qara halyqty  mal ósiretin erikti úsaq qauym mýsheleri qúraghan. Olar әleumettik túrghydan qaraghanda aqsýiekterge jәne  olargha baghynyshtylardan túrghan.

Baghynyshty taypalar men qatardaghy kóshpendi kópshilikke  jýktelgen basty mindettilikterding biri – «qan salyghy» dep atalghan әskery borysh bolghany mәlim. Búl boryshtylyq boyynsha, vassal taypalardyng barlyq erkek kindikti jauyngerleri jogharghy biylikke ie taypa (suzeren-taypa) armiyasynyng qúramyna kiredi. Soghystyng negizgi auyrtpalyghy, demek, eng kóp adam shyghyny osy baghynyshty taypalardyng moynyna týsken di. Búl taypalardy keyde «arnayy shaqyrylghan bógdeler (gostevye)» dep ataghan,  sondyqtan da olardy soghys  operasiyalary kezinde «nayzalar» retinde paydalanghan, yaghny avangardqa, ylghy alghy shepke shygharyp otyrghan.  Búl әdet qaghanat auqymynda jappay taralghan eken.

Al alym-salyq tóleu, әriyne, baghynyshtylyqtyn  basty belgisi-tin. Onyng ýstine, qaghanatta «qúl» degen top qalyptasty. Oghan soghysta baghyndyrylghan taypalar men tútqyngha alynghandar kirdi. Ayta ketu kerek, ejelgi týrkiler «qúl» degen termindi býgingi úghymda qoldanghan joq. Ol zamanda suzeren-taypagha  mal terisi, ang terisi jәne basqa da mýlikter týrinde salyq tólep túratyn vassal-taypalardy «qúl-taypalar», «qúldar» dep bilgen.

Týrkilerding kórshi taypalardy shabudaghy maqsattarynyng biri qúl alu bolghan. Ári, kóbinese, kishkentay  er jәne qyz balalardy ústap alugha tyrysqan. Mysaly, týrkilik Bahadýr-qaghannyng 620 jylghy bir joryqta  birneshe myng qyzbalany tútqyndaghany belgili. Qytaylyq avtor Ma Chan-shoudyng «Týrkiler jәne Týrki qaghanaty» degen enbeginde joryq kezinde qolgha týsirilgen erbalalar men qyzbalalardyn, asyl tastar men jibek matalardyng qaghan menshigine ótetini aitylghan. Taghy bir qytay avtory týrki Bilge-qaghannyng basmyldardy qalay jengenin  bayanday otyryp,  basmyldardyng balalary men qyzdaryn tútqyngha týsirip alyp qaytqanyn habarlaydy.

Derekkózderden múnday mәlimetterdi jii keziktiruge bolady. Tútqyn balalardy ýlken otbastary kóp qauymda әdette bala qylyp asyrap alghan da, sharuashylyqqa paydalanghan. Búdan ýide, otbasynda qúldyq enbek qoldanylghany bayqalady.

Qaghanatta, әriyne, qúldyqtyng basqa týrleri de jeterlik-tin, aitalyq, qolónershiler, qala salushylar, basqa da kәsipshiler qatarynda qúldar da jii enbek etetin.

Bilge-qaghan eskertkishining mәtinindegi bekterge jәne halyqqa arnalghan ýndeude: «... mening shyn jýrekten shyqqan sózimdi sender (bәrin) osy (eskertkishke) qaray túryp, on jebe úldaryna jәne olardyng tattaryna jetkizinder!»[3],  degen joldar bar. Ejelgi týrki jazularyn tereng zerttegen S. Klyashtornyidyng payymyna jýginsek, múnda  tattar dep Jetisu aumaghyndaghy batys qaghanat týrkilerine tәueldi otyryqshy qonystar men qalalardyng soghdy tildes túrghyndary aitylatyn boluy kerek. Olar týrki qaghandaryna baghynyshty jaghdayda, saudamen de, auyl sharuashylyghymen de shúghyldanghan bolatyn.

Osynau Jetisu jeri kiretin batys-týrkilik memleketting ishinde әleumettik-ekonomikalyq jәne sayasy qatynastar ala-qúla boldy. Taypalar arasyndaghy, biyleushi toptar ishindegi  ýstemdik etu jәne baghynyshty bolu týrleri de san-aluan sipatta edi. osy jaghdayattar qaghanattaghy ózara tartystardy ýdetti. Onyng ýstine, qytay imperatorlyq әuleti Jetisuda óz gegemoniyasyn ornatugha tyrysyp, әlsin-әlsin әskeriy-sayasy aksiyalar jýrgizip túrdy. Osynyng bәri qosyla kele, eldegi qaghan biyligining әlsireuine soqty. Tipti birte-birte, qaghannyng biyleushi, әmirshi retinde tek aty ghana qaldy.

Derekterge qaraghanda, osynday ahualdaghy eldi «On jebe» birlestigining qúramyna kirgen taypalar qaghanat atynan emes, óz betterinshe derbes qimyldaudy jiyiletti. Qaghanat әmirshisining tuyn emes, jiyi-jii óz tuyn kóterip, qily is-әreket jasap jýrdi.  Mәselen, VII ghasyrdyng sonynda qaghanat taghyna otyrghan Ashina shyghysta qytay әskerine qarsylyq kórsetudi bastap jýrgen kezde, azghyr Núzúq-Erkin, týrgesh Chyqan jәne úlyq-oq taypasynyng basshysy Jetisudyng óz ishinde qaghanat bekinisterining birin qorshaugha alu isin úiymdastyrghan. Búdan keyin Huselo qaghan, aimaqtyng halqyn tynyshtandyru ýshin, týrkilerden armiya qúrghan.  Alayda ol joryqqa әzirlenip jatqan kezde-aq qashyp ketuge mәjbýr bolady. Óitkeni sol shaqta qaghanatta quatty jana kýsh payda bolghan-dy. Búl kýsh – lauazymy Bagha-tarhan (móge-daghan) dep atalatyn Ýshlik (Uchjile) bastaghan týrgeshter edi.

Týrgeshterding kýsh aluy kýtpegen jaghday emes-tin. Sany kóp týrgeshter VI ghasyrdyng ózinde-aq qaghanattyng sol qanatynda, Shu-Ile ózenaralyghyndaghy ýlken aumaqty alyp jatqan-dy. Huselo handy  jengenge deyin Ýshlik óz jerinde әrqaysysyna 7 myng adamnan kiretin 20 týtiktik qúrghan-dy. Olar Jetisudaghy keruen joldarynyng kóp bóligin baqylauynda ústaytyn. Týrgeshterding yqpaly birte-birte kýsheye berdi. Olardyng qolastyna kirgen taypalar sany da kóbeydi. Aqyry, Ýshlik Shu ózenining soltýstik-batysyndaghy  óz ordasyn Suyabqa kóshirip, Ýlken orda dep atady. Al onyng Kishi ordasy Ile ózeni angharynda, sonda túratyn kýngit taypasymen attas Kýngit qalasynda boldy.  Mahmúd Qashqaridyng jazuyna qaraghanda, kýngitter búl jerdi HI jýzjyldyqta da mekendegen.

Ólkede ýstemdikke ie bolu jolyndaghy kýres barysynda Ile týrgeshteri shyghys týrkilerimen әskery odaq qúrdy. IIIu týrgeshteri (sary-týrgeshter) ózderining bәsekelesteri bolyp tabylatyn qara-týrgeshterden qatty jeniliske úshyrap, gegemondyqqa jetken  qara-týrgeshter óz ordasyn Talasqa kóshirdi. Birlestiktegi shapysh (chebishi) taypasynyng ókili Súlúqty (Súlu) qaghan taghyna kóterdi.

Sol shaqta Týrgesh qaghanaty әleumettik ózgeristerdi bastan keshken. «Jana Tani tarihy» («Sini Tanshu») kórsetkendey, búl kezde aqsýiekterding shyghyn-shyghystary kýn sayyn arta týsti. Al jinalghan qor bolmady. Soghan baylanysty qaghan keyingi jyldary eleuli tapshylyq sezindi de, shapqynshylyqtarda tonap әkelingen  oljany bóliske salmay, birtindep ózinde qaldyrdy. Sonda onyng baghynyshtylary da odan bólinip kete bastady. Osynday ahualda tughan dau-janjal, kiykiljinder qara-týrgeshter men sary-týrgeshterding basqarushy toptary arasyndaghy kýreske úlasty.

Súlyq-qaghan dýnie salysymen (738 j.) búl kýres mýldem qatty  shiyelenisti. «Sini Tanshu» Týrgesh qaghanatynda sary rular (sary-týrgesh) dep atalatyn Sógening (Saqaldyn) úrpaqtary men  qara rular (qara-týrgesh) dep atalatyn Súlu (Súlúq) úlysy birimen-biri jaulasqanyn, birine-biri senbegenin aitady. Jaulasu men senbeushilik sony qaghanatty ordalaryn Talas jәne Suyabta úmtaghan qara-týrgeshter men sary-týrgeshter iyelikterine bólinuge apardy.  Alayda VIII ghasyrdyng 40-jyldarynan bastap búl bólinis te is jýzinde saqtalmady.

Atalghan «Jana Tani tarihy» shejiresinde, sonday-aq, osy kiykiljinderding oryn alu sebebi haqynan syr beretindey derekter keltirilgen. Mәselen, týrgesh shonjary shýmeken Bekan-Kýlýg-shora (Fu-Yani-Suelu-cho) jazghan bir hatta: «Biz en jazirada, birine-biri tarpa bas salyp, shabuyl jasap, keskilesip jatatyn, tolqyp túru qanyna singen elde tudyq», – degen joldar bar. Kóshpendi taypalardyng bytyranqy boluynyng bir sebebi, bәlkim, sonda da shyghar, qalay bolghanda da, olar qytay shabuylyna 751 jyly tek syrtqy kýshterding kómegimen ghana toytarys bere aldy. Al 756 jyly olardyng qaghanaty týrki tildi qarlúq taypasynyng tegeurinine shydamay, qúlady[4]. Búl aitylghandardyng bәri Ontýstik Qazaqstan men Jetisudyng negizgi mekendeushileri ýisin birlestigi taypalarynyn, sonyng ishinde shapyrashtylardyng da qatysuymen ótkenine kýmәn bolmasa kerek, tek, ol zamanda jetekshi ról atalghan jauynger taypalargha tiygen...

Qazybek bektin  estelik jazbalarynan Jetisu men ontýstik Qazaqstan ónirinde biri óship, endi biri damyp jatqan ertedegi ortaghasyrlyq memleketter jayynan jogharyda keltirilgen ghylymy tarih derekterin  aiqyn ajyratyp angharu qiyn. Biraq onda qazaqtyng bir taypasynyng ejelgi zamannan ýzilmey jalghanyp kele jatqan úrpaqtyq shejiresi bar. Soghan qaraghanda,  ózge týrki taypalary qatarynda ýisin-shapyrashtylardyng da Jetisudaghy әr kezende әrtýrli atalyp birin-biri almastyryp jatqan memlekettik birlestikterding qúramynda  jýrgeni anyq.

Shejireshi ózining biz kóbirek kónil bólip qarastyryp kele jatqan jazbalarynda  Shapyrashty-Ystyqtyng qonysy Barsyghan kóli bolghanyn aitady. Barsyghan kólining keyin Ystyq ataluyn sol  Ýisin-Shapyrashtynyng ýlken úly Ystyqtyng nyspysymen baylanystyrady. Áuelde Shapy-rashtynyng ýlken balasy  qonystanghan ónir Ystyq jaylauy, Ystyq qystauy dep atalyp jýrse kerek. Bara-bara, Barsyghan kólin de Ystyq kóli dep atay bastaghan kórinedi. «Ystyq kól jaghasynda Ystyq ata atalatyn búryn arasan da bolatyn. Qazirgi shabynshylyq zamanda, endi onda qyrghyzdar kiyaulap, arystaghan zamanda onday esimning qalghan-qalmaghanyn bilmedim», – deydi Qazybek bek[5].

Qyrghyzdardyng Ystyqkól jaghalaularynda, jalpy Tyan-Shyanida H ghasyrdan bastap mekendegeni mәlim[6].  Col sebepti, shejireshi Qazybek bek jazbalaryn qaghazgha týsirip otyrghan HVIII ghasyrda kóp ataudyng búrynghy qalpyn saqtamauy bek mýmkin ekeni týsinikti ghoy. Ol Ystyq pen odan taraghan balalar jayyn әngimelemes búryn onyng ýsh bauyry haqynda sóz qozghaghandy jón dep tabady. «Múny men aitpasam, basqa eshkim de aita almaydy jәne oqighanyng qalay bolghanyn, búl oqighanyng Ystyq kólge qyrghyzdardyng qalay qonys tebuine de qatysy bar ekenin júrt ta, tauarihtyng tamyryn basushylar da bile almaq emes. Óitkeni búl – óte nәzik, tuysqandyqpen astasyp jatqan jay», – deydi shejireshi. Osy jerde Shәkәrimnin: «Bizding qazaqtyng nәsili qyrghyzdan», – eskertpesin eske ala ketu jón tәrizdi. Ol ózining әigili shejiresinde qyrghyzdardyng Eniysey ózeninde túrghanyn, Ýisinning sol túqymnan ekenin jazghan[7].

Shynynda da, Qazybek bek zamanyndaghy Shapyrashtylar jalghyz Ystyq úrpaghy bolsa, basqasy – jogharyda atalghan ýsh úl (Qystyq, Abaq, Sayaq) úrpaqtary qayda jýr eken degen saualdyng tuyndaryna dau joq.   Álde olar da qily shapqynshylyq zamanynyng qúrbany bolyp kete bardy ma eken? Búl saualgha Qazybek bek joq dep kelte jauap qayyrugha bolatynyn eskertedi. Sosyn tómendegi jaghdayattardy bayan qylady...

Shapyrashtynyng Qystyq esimdi ekinshi balasyn «Ýisinning tauariyhqa mәlim bii Elsaudyng Alban degen nemeresining túqymy, yaky Shapyrashtynyng qayyn atasy Qas degen kisi asyrap alypty». Óitkeni Shapyrashtynyng toqaly Kýnim jastay dýnie salghan eken. Sonda qayyn atasy: «Qyzymnyng kózindey kórip jýreyin, maghan osy úlyndy qiy», – dep súraghan kórinedi. Atasynyng kónilin qimaghandyqtan, Shapyrashty oghan balasy Qystyqty beripti.

Sóitip, biraz uaqyt óte kele, Qystyqtan taraghan túqym ózining Qastyng balasy emes, jiyeni ekenin, Qystyqtyng әkesi Qas emes, Shapyrashty ekenin bilse kerek. Bilgen. Biraq ózderin «Qas balasymyz», «Qastyng әkesi Alban (Elsau nemeresi)» dep jýre beredi. Ol da kezinde qazirgi Shapyrashtynyng ýlken balasy,  Qystyqtyng aghasy Ystyq túqymy siyaqty kóp el bolghan tәrizdi.

Sodan bir soghys Qas elining ýstinen ótedi de, qystyqtardy tym kýizeltip jiberedi.  Olar sol soghys saldarynan tym azayyp qalghan eken.

Keyin, arada 900–1000 jyl ótken son, Qastyng túqymy esepteletin júrt Bәidibekting nemeresi Albangha kelip qosylghan deydi shejire. Osy eki Albannyng arasynda 900–1000 jyl ótkenine qaramastan, «Alban nemeresimiz» dep kete bergen. «Bir qyzyghy, – deydi Qazybek bek, – býgingi Qystyqtardan osy jaydy súray qalsan, ózderining Albangha jiyen ekenin aitady, onyng ýstine býgingi Albangha on shaqty atadan qosyla salady. Al, shynynda, asyrap alghan Qas degen kisiden beri de eger ne Shapyrashty, ne Dulat, ne Albanmen (býgingi) eseptesek, arasynda 26–27 ata bar eken. Qystyqtyng Aq, Qara degen eki balasy bolghan, qazirgi Qystyq – osy eki úl úrpaghy. ...Sonymen, Shapyrashtynyng bir balasy Qystyq býginde Alban bolyp jýr. Múny tauarih ýshin jazbasqa bolmaydy».

Shejireshi Shapyrashtynyng Abaq esimdi ýshinshi úlynyng aty   Aqsaqaldan (Saqaldyng Aq degen úlynan) taraghan Saryýisin, Shapyrashty, Ysty, Oshaqty, Alban, Suan, Dulat syndy birneshe rudyng tanbasyna (Qazybek bek, nege ekenin, «tamgha» dep jazady) ainalghanyn aitady.  Odan, Shapyrashtynyng tórtinshi úly Sayaq jónindegi әngimesinde: «Abaq pen Sayaq bizding sheshemiz Gýnәiimnen egiz tughan, – degen sózdermen qyzyqty derek aitady. – Bireudi bireu bilip bolmaytyn shabynshylyqta, Ýisin tauynda bolghan úrystyng birinde toghyz jasar eki úl da joq bolyp ketken. Soghys torghauyttarmen, oirattarmen bolghan»[8].

Qyzyq derek deytinimiz – Shapyrashtynyng VIII ghasyrda ómir sýrgenin eske alsaq, ghylymy tarihtan  ol zamanda Jetisudy qarlúqtar memleketining biylep túrghanyn bile alamyz. Jәne onda Jetisugha sol shaqta monghol taypalary soghys asha keldi degen mәlimet kezikpeydi[9]. Bәlkim, shejireshi basqa soghysty aityp otyrghan bolar.

Shejireshining aityp otyrghany shynynda da basqa soghys jәne elimizding resmy irgeli ghylymy tarihynda tirkele qoymaghan joyqyn soghys bolugha kerek. Qazybek bek ony shejirege tәn auqymmen: «Qazaq – Arystan taraghan bes úldyng tórteuining úrpaghy, Bek balasynan basqasy tegis qatysqan qyrghyn bolghan», – dep beyneleydi. Shamamen sol qyrghynnyng bolghan uaqytyn da menzeydi: «Shapyrashtynyng kishi sheshesi Qarashashtyng ol kezde әli bar shaghy eken». Demek, atalmysh soghys VIII ghasyrdyng sonynda, әlde IH ghasyrdyng bas shaghynda Jetisu aumaghy da kirgen ortaghasyrlyq memleketter túsynda[10] oryn alghan bolar.

Uaqyt jaghynan qaraghanda, aumaghyna Jetisu ólkesin qamty otyryp birin-biri almastyrghan  Týrki qaghanaty, Batys týrki qaghanaty, Týrgesh qaghanatynan keyin, biylikke qarlúqtar keldi. Olar әuelde Batys Altay men Tarbaghatay arasyn mekendegen bolatyn. Qarlúq birlestigining taypalary VIII ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda týrgeshterdi baghyndyryp, Jetisugha jetken de, osynda qonystanghan-dy. Sóitip, osy Jetisu ónirinde, qarlúq birlestigine kirgen taypalar sayasy túrghyda birigip qalyptasty. Mahmúd Qashqariyding «Diuany lúghat-at-týrik» atty enbegine qaraghanda[11], qarlúqtardyng birlestigine týrki tildes kóshpendi jәne jartylay kóshpendi týrli taypalar (tuhsi, shigil, azkishi, halaj, sharuh, argu, barshan)  engen. Syr boyyna kóshpey qalghan oghyzdardyng key toptary da Jetisu aumaghynda qalyp, solardyng yqpalynda boldy. Úighyrlardyng bir bóligi men týrkilengen, týrkilerding әdetteri men ghúryptaryn  iygergen soghdylar da qarlúq birlestigin qúrady.

VIII–X ghasyrlarda qarlúqtar Qazaqstan aumaghynda Jonghar Alatauynan Syrdariyanyng ortanghy aghysyna deyingi aumaqta ornalasty. Balqash pen Ystyqkól arasyn, Ystyqkólding ainalasyn, Tyani-Shani bókterin, Ile, Shu, Talas ózenderi angharlaryn, Tarazdyng shyghys jaghyn da (Qúlan, Merki qalalaryn) mekendedi. Olardyng shigil taypasy  Ystyqkól tóniregin, Ystyqkól oiysyn mekendedi. Bartolid Gardiziydin: «Ystyqkólding ainalasyna týgel jikilder ornyqqan», – degen maghlúmatyn keltiredi[12].  Jikil de qarlúq birlestigining bir taypasy.

Ibn Haukali ózining «Kitab әl-masaliyk  va-l-mamaliyk» degen enbeginde qarlúqtardyng jerimen batystan shyghysqa qaray jýrip ótu ýshin 30 kýn boyy jol ýstinde bolghanyn,  al Ábu Dulaf 25 kýn jýrgenin jazghan[13].

Bayqalyp túrghanday, qúrlúqtar konfederasiyasy alyp jatqan aumaq jetkilikti dәrejede ýlken bolghan. Ýisin-Shapyrashty taypalary qarlúqtardyng Jetisuda ornatqan sayasy qúrylymynda eleuli oryn almaghan boluy mýmkin, biraq, Qazybek bekting jazbalaryna qaraghanda, sol shaqtaghy iri oqighalar olardy da ainalyp ótpegen.

«Týp-túqiyannan ózime sheyin» jazbasynyng avtory әngimeleytin geografiyalyq aumaqtyng kendigi de oilandyrady. Shejirege qaraghanda, әlgi «joyqyn soghysta»  Shapyrashtynyng kishi sheshesi Qarashash «baqqan balalarynan aiyrylyp qalyp» qolgha týsedi. Sodan «kempir eki kýnnen keyin Ertis bәnәgitining arghy betinen qashyp kelgen». Búl jerde «Ertis bәnәgitining arghy betinen» degen tirkestegi degendi  «bәnәgit» – «ózen» úghymyn beretin tәrizdi. Bәlkim, dúrys maghynasy basqa da shyghar. Qalay bolghanda da, «...jasy kelgen әiel eshkimge kereksiz de bolghan bolar»,  jau arasynan aman-esen sytylyp ketedi. Sodan «...әiteuir, Oshaqtynyn, Jauatardyng balalary aman qalghan»[14].

Jazbada basqalay andatar derek joq bolghandyqtan, onda aitylghan «joyqyn soghystyn» qay soghys ekenin shamalau qiyndau. Jalpy, qarlúqtardyng biyleushilerge alghash qarsy shyghyp, әskery joryqtar úiymdastyruy VIII ghasyrda, Mongholiyada qúrylghan Ekinshi Shyghys týrki qaghanatyna tәueldiligi kezinde bastaldy.  742 jyly Mongholiya dalalaryndaghy sayasy ýstemdik qarlúq, úighyr, basmyl taypalarynyng qolyna ótti. 714 jyly  qarlúqtar men úighyrlar kýshterin bipiktirip, basmyldardy talqandady. 745 jyly týrki tildi taypalardyng jana memlekettik qúrylymy retinde Úighyr qaghanaty shanyraq kóterdi. Qarlúq biyleushileri (yabghu, jabghu) derbestikke úmtyldy, nәtiyjesinde olar Úighyr qaghanatynan bólinip ketti[15].

Ózining «Týrik, qyrghyz-qazaq hәm handar shejiresi» atty enbeginde Shәkәrim Qúdayberdiúly biz tilge tiyek etken mezgilge de toqtala ketken. Ol әueli Selengede úighyrlardyng tele taby, týrkilerding Merkit, Uranhay, Topa degen elderi,  Uranhaydyng kýnbatysy Guman degen taudyng sol jaq túsynda qyrghyz bolghanyn aitady. «Osy aitylghan halyqtyng sonda jýrgeni Ghaysa payghambardan búrynghy (yaghny b.z.d. – B.Q.) 201 jyldan 49 jylgha sheyin qyrghyzdyng ong tús-kýnbatysynda Qara Ertiske qarlyq (qarlúq – B.Q.) degen týrikter (týrkiler – B.Q.) kóship jýrdi», – dey kele, odan әri «Altaydan shyqqan týrikting eng songhy shyqqany osy Sharyshtyng basqy bir tarauy Qarlyq ózeninen» ekenin aityp, qarlúqtardyng bastapqy mekeni qayda bolghanynan maghlúmat beredi.

Týrki qaghanaty, Shyghys jәne Batys týrki qaghanattary men olardyng shekaralary, halyqtary jóninde óz zamanyndaghy mýmkin bolghan derekkózderdin, ghylymy enbekterding kóbimen tanysqan Shәkәrim  bylay deydi: «Týrik patshalyghy әbden úlghayyp, eki bólinip, kýnshyghys, kýnbatys atanghanda, jogharghy Chuyskiyden jogharghy el kýnshyghys týrik bolyp, onan tómengi tele nәsili hәm magholdyng kýnbatysyndaghy teleler kýnbatys týrik bolyp, olar bes aumaq dulu bolyp atandy. Búlghariya knyazidyghy osy dulu nәsilinen bolady. Búl tele, yaky dulu dep atanghan halyqty Nәjib Ghasymbek tilu dep jazady»[16].

Búl jerde patshalyqtyng ekige bólinui óte úlghayyp ketkendiginen ghana emestigin eske sala ketu jón. Búghan әleumettik qayshylyqtardyng shiyelenisui, kóp jyldargha sozylghan mal indeti, jút, asharshylyq nәubetteri jәne onyng jekelegen aumaqtarynyng tabighy týrde avtonomiyalanu ýderisin bastauy әser etti. Sonymen birge Suy dәuirindegi (581–618) Qytaydyng shapqynshylyqtary da birtútas qaghanattyng bólinip ketuine yqpalyn tiygizdi. (Shәkәrim shejiresinen keltirilgen jogharydaghy ýziktegi «Chuyskiy» degen atau sol  Suy dәuirindegi – Suyskiy – Qytay degen úghymdy beredi).  Aqyry, 603 jyly  birtútas  týrki imperiyasy derbes eki memleketke – Shyghys týrki qaghanaty men Batys týrki qaghanatyna bólindi[17].

Shәkәrim qysqasha bylay sholady: «750 jyl manynda týrik óz ishinen búzylghanda, úighyr menen qalghan tele hәm qarlúq birigip, týrikti jenip, úighyr biyledi. Qytaylar úighyr handyghyn Hu-hu dedi. Jýz jylgha jaqyndaghanda olar da ishinen bólinip, úighyrdy Eniyseydegi qyrghyzdar shauyp, úighyrdyng kóbiregi qashyp, Nyani-Shani tauynyng etegi hәm Tyani-Shani, yaghny arghy ýlken Alataudyng kýnshyghys túmsyghyna bardy. Ózi az ghana qyrghyzdar birjola biylep túra almay, Eniyseyge qaytty. Sol kezde qidan, yaghny qytay kýsheyip, tatabiydi alyp, hәm sol tústaghy qytaydan da el alyp, Lauu degen handyq jasady. Lauunyng maghynasy qytaysha – «alys», «shet» degen. Olardyng handyghy 907-den 1125 jylgha sheyin boldy. Búlardyng alghashqy hany Ambaghan 924 jyly úighyrdyng han qalasy Orhungha keldi. Múnymen jerles týrik nәsilinen tatarlar edi. Onyng temirqazyghynda úighyr Bayagen hәm múnghúldar bar edi. Múnyng ishinde qara qytaygha eng jaqyn kórshi de hәm myqtysy da tatar edi. Qara qytaylar qansha әsker jiberse de, tatardy qaratyp ala almady»[18].

Bayqalyp túrghanday, múnda shejireshi Eniyseydegi qyrghyz qaghanatynyng Mongholiyadaghy Úighyr qaghanatyn 840 jyly talqandaghanyn eske salady. Biz búl búl joldardan  Batys týrki qaghanatynyng qúlap, Týrgesh qaghanatynyng qúryluy (VIII ghasyrdyng basy), Mongholiyada Úighyr qaghanatynyng ornauy (VIII gh.-dyng ortasy – IH gh.-dyng ortasy), qyrghyzdardyng úighyr memleketin talqandauy (IH gh.-dyng 40-j.)[19] syndy qazirgi ghylymy tariyhqa jaqsy mәlim mazasyz kezenderding Shәkәrim shejiresindegi beynelenu týrin kóremiz. Osynday alasapyran dәuirlerdi Qazybek bek mýldem jalpylama aityp, negizinen nazaryn úrpaq shejiresine audarghan tәrizdi.

Qarlúqtardyng VIII ghasyrdyng orta shamasynda Jetisuda qúrghan qaghanaty H ghasyrdyng 40-shy jyldaryna deyin ómir sýrdi. Áriyne, olardyng jýrgizgen soghys qimyldaryna jergilikti ru-taypalardyng da tartylghany sózsiz. Sonday soghystardyng birinde bolar, Qazybek bek jazbasy boyynsha, Shapyrashtynyng kishi sheshesi Qarashash eki nemeresin qarap jýrgende onyng kelini, Shapyrashtynyng bәibishesi Gýnәiim, shejireshining sózimen aitqanda, «bizding (Ystyqtyn) sheshemiz Gýnәiim soghystyng aldynghy shebinde eken. Ol kisi shashyn tóbesine týiip, shalbar kiyip, maydannyng artyn ala Shapyrashtyny syrttan kózdep jýredi eken. Egiz tughan eki birdey toghyz jasqa kelip, at jalyn tartyp mingen eki úly birdey joghalyp ketken son, sheshemiz soghysqa aralasqandy qoyypty»[20].

Ata-babasyn taratyp әngimeleudi basty maqsaty etkendikten shyghar, Qazybek bek, jogharyda aityp ótkenimizdey, VIII – IH ghasyrlar sheginde oryn alghanday sekildenetin atalmysh soghys jayyna odan әri terendemey, negizinen atalaryna qatysty anyzdardy tize beredi.

Shapyrashtynyng egiz úlynyng biri Abaq sol ketkennen jiyrma jasqa tolghanda bir-aq tabylypty. Kerey ishindegi óz balasy bolmaghan Qaramoyyn Baqyr degen kisige bala bolyp jýrgen eken. Keyin elin tapqanda da, asyrap alghan әkesin kimay, sol elde qala beripti. Biraq ózining aty Abaq ekenin, týbining Ýisin ekenin ol jasyrmaghan kórinedi. «Abaqtyng týbi saryýisin, – deydi Shәkәrim, – onyng túqymy on eki ru abaq kerey atanyp ketti. Sol saryýisin Abaqtyng on eki balasy – jantekey, jәdik, jastaban, shúbarayghyr, sherushi, iyteli, iytemgen, molqy, merkit, sarbas, qarabas, kónsadaq»[21].

Búl  IH ghasyrdyng basy bolugha kerek. «Osy zamanda (HVIII ghasyrda – B.Q.) Abaq túqymy irgeli el bolyp, 12 ata Abaq–Kerey atalady», – deydi Ýisin-Shapyrashty shejiresin taratushy Qazybek bek. Oghan deyingi bir oqighany naqty uaqytyn kórsetip atay ketedi: «Hijra jyl sanauynyng jeti jýzinshi jyldarynda jasaghan Merkitterding Obas úruynan shykqan Dayyr batyrdy Doyyrýisin atandyruy da sondyqtan. Dayyr batyr zamanynda el biylegen, býkil Abaq Kereydi kóshirip-qondyratyn myqty adam boldy. Tauarihtyng sol bir shatasyp jatqan shaghyndaghy Shynghysqa qyzy Qúlandy bergen Merkit-Ohyz batyry Kerimning de Erýisin atanuy osydan bolatyn»[22].

Shynghyshannyng ataqty «tórt kýliginen» keyin tughan Qúlqan esimdi besinshi úlynyng sheshesi Qúlan-hatun Merkit taypasy kósemining qyzy bolghanyn  kóne derek kózderin múqiyat zerttegen tarihshy Túrsyn Súltanov ta jazady[23].

Qazybek bek shejireshi Abaq túqymynyn  býginde Shapyrashty atanbay-aq Kerey aghayyndarynyn,  Merkitting ishine sinip ketkenin aitady. Al Shәkәrim óz shejiresinde «Orta jýzdegi kereyler – kereyitting bir ghana ashamaylysynyng eki balasy Sibang Qaraby degenning nәsili hәm Qarabiyding qyzyn alghan saryýisin Abaqtyng nәsili» ekenin nygharlay ketedi[24]. Búl jәit rugha bólinuding uaqyt óte kele mýldem shartty sipat alyp ketkenin dәleldese kerek.

«Týp-túqiyannyn» avtory joghalghan egizding ekinshi synary Sayaqtyng ta tabylghanynan habardar etedi. «Sayaq túqymynyng myqtylyghy – ósken jerinen ata qonysyna audaryluy. Sayaq aghasy Ystyqty auzynan tastamaydy eken. Qayda jýrse de aitish jýredi eken. Ákesining Shapyrashty ekenin de, Arys – Ýisin – Abyl túqymy ekenin de aiqyn bilgenge úqsaydy. Ol Altay syrtyndaghy qyrghyzdargha sinedi»[25].

Ghylymda Sayan–Altay, Ertis alqaby, Shyghys Tyani-Shani   ónirin VI –X ghasyrlarda týrki qaghanattary, kóshpendi taypalar birlestikteri dәuirinde mekendegen týrki tildes taypalardyn  birazy negizinde qyrghyz etnosy qalyptasty dep esepteledi[26]. Demek olardyng óz taypalastary arasynan ketip, Altay jaqtaghy ómir salty úqsas kóshpendiler arasyna sinip ketui mýldem týsinikti qúbylys. Áytse de, anyz boyynsha – Sayaq jýrgen jerinde «Alataudy, Ýisin tauyn maqtay beredi eken». Birde saghynysh túnghan ýnmen: «Qysy qys, jazy jaz, kóktemi kósilgen, kýzi esilgen Jeti Alataugha jetetin jer bar ma?!» – degenin estip, qyrghyzdar tandanyp qalghanda: «Qyzdary kórkem kórikti, Ormany qorys kódikti, Arasynan kódikting Elik pen maral ótipti», – depti de, kózining jasyn bir syghyp, túra jónelipti... Sol Sayaq túqymy bir qauym el bolyp, qazirgi Sayan tauyn mekendegen eken. Ári Sayaq sol eldi biylegen kórinedi. «Tau da ol kezde Sayaq atalghan. Taudy Sayan atap ketken de múrnynan sóileytin qara qytaylar bolghan», – delinedi Qazybek bek shejiresinde.

Sonymen, Sayaq túqymy ózderine ózderi kelgende, atasynan qalghan ósiyetti eske alyp, Alataugha kóshpek bolady. Qazybek bek jazbasyn «órnektep otyrghan hijranyng 1154-jylynan 796 jyl búryn» sol Sayaq túqymy tegis Jetisu jaqqa kóship, Shu, Talas boyyna ornalasqan eken. Sayaqtardyng artynan ile-shala Baghyshtar da qonys audara kóship kelgen kórinedi. Ol kezde Baghyshtar Shon, Sary degen eki rudan túrsa kerek.

Qyrghyzdar, shejire derekteri boyynsha, 40 taypa, sondyqtan da olardy «qyryq ruly el» dep te ataghan. Qazybek bek ataghan esimderdi olardyng ishindegi Sayaq, Shekir Sayaq, Sarybaghysh, Baghysh, Qara Baghysh, Shonbaghysh etnonimderi  eske salady[27].

«Áriyne, sebep bir ghana Sayaq túqymynyng tuysqan izdep kóshui emes bolar, – deydi Qazybek bek, – sol bir jyldary qyrghyzdardyng da qytaydan mazasy ketken. Ásirese qidan (qytay) әuleti Sayaqty shauyp, zor qyrghyz mәmlәkatyn tozdyryp jibergen»[28].

Búl jerde, angharghanymyzday, Qazybek bek syndy HVIII ghasyr avtory Sayaqty shapqan «qidan (qytay) әuleti» dep, qidan  men qytaydy bir «әulet», taypa, halyq retinde ataydy. HH ghasyr avtory Shәkәrim de solay deydi[29].

Soghan oray, qazirgi ghylymy tariyhqa mәlim jәitterge sholu jasay ketelik. Kóshpendi qidandar H ghasyrda Ortalyq Aziyanyng kóptegen aimaqtarynda ýstemdik etken qytaylardy talqandaghan. Ortaghasyrlyq shyghys derekkózderinde qidandardy sidani, kyta, kata, hyta dep ataghan. Olar qytay aumaghyn da basyp alyp, emin-erkin óktemdigin jýrgizgen. Olardyng etnostyq tegi men tili jóninde týrli kózqaras bar. Zertteushilerding birqatary qidandy túnghús-monghol tektes halyqqa jatqyzady, endi biri qidan qúramyna túnghús jәne basqa da kóshpendi taypalardyng shashyrandylary kirgen dep joramaldaydy. Olar monghol taypalarynyng bir bóligi degen pikir de bar. Qaraqytaylar qidandardyng bir bóligi dep esepteletin jәne búlardyng arasynda týrki tektes taypalardyng kópshiligi bolghan degen maghlúmattardy arab-parsy derekkózderi aitady.  Qazybek bek әngimelegen dәuirde qidannyng Lyao memleketi (907–1125) ómir sýrip túrghan. Búl memleket Soltýstik Qytaydy, Tanghúttardy, shaghan-tatarlardy baghyndyrghan, Altay, Tarbaghataygha deyin kelgen. 1010 jyly qidandardyng qaraqytay dep atalatyn bóligi Jetisugha basyp kirgen[30].

Shәkәrim búl Lyao memleketin «Lauu degen handyq» dep ataydy. Lauu degen ataudyng maghynasy qytay tilinde «alys», «shet» degen maghynasy bildirse kerek[31].

HI ghasyrdyng 30-shy jyldarynyng bas kezinde Lyao-Lauu imperiyasyn biylep túrghan qidandardyng tegeuirinimen, týrki tektes taypalardyng ýlken toby batysqa qaray qonys audara bastady. Búl ýlken kósh Altaydan Shyghys Evropagha deyingi dalalyq keistiktegi, sonyng ishinde Qazaqstan jaziralaryndaghy taypalardyng ishindegi etnostyq  ýderisterge yqpalyn tiygizdi[32].

Qazybek bekting atalmysh shejiresine osy kezeng de arqau bolghan tәrizdi. Ol aghayyndar arasynda Altay-Sayan tóniregine talas bolyp, olardyng birazy týp kóterile kóshken deydi. Sóitip, qyrghyzdyng eng alghash Jetisugha aughanyna Sayaq túqymy sebepshi bolypty. Aqyry alystan aghayynym dep kelgen qyrghyzdargha Ýisinder (Shapyrashty, Dulat) Barsyghandy – Ystyq kóldi bosatyp berip, birynghay túruyna jaghday jasaghan. Sayaqgar Ystyq kól manynan Nekenýisin degen qala saldy. Al, shynynda, ol qalanyng aty Sayaqýisin edi. Áyelder Sayaqtyng atyn aita almay, Sayaqty Neken dep, aqyry qala Nekenýisin atanyp ketti. Býginderi Sayaq túqymy әli de sol Ystyq kól jaghalauynda kýn keshedi. Sayaq – qyrghyzdy qúraytyn ýlken úrulardyng biri, qazir olar qyrghyzdyng shiyrek bólegindey. Qyrghyzdar «sening týbing shiyki, sen qazaqsyn» dep búryn olardy kóbirek týrtpektep, qonashtaydy eken»[33].

N.Ya. Bichuriyn, N.A. Aristov, Sh.Sh. Uәlihanov, IY.M. Jirmunskiy, V.V. Bartolid, N.V. Kuner, V.V. Radlov, t.b. ghalymdardyng zertteu enbekterine sýienip jazylghan qazirgi ghylymy tarih boyynsha – qyrghyzdar IH–HIII ghasyrlardy Ontýstik Sibirde – Ertisten Hingan jotasyna deyingi alqapty qamtyghan aumaqta memleket qúryp túrghan.  IH ghasyrdyng 40-shy jyldarynan bastap H ghasyrdyng alghashqy shiyregi boyynda qyrghyz qaghandyghy gýldenu dәuirin bastan keshti. Sodan keyin qidandardyng shapqynshylyghy saldarynan «Sayan jotasynyng teriskey betindegi ejelgi óz qonysyna qayta yghystyryldy». Áytse de HIII ghasyrdyng bas kezine deyin tәuelsiz bolyp, 1207–1270 jyldarda Shynghys han imperiyasyna kirdi. Imperiyagha qarsy kóterilgen Eniysey boyyndaghy qyrghyz toptaryn 1290 jyly Qúbylay әskeri talqandaghan son, «qyrghyzdardyng bir bóligi Alataugha qonys audardy, qalghan bóligi sol aimaqta qalyp qoydy»[34].

Búl jerde de qyrghyzdardyng Jetisugha qonys audaru merzimine baylanysty shejire men ghylymy zertteuler mәlimetterining arasy ýilespey jatqanyn  atay ketu lәzim: Qazybek bek boyynsha búl oqigha H–HI ghasyrlar toghysynda, al jogharyda keltirilgen resmy tarih maghlúmatyna qaraghanda – HIII ghasyrda oryn alghan.

«Sonymen, Shapyrashtynyng bir ghana balasy – Istyq túqymy ghana – Shapyrashty degen atqa iye», – deydi Qazybek bek shejireshi. Ol múny «elding tynysh bolmauynyng saldarynan júrttyng tozghanyn kórsetetin aiqyn aighaq» dep biledi. Ári, shynyna kelgende, aitylghan jәitti «qazaqtyng bir ghana taypasynyng basynan keshkeni» ekenin eskerteli, óitkeni: «qalmaqtyn, shýrshittin, soqaqtyng salghan shúrqanynan kazaqtyng qay úruy býtin qaldy deysin». Eldi bastaghandardyng el senimin aqtay bermegenin aitady: «Túyaghy býtin túlpar joq, qanaty býtin súnqar joq», «Handar kiyer múraqgy, qarashy kiyer qúraqty» dep jýrip, sol han dep ardaq tútqan túlymdylarymyzdyng ózining ghana basyn kýittegenine kózimiz jete bermepti ghoy». Qazybek bekting búl payymy qazaq handyghy kezine qatysty jazylghan tәrizdi, sebebi ol odan әri «Túlpar tulaq bolady, orta týsse oyasy» degendey, eki jýz jylgha sozylghan soghystan kónimizdi әreng sýirep shyqtyq. Onyng esesine kórkóz, aitaqqa shapqan tóbetting endi yryldaugha shamasy joq dýnie keshti deuge bolady» degen sózdermen qazaq-jonghar soghysyna anyq emeuirin jasaydy.

Týrli ru-taypalar taghdyry uaqyt tezimen әr qily sheshilgeni mәlim, osy orayda Qazybek bekting óz atalastaryna baylanysty keltirgen derekteri men jasaghan baylamyna nazar audara ketken de jón tәrizdi. Ol «úrat-úrat úrulardyng birjola bóten bolyp, basqa júrt atanyp ketui» bir búl ghana emestigin,  «bir atadan órbigen Baqtiyar balalarynyng bes jýz myny Irangha sinip ketkeni anau, Qanlylardyng Bijnek tenizinen ótip Osman týrikteri atanyp jýrgeni taghy mynau» dey kele,  «348-jyly (hijra j. s.) bizding Dulattar Jayyq ótip, odan olardy jau shauyp, bastap barghan Billә, Búqsu, Hasan bastaghan Dulattyn, Siqymynyn, Ysty – Tilikting birsypyra Akqoyly, Qaraqoylysy Alshyn Atyrauynyng arghy jaghasyndaghy týrki túqymdas elge singenin», sodan osy kýnge deyin qaytpay qalghanyn habarlaydy.

Onyng maghlúmatyna qaraghanda, «shabynshylyq zamanda tipti Dulattyng Shymyrlarynan taraytyn Ayysyy úruy Japon ketti degen sóz de el arasynda býginderi», yaghny 1770-shi jyldary da jýrgen syqyldy. Búdan әri ol qyzyqty sifrlyq derekter de keltiredi. «Qyzylbasqa – soqaqtargha» jarty millionday (sol shaqta) Baqtiyar balalary singenin, al «qazaqtaghy Ýisin atalatyn Baqtiyar úrpaghy bes jýz jyl búryn 680 myng adam ekenin» jazady. Sonda Tóbey biyden taraghan, býgingi esimimen Sarýisin, Shapyrashty, Ysty, Oshaqgy, Alban, Suan, Dulat, Qanly, Shanyshqyly, Sirgeli, Shaqsham atalatyndar bir million bir jýz myng adam bolghan. «Al Jannyn, Bektin, Boldyn, Baldyng úrpaghy, yaghny býgin Orta jýz, Kishi jýz atalyp jýrgen, Úly jýzben shamalas Kishi jýz, Úly jýzden kóbirek Orta jýzdi qosqanda, bes millionday adamnyng bes jýz jyldan keyin azayyp qaluy» sebebin shejireshi «jeri ýshin, ózining basynyng bodan bolmauy, bireuge kiriptar bolmauy» ýshin bastan ótkergen qandy soghystyng saldary dep biledi[35].

Qyzyqty derekter. Tek olardy zertteu enbekterge,  qazirgi tarih ghylymyna mәlim jәitterge sýiene otyryp dәiekteu qiyn. Bәlkim, múnyng anyq-qanyghyna jetetin ghylymy júmystar bolashaqta jýrgiziler...

Shapyrashty ruyna qatysty birden-bir tolyq shejire qaldyrghan Qazybek bek jazbalarynda  arghy-bergi eleuli atalarynyng birqataryna sypattama beredi. Sonyng ishinde Shapyrashtynyng ýlken úly Ystyqty  «óte kórkem adam bolghan» dep suretteydi. «Ákesi Shapyrashtynyng bir kózi bir kózine atysyp tughanymen, balasy jayau jatyp, atty týsip qaraghanday jigitting súltany boldy desedi». Júrt Ystyqty óz atasy Jalmambetke, yaghny Alýisinge tartqan dep otyrady eken. Serilik qúrghan, nókermen jýretin kisi bolypty. Jogharyda aitylghanday, Shapyrashtyúly Ystyq týrli jaghdayda ýsh birdey bauyrynan aiyrylady. Sondyqtan da, ini etu maqsatymen, sol zamanda Ýrgenishti mekendegen Qypshaq elinen bir bala úrlap almaq bolady.

Qypshaqtyng hany Qúraq degen kisi eken. Han túqymynan bala úrlaghysy kelgen Ystyq qolgha týsip qalypty. Sol  kezderde Shapyrashty qyryqtan asyp qalghan bolsa kerek. Jalghyz úly taghy pәlege úshyrap tútqyngha týsip qalghandyqtan, «qol jiyp, qalghan, qalman tartyp, shyn, nughara soghyp qypshaqqa attanghan eken».

Sonda Shapyrashty balasyn – Ystyqty azat etu ýshin jasaq qúryp, ózine qarsy ýlken qolmen kele jatqanyn Qúraq han estiydi. Estigen boyda, әri ózi qalyng Ýisinning ishine súghyna otyrghandyqtan da,  tútqyndy bosatyp qoya beredi. Sonda Qúraqtyng Álmany degen qyzy bostandyq alghan tútqyn Ystyqqa  qosyla qashady. Sóitip, Shapyrashty men Qúraq han qúda bolghan. Sonda Shapyrashtynyng atasy Bәidibek bay «qypshaq hanyna tastaryn gauhardan ornatqan altyn dinment sәlemdeme jóneltipti. Sóitip, aghayyn arasy jaulaspay beyqútshylyq andalyq ornaghan».

XVIII ghasyr shejireshisining «aghayyn arasy jaulaspay beyqútshylyq andalyq ornaghan» degen sóilemining maghynasy óte týsinikti bolghanmen, sondaghy «beyqútshylyq» degen sózge oray bir angharym aita ketken maqúl sekildi. Jalpy, búl sóz Qazybek bek mәtininde әrәdik kezdesip qalady, әri tek tynyshtyq, beybitshilik, qútty uaqyt, orta, zaman maghynasynda qoldanylady. Býginde búl sóz óte siyrek qoldanylatyndyqtan, «bey» júrnaghy әdette sózge qarama-qarsy maghyna beretindigin eskergende (beyadal – adal emes, aram; beyәdep – әdepsiz, beymaza – mazasyz, t.s.s., tiyisinshe: beyqút – qútsyz),  «beyqútshylyq» sózin «qútsyzdyq» týrinde úghyp qalugha әbden bolatynday. Arada eki ghasyrdan astam uaqyt ótse de, Qazybek bek zamany men bizding dәuirimizdegi qazaq sózinde osynday az ghana aiyrmashylyq qalyp, is jýzinde qaymaghy búzylmay túrghany qayran qaldyrady...

Shejirege әrmen qaray kóz salayyq. Shapyrashty balasy Ystyq qypshaq qyzy Álmanidan ýsh bala sýigen kórinedi. Onyng ýlkeni – (eski týrki tilinde qasqyr degen úghym beretin) Kýrt eken.  Kýrtten keyin Dóiil, Beyil degen egiz úl tughan. «Kýrt ata nyspysy qasqyr bolghanmen, qasqyrday myqty kisi bolmapty. Biraq shalqyghan dәuleti bolghan. Ol bir zamanda maldan góri sózdi qadirlegen qazaq oghan qazaqtyng kóp bayynyng biri dep qaraghan». Dey túrghanmen, Ilege qúyatyn Kýrti ózeni sol Kýrt baydyng qúrmetine, onyng sol aimaqty mekendegenining belgisi retinde qoyylghan synayly. Kýrti – Kýrtting jeri degendi bildiredi.

Kýrtten Abadan tughan. Qazybek bek onyng esimining de әkesiniki tәrizdi qasqyr tónireginen tabylatynyn atap ótedi: «Abadan atyna say (abadan qasqyr әuegining kósemi ghoy) er eken». Ataqty sayatker, anshy bolghan kórinedi. Jolbarys aulap jýrip, ajalyn jolbarystan tauypty.

Abadannan Arlan, Doghal esimdi eki úl bolsa kerek. «Ekeui de eshkimge esesin jibermegen eniregen erler desedi». Arlannyng Alma, Alsha degen balalary bolypty. Osy eki úldyng ýlkeni Alma baghbandyghymen ataghy shyqqan kisi eken. «Qazirgi (HVIII ghasyrdaghy – B.Q.) Kishi Almaty, búrynghy Ýsh qalasy tónireginde ghúmyr keshken». Shejireshining sózine qaraghanda, jetisulyqtar «eger bizding elimizde jataq bolghan bolsa, sol Alma atamyzdan bastalghan» dep kýlisedi eken. Alma Ýsh Almatydaghy Qaraghayly ózenining «eki ashasynda qiyau salyp úzaq ghúmyr sýripti».

Qazybek bek búl atasynyng mekendegen aumaghyn  Arasan ózeni men Angly ózenining qúighan jeri dep naqtylay ataydy. Ýsh Almatydan kelgen jol eki ózenning qúiylysyna kelgende, saydyng shyghys betindegi Angly ózenin jaghalap, Anglygha – Jasylkólge tartady deydi. Odan әri jol Jasylkólding shyghys jaghymen jýrip, Kókayryq ótedi. «Osy Qyrghyzgha – Barsyghan kóline, kýngeyine qaray asatyn asu Ýisin asqan atalady». Búryn, yaghny Qazybek bek kitabyn jazyp otyrghan HVIII ghasyrgha deyin, ata-babalary osy asu arqyly bayyrghy Istyq ata qonysyna baryp jýrgen. Qazir de, yaghny HVIII ghasyrda deyin, osy asu arqyly qyrghyz-qazaq jazda qatynasady. Arasan da sol kezden, atam zamannan bar desedi. «Óitkeni bizden búryn ótken atamyz Elsaudyng ghaskeri jarasyn osy arasanda emdeydi eken. Shynghys ta osynda ailap jatqan deydi».

Bizding jylsanaghymyzdan búrynghy II ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Elsau – Ýisin memleketining әigili hanbii Elsau men bizding zamanymyzdyng HII–HIII ghasyrlary toghysynda ghúmyr keshken ataqty Shynghys qahan esimderine baylanystyrylghan osynau ata-baba mekenining qasiyetti jerlerin Qazybek bek tәtpishtep bayan etedi.

Sol ónirde ýsh búlaq bar eken. Biri – Kýkirt búlaq. Kýkirt búlaqtyng iysi tóniregin alyp, ýlken arnagha qúiylghansha mýnkip aghyp jatatyn kórinedi. Odan tómendeu ózenning shyghys jaghyndaghy, suynyng tәttiligi sonday, qansha ishseng toymaytyn, ayaghy jylap qana aghyp jatqan búlaqty qazaqtar, nege ekenin shejireshi ashyp aita almaydy, Kózek desedi. Bәlkim, múnysy – kózge em degeni me eken dep joramaldaydy ol.  Ýshinshisin búlaq emes, bastau degendi qolayly kóredi. Onyng suy yssylau, qoldy kýidiretindey shym-shym deydi. Jaragha, saryp, sarbuyn aurularyna osy bastaudyng birden-bir em ekenin eskertedi. Búl bastaudyng ayaghy ózenge keyde qosylyp, keyde qosylmaytyn syqyldy. Abyl – Azyq elining yrysyna ainalghan. Dertke – shipa, ishse – susyn bolghan. Qazybek bek osy bastaudyng «qoynauynda bir kezek elu bes ýy otyrghanyn» kóripti. Olary – emdelushiler әkelip tikken ýiler eken.

«Odan joghary Kókjaylau, Kórketkey degen el arystaytyn jay bar. Onda jazda kýnde kókpar, kýnde tamasha». Shejireshi sonday keremet Alma atasynyng zamanynda da oryn alyp túrghanyn megzeydi. Ol kisi sol bir dәuirde osy búlaqtardyng jaghasyna, tau etegine týrghyzylghan Ýsh qalasyna da barmaydy eken. Ýsh qalasy keyin ýlkeyip Ýsh Almaty qalasy atanghan. «Biraq múnda el biyleu ortalyghy bolmaghandyqtan, Ýsh te, Talghar da zor shaharlar qataryna qosyla almaghan. Ýsh Almaty degen at әli de aitylyp keledi. Biraq qalmaq ghaskerleri kelgen son, múndaghy qala júrnaghy mýldem qalmady», – deydi ol[36].

Osy jerde Almanyng shamamen ómir sýrgen uaqytyn anyqtap bayqayyq. Bәidibek nemeresi Jalmambet úly Shapyrashty  jobamen 667-shi jyly tughan. VII – VIII ghasyrlar sheginde ómir sýrdi.  Alma – Shapyrashtydan keyingi besinshi buyn (Shapyrashty – Ystyq – Kýrt – Abadan – Arlan – Alma). Eger әr buyndy shartty týrde 25 jastan eseptesek[37], jogharyda keltirilgen bes úrpaq  125 jyldy qamtidy. Sonda, Ystyq Shapyrashtynyng ýlken úly bolghandyqtan, shamamen (667+25=692) 692-shi jyly dýniyege kelgen bolsa, onyng shópshegi Alma shamamen (692+125=817) 817-shi jyly tughan bolyp shyghady. Demek, Shapyrashty Alma jogharyda atalghan aumaqta IH ghasyrda ghúmyr keshken. Al búl kezeng qazirgi Qazaqstan aumaghynda ertedegi ortaghasyrlyq memleketter – Batys týrki, Týrgesh, Qarlúq, Kiymek qaghanattarynyng birin biri almastyryp dәuirlegen uaqyttaryna sәikes keledi[38]. Sonyng ishinde Ýisin-Shapyrashtylar mekendegen Jetisuda qarlúqtardyng etnostyq-әleumettik birlestigi biylikte boldy.

Shapyrashtydan taraghan «Alma atamyz – tәuipshilikpen, baghbandyqpen ainalysqan adam, – deydi Qazybek bek. – Eski kózderding aituynsha, ol janyna kelgen adamnyng betine qarap, adamnyng qúlaghyn ústap kórip, nauqasyn sarnap aita jóneledi eken». Ásirese onyng baghbandyghy mýldem eresen bolghan kórinedi. ...Alma ata aghashty qatty qadirlepti, sol orayda Mayqy biydi auzynan tastamaydy eken. «Mayqy atamyz: jeti jasar bala asyramaydy, jeti jylghy aghash asyraydy degen», – dep, úrpaghyna aqyl aityp otyrady eken.

Onyng jalghyz úly Adyrbek әke dәuletining arqasynda saldyq qúryp, ýilenbey úzaq jýripti. Aqyry Altyn, Búlan, Núran degen apaly-sinlili ýsh qyzdy alypty. Olardan Aryn, Shoyyn, Shor degen ýsh úl kóripti.

Qazybek bekke tikeley aparatyn jeli tizbegindegi Aryn asqan kýishi bolghan kórinedi.  Kóptegen әuezdi aspap jinaghan, ózi de olardy jaqsy tartqan. Artynda  – qalman, qalghan, shom, shyn, nýghara, qyz sybyzghy, jigit sybyzghy, syrnay, kerney, qobyz, shanqobyz, jelqobyz, jetighan, arghan, sherter, shermer syndy 55 týrli aspap qalghan eken. Balalardyng esimderi  de erekshe: Qalman, Qalghan, Shom degen әuez aspaptarymen atalghan.

Osy ýsh jigitting ýlkeni Qalman – Qazybek bekting atasy. Ol  ýnemi tau ainalyp, tau qystap, dalany kórmey ótipti. Onyng negizgi túraghy Labas tauynyng ýstindegi Ýlkensaz jaylauynda eken. Ýlkensaz ýstinde Qalman biyigi degen tau bar. Ýsti tep-tegis, Onqonys atalady. Sudy saydan kónekpen tartyp ishedi. «Mine, osy biyik tau arystaghan atamyzdyng mәngi qonysy da, molasy da bolghan, sonda Qalman aty qalghan», – deydi shejireshi Qazybek bek.

Bizding jogharyda keltirgen esebimiz boyynsha Almanyng IH ghasyrdyng alghashqy shiyreginde ómirge kelgeni mәlim.  Endeshe, onyng shóberesi  Qalman (Alma – Adyrbek – Aryn – Qalman) shamamen H ghasyrdyng basynda tughan, onyng jogharyda әngimelengen jәne alda aitylatyn ómiri jayyndaghy derekter sol H ghasyr ishinde oryn alghan.

Qalmannyng eki inisi Qalghan men Shom, kerisinshe, taugha shyqpay ótken kórinedi. Eginshilikpen ainalysypty, jaylau da, qystauy da dala bolsa kerek.  Túrghan jerleri de, shejireshining aituynsha, әli kýngi ekeuining qosaqtalghan atymen Shomqalghan atalady.

Qalman ne qysta, ne jazda maldy baqpay, tek aidap tastaydy eken. Taudyng kýngey bet etegin qystap, teristigin jaylap jýripti. Mal ózi jayylyp keledi. Sonda Qalmannan bireu: «Qysy-jazy taudan týspeysiz, ne kóresiz?» – dep súrapty. Oghan Qalman: «Qysy-jazy birdey býkil Jetisudy, Alatau ayasyn, ony kirttegen, arystaghan Dulat, Shapyrashtyny jyl on eki ay boyy ýstinen kózdep otyramyn. Osy jetpey me?» – dep jauap bergen eken.

Shapyrashty úrpaghy osy Qalmannan beri bylay taraydy: Qalman balasy Qonyr, Qonyrdyng úly Aqton, onyng ýly Úsh, Úshtan Han, Tang esimdi eki bala tughan. Hannan órbigen bútaq Qazybek bekke barady.  Atyn Han qoyghanymen, búl atasy onday mәrtebege jete almapty. Biraq  onyng on ýsh úly bolypty. Sonyng bireuining – Qazybek bekting atasy Keraldyng ghana aty este saqtalyp qalypty. Búl atasy, әr úrpaq jasyn jogharydaghyday shartty týrde 25 jastan eseptegende, HI ghasyrdyng ortasynda dýniyege kelgen bolu kerek.

Qazybekting Keraldan keyingi atalary da (Keral – Baraq – Shash –Yryq – Tom – Fars) airyqsha eshtenesimen erekshelenbegen momyn adamdar bolypty.

«Mysaly, Úsh degen babamyz ghúmyrynyng bәrin qaraghay ósiruge arnapty. Tek Tom, Fars babalarymyz ústalyq qúrghan, zerger adamdar eken. Qalghanynyng ishinde auyz toltyryp aitar, mynanday este qalar is istepti deytin eshkim joq. Bәri-aq sharua baqqan, egin salghan, baghbandyq jasaghan», – deydi shejireshi. Ol Labas bauyrynda Qaraqystaq degen meken baryn aitady. Onyng taudan aqqan Qaraqystaq ózeni jazda ótkel bermeydi eken. At qúiryghyn búratyn osy qatty aghysty, mol suly ózendi alghash toghandap, aryq qazyp, sudy eginge búrghan sol ataly-balaly jogharyda atalghan babalar úrpaghy kórinedi. Qaraqystaqtan búryp alghan ýlken toghan sol Qazybek bek zamanynda da Búrghan atalady eken. Ony sol shaqga Shapyrashtynyng ýrim-bútaghy Ekey, Emil úrpaghy paydalanyp túrsa kerek.

Qaraqystaq tóniregin mekendegen Shapyrashty úrpaghy, Qazybek bekting aituynsha, atamzamannan eginshilikpen kýn kóredi. Ondaghy Qosay degen ata úrpaghyn ýnemi egin salyp jýrgendikten, Qara Qosay atandyrghan. «Mine, men biletin býl elding salghan toghany men shapqan toghanyna, Qaraqystaqtyng el qystaytyn shiyryna, mine, myng eki jýz jyl boldy», – deydi Qazybek bek. Qysqasy, onyng oiynsha, búl mynjyldyq toghan – qazaq elining erteden-aq eginshilikpen ainalysqanynyng aighaghy. Búrynghy qazaqqa, tipti qazirde de qayda túrdyn, qayda jýrding deytin emes dep payymdaydy ol. Qazaq malynyng jayymen, ózining sharuasynyng ynghayyna qaray kóship jýre bergen. Mysaly, Bek balalary kóship Bijnek tenizine de, tipti mәngi múz tenizining jaghasyna deyin bara bergen. Múnday óris, jayylym qualau bar qazaqqa tәn bolghan. Bol úrpaghy Qyp pen Shaqtar da ýsh ay týn, ýsh ay kýn bolatyn jaghalaugha deyin de barghan. Al Baldyng ekinshi úrpaghy Qong men Rattar bir shaqta oipattaghy, Altaydyng arghy jaghyndaghy Kýzges Alatauyna deyin baryp jýrgen...

Sol atalaryna úqsaghan Qazybek bekting óz atasy Farstyng balalary Bórili men Bósteri ata qonysy Barsyghan – Ystyq kóldi qonystanypty. Altaydan qyrghyzdyng ýshinshi legi kelgenshe, eki-ýsh úrpaghy sonda ómir sýrgen. Bórili balalarynyng ýlkeni Túranbay Jetisugha qaytqan da, onymen birge tughan Bósteri túqymy eki-ýsh bútaq bolghansha jetpis-seksen jyl Ystyq kól jaghalauynda Ystyqatada kýn kórgen.

Túranbay balalary Úran, Qúrym Ystyq kólde tughan da, Jetisuda ósken. Úran ýnemi Altay jaghyn, Ertis ózenderining boyyn qonystanghan. Túranbaydyng eki úly әrqaysysy atyna say bopty. Qúrymy momyn, qoy auzynan shóp almaytyn, aldyndaghy kójesine ie bola almay qalatyn ynjyqtau kisi bolghan. Al Úran atyna say úrandap jýredi eken: «Baqtiyarlap» jaugha shabatyn er, «aldiyarlap» daugha týsetin daukes, tildi adam bolghan, biylikke aralasqan kórinedi.

Úrannyng ong ayaghy jasynda otqa kýiip, tizesining tamyry tartylyp qalghan da, taqyljyry jazylmaytyn bolghan deydi shejireshi. Múny júrt basynda biylikke aralasa bastaghanyn keleke etip, qaljyndap, Mayqy dep jýrip, sóilese tilinen, istese isinen pysyqtyghy kórinip túrghandyqtan, aqyry Mayqy atandyryp jibergen kórinedi. Sóitip, ózining әkesi qoyghan jap-jaqsy Úran aty úmytylyp ketipti. «Búl – zamanynda Shynghystyng uәzirining biri bolghan kisi, – deydi Qazybek bek. – Mayqynyng (Úrannyn) Shynghysqa hansyng demey, qatal sóileui hangha qatty únaghan. Ol kónilindegisin, tilindegisin, dilindegisin tilimen jetkize alatyn, óte dilmar kisi eken. Shynghys ýnemi jaqtap, bar bolsa, sodan pikir, týiin kýtip otyrghan»[39].

Shynghysty aq kiyizge salyp han kóteruge   «Úly jýz qazaghynan ýisin Mayqy by barghan eken».  Mayqy bi, Shәkәrim shejiresi boyynsha, «Týgel sózding týbi – bir, týp atasy – Mayqy bi» dep maqal bolghan kisi». Shynghys han Mayqy biyge tanbasyn – sýrgi, yaghny malatemir, qúsyn – býrkit, aghashyn – qaraghash, úranyn – salauat dep belgilep beripti[40].

Sonymen, VIII ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Shapyrashtydan HVIII ghasyrda ata-babasynyng shejiresin jazghan Qazybek bekke tikeley aparatyn bútaqtyn  21-shi buyny (Ystyq – Kýrt – Abadan – Arlan – Alma – Adyrbek – Aryn – Qalman – Qonyr – Aqton – Úsh – Han – Keral – Baraq – Shash –Yryq – Tom – Fars – Bórili – Túranbay – Úran-Mayqy) bolyp tabylatyn, jeke basynyng qasiyetteri ýshin ertedegi danqty babasyna layyqtap Mayqy atalghan Úran esimdi jigit, shejireshining jazuynsha,  HIII ghasyrda danqymen jer-jahandy titiretken ataqty Shynghys qahannyng uәzirining biri bolypty...

21.

Jogharyda biz qazirgi ghalymdardyng birining ejelgi jәne orta ghasyrlardaghy qazaq halqynyng qalyptasu tarihynan belgili bir jýielilik izdestirgen maqalasyna toqtalyp, osy dәuirlerdegi qazaqtyng etnostyq tarihyn jalpylama bes kezenge bólgenin kórsetken bolatynbyz. Soghan keybir rette birer eskertpe jasay ketken jón siyaqty. Aytalyq, ghalym-tarihshynyng Alash qauymdastyghynyng qayptasu kezeni retinde jeke bir topqa bólgen HIII ghasyrdyng ortalarynan HV ghasyrdyng sonyna deyingi uaqyttan Joshy Úlysy dәuirin nege erekshe qarastyryp kórmeske? Bizdinshe, keyinirek әigili Altyn Orda atalghan alyp memleketti uaqyt jaghynan da, kenistik jaghynan da, әsirese qazaq tarihynan derbestendirip qaldyrugha bolmaydy. Óitkeni HIII – HV ghasyrlardaghy Joshy Úlysy tarihyn  kóptegen halyqtardyn, solardyng ishinde qazaqtardyng taghdyryna әser-yqpaly mol bolghan sol zamangha deyingi jәne  oghan sabaqtasa jalghasqan keyingi iri oqighalardan bólip qarau qiyn.

Búl oqighalardyng bastauynda ózara jaulasqan kóshpendi taypalardy biriktiru nәtiyjesinde jana da alyp memleketting qúryluy, onyng jogharghy әmirshisi bolyp,  qahan taghyna 1206 jyly Shynghys hannyng otyruy túrghan-dy. Aziya men Evropa syndy eki kontiynentting tósinde HIII ghasyrda qanat jayghan taghdyrly oqighalardyng bәri osy biyleushining esimi men qyzmetine baylanysty órbidi.

Shynghys han bar bolghany 15–20 jyldyng ishinde memleketining aumaghyna Sayan-Altay taularyn, Ontýstik Sibirding birer bóligin  mekendegen týrli taypalardy, úighyr birlestikterin  qosyp aldy, Soltýstik Qytaydy, Orta Aziyanyn, Soltýstik Kavkazdyn, Qyrymnyng memleketteri men halyqtaryn, tanghúttar patshalyghyn baghyndyrdy. Sóitip ol alyp territoriyagha jayylghan, halqy jaghynan kóp etnosty memleket qúrdy. Osylay is jýzinde jana imperiya – Shynghys han imperiyasy dýniyege keldi[41].

Shynghys han dýniyege kelgende bir júmyryghy júmuly – uysynda qan bolghan eken, sony estigen aqsaqaldar  búl bala bolashaqta ýlken han bolyp, kóp qan tógedi eken degen boljal qylypty.  «Aqyrynda sonysy dúrys keldi», – deydi shejireshi.  Shynghys hannyng «bir sheti Qytay, bir sheti arab, barsha Aziyadaghy júrtty týgel, Evropanyng da bergi shetin» jaulap   «alghan jerin, qylghan isin týgel aitu» – ýlken kitaptyng sharuasy[42]...

Orasan zor imperiyasyn Shynghys han ózining tórt úlyna bólip berdi: kishi úly Tóley Shynghys hannyng negizgi júrtyn – Mongholiyanyng ózin jәne mongholdyng 129 myng adamdyq túraqty armiyasynyng ýlken bóligin – 101 myng jauyngerin aldy. Mongholiyanyng batysyndaghy jaulap alynghan jerler ýlken úldaryna әrqaysysyna túraqty armiyasynan tórt myng jauyngeri bar әskermen birge bólinip berildi.

Ýlken úly Joshy Ertisten batysqa qarayghy úshy-qiyrsyz aimaqqa ie boldy. Ekinshi úly Shaghataydyng iyeligi Ontýstik Altaydan Amudariyagha deyingi jer-sudy – Shyghys Týrkistandy, Jetisu men Mauarannahrdyng denin qamtydy. Ýshinshi úly Ýgedeyge Batys Mongholiya men úlysynyng ortalyghy ornalasqan Jogharghy Ertis pen Tarbaghatay aimaghy tiydi. Ol ózin úly han dep jariyalaghan 1228–29 jyldan 1241 jylgha deyin Orhonda, Qaraqorymda túrdy.

Qazirgi Qazaqstan aumaghy Shynghys han imperiyasynyng ýsh úlysynyng qúramynda bólinip jatty.  Eng ýlken dalalyq bóligi Joshy úlysyna, Ontýstik jәne Ontýstik-Shyghys bóligi Shaghatay úlysyna, Jetisudyng Soltýstik-Shyghys bóligi Ýgedey úlysyna qarady[43].

1227 jyly Shynghyshan dýniyeden kóshkennen keyin, onyng jaugershilik, basyp alushylyq isterin balalary men nemereleri jalghastyrdy. Shyghysta jurjender memleketi, Ontýstik-Suni әuletining imperiyasy, Koreya týbegining memleketteri, ontýstik-batysta – Aughanstannyn, Irannyn, búrynghy Arab halifatynyng qalalary men aimaqtary, soltýstik-batysta Edil Bulgariyasy, soltýstik-shyghys Rusi knyazidikteri, ontýstik-shyghys Evropanyng keybir aimaqtary jaulap alyndy.

Osy jerde myna jәitti de aita ketu kerek, jekelegen aumaqtar – qiyr batys pen soltýstik-batystaghy  knyazidikter men oblystar Shynghys túqymdary memleketining qúramyna tolyghymen engizilgen joq. Olar protektorattar jaghdayynda boldy. Qazirgi tilmen aitqanda, olar túraqty týrde alymdar berip, salyqtar tólep túratyn otarlar dәrejesinde ústaldy.

Osylay, bas-ayaghy 40–50 jyl ishinde aumaghy jóninen úlan-ghayyr – Tynyq múhittan Atlantika múhityna deyin sozylyp jatqan, halqy boyynsha – meylinshe san týrli, alabajaq bolyp kelgen Chingizidter (Shynghys túqymdastar) derjavasy – Úly monghol imperiyasy qúryldy[44].

Ýisinder, sonyng ishinde Shapyrashtylar mekendegen Jetisu ólkesi Shaghatay memleketi qúramyna kirdi[45]. Shәkәrim Shaghatay úlysynda «arghinut, yaghny arghyn, kereyit, yaghny kerey (búl jerde kereyit atyn saqtap qalghan taypanyng da baryn úmytpaghan jón – B.Q.),  doghlat, yaghny Úly jýzdegi dulat, kórleuit, yaghny qarlúq, qanly, qyrghyz» bolghanyn aitady[46].

Shapyrashtylardyng auyzeki tarihynyng birden-bir tolymdy núsqasy, dau joq,  Qazybek bek jazbalary bolyp tabylady. Ol atasy Matay jazbasyn negizge alyp týzgen shejire boyynsha – ótken tarauda ataghanymyzday, Shapyrashtynyng 21-shi úrpaghy Úran Shynghys hannyng Mayqy esimdi uәzirine ainalghanyn kórdik. Endeshe, osy shejirede aitylatyn әigili qahan jayyndaghy derekterdi mazmúnday ketken jón...

Qazybek bekting aituynsha, hijra boyynsha 478-jyly Naymannyng hany Tamtyq ólip, onyng eki balasy Býirek pen Baybúqa bir jesirge talasqan da, sonyng saldarynan handyq ydyraghan. Osyny paydalanghan Temir (Shynghys han) olargha tarpa bas salady. «Esukey balasy Temirding tauarih betine shyqqan shaghy osy-dýr», – deydi shejireshi.

Sóitip, әkesi Esukey ólgennen keyin on ýsh jyldan son, Temir Baybúqany Qanqay tauynda óltirip, elin baghyndyrghan.

Baybúqanyng balasy Qoshaq aghasy Býirekke qashyp baryp, qol jinay bastaydy.

Osy jerde Qazybek bek Shynghystyng kim ekenin aitpay túryp, Shynghys (Temir) naymangha nege shabuyl jasady degen saualdyng basyn asha ketkendi jón kóredi: «Ol shaqta Arqas pen Soqaq arasyndaghy qalyng júrtty (bizding eldi qosa) qara qytaydyng gorhany biyleytin-di. Temir qara qytaydyng tepkisinen qútylu ýshin, bar elding basyn qospaq boldy. Qytay qarshysy ol kezde Shu boyynda edi. Mine, Temirding negizgi kózdegeni osy bolatyn»[47].

Al ghylymy tarih HII ghasyrdyng ayaghy men HIII ghasyrdyng basynda Ortalyq Aziya men qazaq dalalarynda kóshpendi taypalar odaghy biyleushilerining arasynda ózge taypalargha da óz ýstemdigin ornatu maqsatymen jýrgiziluli kýresting kýsheygenin, soghysu, shayqasulardyng ýdey týskeninen habardar etedi. Búl shaqta kereyitter hany naymandarmen, monghol tildes tatar jәne merkit taypalarymen soghysqan bolatyn. Sol soghystargha Van hannyng vassaly retinde Temuchin belsene qatysty. Sóitip, sondaghy shayqastardyng barysynda Temuchin (Qazybek bek boyynsha – Temir) Ortalyq Aziya taypalaryn biriktirip, eng kýshti de qúdiretti jaulap alushygha ainalghan edi[48]. Odan son, Aziyanyng ishki shalghay audandarynyng úlan-baytaq jerin iyelengen monghol taypalary Temuchinning (Shynghys hannyn) basshylyghymen XIII ghasyrdyng ekinshi on jyldyghynda qazaq eli aumaghyn shapqynshylyqqa úshyratty.

Aziyany mekendegen ru-taypalar HII ghasyrdyng ayaghy men HIII ghasyrdyng basynda әleumettik-ekonomikalyq damudyng týrli satysynda bolatyn. Olar «orman» taypalary jәne dalalyq kóshpendiler dep bólingen edi. «Ormandyq» taypalar negizinen an-qús aulaumen kýn kóretin. Al dala taypalary kóshpendi ómir saltyn ústanyp, mal sharuashylyghymen ainalystyn-dy.  Kóshpendiler san jaghynan basym bolghandyqtan, sol shaqtaghy ru-taypalar qauymdastyqtarynyng sayasy ómirindegi jetekshilik sipat tanytqan negizgi  kýsh rólin atqardy. Múny «Birtútas monghol memleketining qúryluy jәne Shynghys han» degen enbeginde zertteushi Sh. Sandag atap ótedi. Ol XII—XIII ghasyrlardyng mejesinde monghol qoghamynda feodaldyq qatynastardyng qalyptasu ýderisi jýrip jatqanyn, kóshpendilerding osy qoghamynda taptyq sipattyng kózge úrghanyn, qoghamnyn  eki topqa – biyleushi noyandar men ezilgen arattargha bólingenin kórsetedi. Múnday pikirdi «Ejelgi mongholdar» degen enbeginde zertteushi N. Munkuev te aitady[49].

Jogharyda aitqanymyzday, XIII ghasyrdyng basynda Temuchin kóshpendi taypalar arasyndaghy shayqastarda erjýrek jauynger danqyna ie boldy. Údayy taytalas, kýres jaghdayynda óz ainalasyna senimdi nókerlerin toptastyryp, jauynger jasaq qúrdy da, kórshi taypalargha sәtti shabuyldar jasap, baghyndyrdy. Aqyry, ózining negizgi qarsylastarynyng tas-talqanyn shygharyp, ainalasyndaghy kýlli kóshpendi taypalardy týgelge juyq óz qol astyna biriktirudi ayaqtady. Ol kereyitter men naymandar úlystarynyng biyleushilerin kýizelte jengen sәtte Ortalyq Aziya dalalaryn mekendeushilerding barshasy moyyndaghan birden-bir qúdiretti qolbasshygha ainaldy. Sóitip, tatar-monghol taypalaryn sayasy jaghynan biriktirip, monghol memlekettigining tuyn kóterdi.

Osy jerde «kóshpendi» termiynining ghylymy әdebiyette keyingi jyldary «kóshpeli» týrinde aitylatynyna qaramastan, nege bizding ony qabyl almay, eskishe jazyp kele jatqanymyzdy týsindire ketken jón siyaqty. Bizding oiymyzsha, «kóshpendini» «kóshpelimen almastyru» – tildi qoldan kedeylendiruge aparatyn jol, óitkeni, búl eki sóz, shyndap kelgende, eki maghyna beredi  («kóshpendi» – kochevniyk, kóshpendi taypalar – kochevye plemena, al «kóshpeli» sózi – «peredvijnoy» degen úghymda týsiniledi, sonda «kóshpeli taypalar» – «peredvijnye plemena» bolyp shyghar edi). Demek, «kóshpendi» degen anyqtamalyq sózdi tildik qordan mýldem syzyp tastau – aghattyq. Múnday jolmen tildi bayytpaymyz, kerisinshe, maghynasy eki týrli eki sózdi jalghyz sózben almastyrudyng saldary tilimizdi kedeylendire týsuge aparady...

Úzamay Shynghys han esimimen jer-dýniyeni silkintetin osynau monghol memleketining negizin salushy Temuchin (Temudjiyn, Temujiyn) 1155–1162 jyldar shamasynda Onon ózeni (úzyndyghy 1000 shaqyrymnan asatyn búl ózenning 300 shaqyrymdayy Mongholiya jerimen, qalghan 700-dey shaqyrymy Resey Federasiyasynyng Zabaykalie ólkesi aumaghymen aghady)[50] boyyndaghy Delguun Boldog (Delun-Boldok alqaby Selenga men Onon ózenaralyghynan Buryatiya aumaghyna deyin sozylady)[51] alqabyn (mekendegen Esugey (Esukey, Esugay, Esuge) bahadýrding shanyraghynda dýniyege kelgen edi. (1227 jylghy tamyzdyng ortasy aua qazirgi Qytay Halyq Respublikasynyng Ganisu ólkesindegi Sya eldi mekeninde ómirden kóshken). Ol әueli 1189 jyly monghol hany saylandy. Sol jyldan bastap 1206 jylgha deyin qajyrlylyqpen jýrgizgen kýresteri nәtiyjesinde Shyghys Mongholiyadan Altay tauyna, ontýstiginde Úly Qytay qorghanyna  deyingi aumaqta ózara qyrqysqan kóshpendi týrki-monghol taypalaryn baghyndyryp, bir ortalyqqa biriktirdi. Eger búryn Mongholiyany mekendegen taypalardyng kópshiligi aralaryndaghy eng quatty taypalardyng birining atauy boyynsha – tatar degen atpen belgili bolsa, endi jana túrpatty memlekettik birlikting qúrylyp, nyghangyna baylanysty, barshasy da ózderin  monghol dep atay bastady.  Osylaysha, monghol atalymy jinaqtaushy etnostyq-sayasy mәnge ie boldy[52].

Temuchinning jana da eren memleket qúrudaghy enbegin kóp úzatpay,  1206 jyldyng kókteminde, Onon ózenining saghasynda ótken kóshpendi  aqsýiekterding Úly Qúryltayy sayasy túrghyda rәsimdedi. Temuchindi jaqtaushylardyng jinalysynda toghyz qyl qúiryq baylanghan qasiyetti aq tu saltanatpen jelbirete kóterildi. Osynday jaghdayda Temuchin mongholdardyng әmirshisi, úly han, qahan bolyp saltanatty týrde jariya etildi. Sonymen birge kúryltay Temuchinge Shynghys han ataghyn bekitip berdi. Shynghys han degen at artynsha-aq onyng ómirinen óz esimin yghystyryp shyghardy.

Qazaqy shejire boyynsha ol 2003 (dúrysy – 2006 – B.Q.) jyly «Shynghys tauynda han kóterilip, haqan, yaghny handardyng hany atanyp, ýlken han» bolghan[53]. Bayqalyp túrghanday, qazaqtar ózderining dәstýrli auyzeki shejiresinde Shynghys han taqqa otyrghan oryndy Altaydyng arghy jaghyndaghy aimaqtan emes, óz arasynan ataghan. Búl, birinshiden, qazaqy sanada onyng qazaq tynys-tirshiligine etene kirigip ketkendiginen tereng úyalap qaluynyng nәtiyjesi. Ekinshiden, degenmen, atalmysh jerde,  әlemdi titiretken әmirshi Shynghyshandy  qazaq jerine ayaq basqanynda, úly han retinde, әldebir jaghdaygha oray úlyqtau sharasy ótuine baylanysty bolsa kerek. Sondyqtan da «bizding qazaqtyng eski sózinshe», ony qazaqtyng әr tarabynan jiylghan iygi jaqsylary qúrmettegen.

«Shynghys tauynyng Shynghys  atanghany – bayaghyda Shynghys han tamam maghol-tatardy alyp, ýlken han bolghanda, osy Shynghys tauynda qol astyndaghy elderding tapbasy bekteri kelip, myna Qarauyl ózenining kýnshyghys jaghyndaghy Han biyigining basyna aq kiygizge salyp, han kóterip, Shynghysty alyp shyqqan», – deydi Shәkәrim Qúdayberdiúly. Ol Shynghystyng óz aty Temujin ekenin, ony ýlken han bolghandyqtan Shynghys dep ataghanyn әngimeleydi. Shynghystyng maghynasy – «bek myqty, zor» degendi bildiredi. Taudyng Shynghys atanuyn da, janyndaghy tóbening Han biyigi atanuy da, etektegi el qystap otyrghan ózenning Han ózeni atanghany da, Shәkәrimning el ishindegi saqtalghan әngimelerge sýienip aituynsha, sol jahandy dir qaqqyzghan Shynghyshan esimine baylanysty bolghan. Ábilghazy jazbalaryna qaraghanda, búl tau búryn Nayman kýre dep atalghan eken[54].

Shynghyshan ózi imperiyasynyng taghyna resmy otyrghan sonau 1206 jylghy tarihy Úly qúryltayda: «Men... barsha til toghysqan memleketti shynayy aqiqat jolyna baghyttadym jәne halyqtardy ózimning birtútas biyligime qarattym», – dep mәlimdegen-di[55].

Sol mәlimdemesin jasaghan sәtte ol, bәlkim, ózinen qashqan naymandar men merkitterdi óksheley quyp kele jatqanynda da, olardy Ertis ózenining jaghasynda 1208 jyly ekinshi mәrte tas-talqan  etip jengeninde de, odan song shapqynshylyqpen maqsatty týrde Batys pen Shyghysqa shygha bastaghanynda da, ózining jenisti joryqtarynyng nәtiyjesinde qanday biyikterdi baghyndyratynyn, qanday ataq pen danqqa bólenetinin elestete almaghan da bolar.

«Álemdi baghyndyrudy oiyna alghan Temuchiyn» degen enbeginde Shynghys hannyng sherulerin jan-jaqty qarastyrugha tyrysqan E.I. Kychanov merkitter men naymandardyng ýlken toby  Shynghyshangha qarsy birlesip әreket etuge kóshkenin aitady. Alayda 1209 jyly úighyr biyleushisi  (idiyqúty) olardy, óz iyeligin kesip ótpekke әrekettengen shaqtarynda,  tas-talqanyn shygharyp jendi. Sondyqtan da sodan әri olar әr jolmen ketuge mәjbýr boldy[56]. Nayman  ru-taypalarynyng aman qalghan bóligin Kýshlik han Jetisudaghy qaraqytaylar iyeligine әketti. Al merkitter Ortalyq Qazaqstan jaziralaryndaghy qypshaqtargha qaray qashty. Keyinirek merkittermen Torghay dalalarynda Joshy shayqasyp, olargha kýirete soqqy bergeni sonday, bastary birikpeytindey etip  ydyratyp jiberdi.

Jetisuda qalyptasqan kýrdeli jaghdaydy Kýshlik-han naymandardyng edәuir bóligimen sheginip kelgen bette paydalanyp qalugha tyrysqan bolatyn. Ol Jetisu men Shyghys Týrkistannyng jogharghy biyleushisining (gurhanynyn) senimine kirip aldy. Gurhan sol tústa (XII ghasyrdyng sony – XIII ghasyrdyng basy sheginde) ózine baghynudy qoyyp bara jatqan jergilikti vassaldaryn – Shyghys Týrkistandaghy Túrfan knyazdigining úighyr idiyqúty men  Jetisu qarlúqtary men qanlylardyng músylman biyleushilerin – nayman jauyngerlerining arqasynda basyp-janshyp, juasytyp, әbden moyyndatyp aludan dәmelengen edi. Alayda onyng senimine kirip alghan Kýshlik han 1210 jyly memlekettegi biylikti basyp aldy. Gurhandy taqtan taydyrdy, biraq óltirgen joq, ókimetting barlyq syrtky atributtaryn da ózgerissiz qaldyrdy. Ol qaraqytaylargha vassaldyghyn moyyndamay, is jýzinde tәuelsiz bolyp kele jatqan qarlýqtardy, qanlylardy, úighyrlardy ózine baghyndyrudy kózdep, olargha qarsy oirandy shapqynshylyqtaryn bastady.

Naymandardy Jetisugha bastap kelgen Kýshlik-hannyng qaraqytay ókimetin tartyp aluymen tynbay, ózderine qater tóndirgenine narazy bolghan  jergilikti shonjarlar, aqyry, osynday ahualdan shyghu jolyn izdestirdi.  Olar (qarlúqtardyng biyleushisi Arslan-han, Ile ózeni angharyndaghy Almalyqtyng biyleushisi Ozar (Búzar), úighyr idiyqúty Barshyq-art-tegin) Kýshlik-han men naymandardyng dúshpany bolyp tabylatyn mongholdardan kómek súrady[57]...

Shynghyshannyng bastauymen soghys oljasyna keneluding mýmkindikteri mol ekenin kórgen taypalar jaulap alushylyq jolgha týsken kóshpendilik memleketke yqylastana úiysty. Memleketting negizine әskeriy-úiymdyq ýrdis alynghan-dy. Býkil aumaq pen halyq ong qanat (barunghar), sol qanat (jonghar) jәne ortalyq (gol) dep atalyp, ýsh әskeriy-әkimshilik aimaqqa bólindi. Osy aimaqtar әrqaysysy on myng adamnan túratyn týmenderge bólindi. Árbir týmen (on myng adam) – «myndyqtardan»,  «myndyq» – «jýzdikterden», al «jýzdik» – «ondyqtardan» qúralatyn. Osynday retpen eldi de, әskerdi de basqaru jýzege asyryldy.

Býkil monghol eli 95 «myndyqqa» bólingen bolatyn. Solardyng bәri Shynghyshannyng tuystary men ýzengilesterine iyelik etuleri ýshin ýlestirilip berildi. Múnday әkimshilik-aumaqtyq bólinis eldi jaugershilik mýddege layyqtap basqaru isine óte qolaylylyq tughyzatyn.

Qahannyng tikeley ózine 10 myng adamnan túratyn kýzettik han gvardiyasy (kәshiyk) qyzmet etetin. Búl gvardiya kóshpendi  aqsýiekterden jasaqtaldy. Shynghyshannyng әskerbasylarynyng kópshiligi osy kәshikten ósip shyqty.

Osynday retpen qúrylghan әskeriy-әkimshilik jýie Shynghyshannyng kórshi ólkelerge jasaghan jaulap alushylyq joryqtarynda manyzdy ról atqarghan edi[58].

1207–1208 jyldary Shynghyshannyng ýlken úly Joshy Eniysey qyrghyzdary men Sibirding ontýstigindegi basqa da «orman halyqtaryn» baghyndyrdy. 1207–1209 jyldary Shynghyshan tanghút memleketin oirandady. Oghan tanghúttardyng batystaghy kórshileri (qazirgi Shyghys Týrkistan aumaghyndaghy úighyrlar) da baghyndy. Rashid ad-diyn, Djuveyni, Bartolid enbekterinde keltirilgen derekterge qaraghanda, úighyr biyleushisi   Barshyq idiyqút, jogharyda aitqanymyzday, Kýshlik-han bastaghan naymandardan qorghanu ýshin olardyng jauy mongholdargha iyek arta bastaghan-dy, sol sebepti ol ózin 1211 jyly Shynghyshannyng vassaly bolugha moyynsúndy. Sol jyly qolbasshy Qúbylay basqarghan monghol jasaqtary Jetisugha da kirdi. Soghan oray qarlúq biyleushisi Arslan-han Qoylyqtaghy qaraqytay namestniygin óltiruge әmir etti de, ózin Shynghyshannyng bodanymyn dep jariyalady. Almalyqta otyrghan Buzar da Shynghyshangha tәueldiligin moyyndady. Olardyng Shynghyshangha qalay baghynghany qytay, monghol, arab, parsy jazbasha derekkózderinde egjey-tegjeyli bayandalghan, búl «Qazaqstan tarihynda» atap ótiledi[59].

Sol 1211 jyly Shynghyshannyng qoly Soltýstik Qytaygha – Szini imperiyasymen soghysqa attanghan edi. Sodan, mongholdar Szini memleketining astanasy Chjundu (Beyjiyn) qalasyn 1215 jyly basyp alyp nauqandy oidaghyday ayaqtaghannan keyin, 1216 jyly qaytadan batysqa qaray qozghaldy. Qazaqstan men Orta Aziya aumaghyn alu arqyly ózine  Shyghys Evropa men Aldynghy Aziyagha jol ashatynyn oilaghan Shynghyshan oghan zor mәn berdi.

Batys joryghyna úzaq әri tynghylyqty әzirlenu barysynda mongholdar ózderine qyzmet etip jýrgen músylman kópesteri men qashyp kelushilerden әuelde qaraqytaylar memleketinin, sodan song horezmshahtyng ishki jaghdayy men soghys kýshteri turaly mәlimetter alyp, saraptady. Sóitip, solardyng negizinde әbden oilastyrylghan is-qimyl josparyn jasaghan bolatyn.

1218 jyly mongholdardyng batysqa qaray joryghy tegeuirindi týrde janghyrdy. Shynghyshan әskerining qolbasshysy Jebe-noyan nayman hany Kýshlikting iyeligindegi aimaq shegine kirgen bette arnayy búiryq shyghardy. Jarshylar shúghyl týrde habarlaghan jana әmir boyynsha – birinshiden, beybit túrghyndardyng dýniye-mýlkine jauyngerlerding tiiine tyiym salyndy, ekinshiden,   músylmandardyng diny qúqyghyn qalpyna keltiru qamtamasyz etildi. Búghan deyin jetisulyq jergilikti músylman búqara qaraqytay gurhany túsynda jasalmaghan diny qudalaushylyqqa tap bolyp, hristian jәne buddashyl naymandardyng qysym kórsetui men olardyng jetekshisi Kýshlikting әkimshilik jolmen tyiym saluy  saldarynan namazdaryn meshitterde oqy almay, qatty zardap shegip jýrgen edi. Sondyqtan jetisulyqtar mongholdardy quana qarsy aldy[60].

Naymandardyng biyleushisi el-júrtty diny qughyn-sýrginge úshyratqandyqtan, ózge dinge tózimdi qaraytyn Shynghyshan qúddy azattyq әkelushidey qabyldandy.  Onyng barsha din bitkenge teng qaraytyny, eshqaysysyna artyqshylyq berudi qoldamaytyny Shәkәrim jazghan «Shynghys han shejiresinde» de atap ótiledi. Ol: «Jer jýzining bәri qúdaydyng ýii bolsa kerek», yaghny barsha júrt ýshin «bir ghana jerdi qúdaydyng ýii demek dúrys emes», – dep sanaghan[61]. Ózi tәnirshil, biraq bodandarynyng basqa ilanym ústanuyna kedergi  jasamaytyn Shynghyshan jәne onyng mongholdary Kýshlik han men  hristiandyq joldaghy naymandardyng músylmandargha ozbyrlyq kórsetip, olardyng bas qosyp qúlshylyq jasau rәsimderine tyiym salghanyn, diny qudalaushylyqqa salynghanyn onyng memleketin basyp alu isine sheber paydalandy.

Músylmandardyng jariya týrde qúdaygha qúlshylyq etu qúqy qalpyna keltirilsin degen búiryq ong nәtiyjesin berdi. Kýshlikting iyeligindegi qalalar mongholdargha eshbir úryssyz-aq berildi. Al qashyp ketken Kýshlik-handy mongholdar (Djuveyni, Bartolid boyynsha – Badahshanda, Rashid ad-diyn  boyynsha – Shyghys Týrkistandaghy Sarykólde) quyp jetip, óltirdi[62].

Shynghyshan mongholdarynyng Shyghys Týrkistan men Jetisudy basyp aluy olardyng aldynan Ontýstik Qazaqstan men Orta Aziyagha barar joldy ashty. Orta Aziyada Shynghyshannyng jenimpazdyghy jayynda jetken habar týrli pikir tughyzdy. Horezmshah Múhammed Mongholiyagha az uaqytta eki birdey elshilik attandyrdy. 1218 jyldyng kókteminde Shynghyshan da oghan elshilik jiberdi.  Sodan keyin Orta Aziyagha qaray sauda kerueni jolgha shyqty. 500 týie, 450 adamy bar ýlken  keruen 1218 jyldyng jazynda Otyrargha jetti. Otyrardyn biyleushisi qypshaq Ghayyr-han kópesterge tynshylyq jasady degen kýdik keltirdi de,  olardy óltiruge búiyrdy.

Shynghyshannyng Ghayyr-handy ústap beru jónindegi talabyn horezmshah Múhammed oryndamady. Orynday da almas edi, óitkeni, Nisaviyding aituynsha, әskerding kóp bóligi jәne joghary dәrejeli әskerbasylar Ghayyr-hannyng qypshaq tuystary bolatyn: memlekettegi tolyq biylik jýrgizu is jýzinde solardyng qolynda edi[63].

Horezmge qarsy soghysu ýshin, jalpy Orta Aziyany baghyndyru ýshin Shynghyshan odaqtastarymen – Jetisu qarlúqtarymen jәne Shyghys Týrkistan úighyrlarymen birigip 150 myng jauyngeri bar armiya jasaqtady.

1219 jyldyng kyrkýieginde Shynghyshan joryqqa Ertis jaghalauynan shyqty. Áskerin búrynghy jihangerler jýrgen jolmen, Jetisu arqyly Syrdariyagha bastady. Otyrargha tayanghanda – qalany  qorshap alugha úldary Shaghatay men Ýgedey basqarghan qosyndardy  qaldyrdy. Syrdariyanyng tómengi aghysyndaghy  Jent jәne Jankent qalalaryna ýlken úly Joshyny jiberdi. Syrdyng jogharghy aghysyndaghy qalalardy baghyndyrugha ýshinshi jasaqty attandyrdy. Al ózi negizgi kýshterimen Búharagha bettedi.

Otyrardy 1219 jyldyng qara kýzinde qorshaugha alghan jaulaushylargha jarty jylday qarsylyq kórsetildi. Qamal  qorghaushylar týgel qyrylghannan keyin ghana, 1220 jylghy aqpanda alyndy. Dariya boyyndaghy basqa qalalardyng túrghyndary da erlikpen qorghandy. Qypshaqtardyng memlekettik birlestigining ortalyghy Syghanaqty Joshy jasaghymen jeti kýn, jeti týn qorshap túryp, aqyry, shabuyldap basyp aldy da, túrghyndardy týgel qyryp saldy. Odan song monghol qoly Ashnasqa keldi. Qatty  qarsylyq kórsetken qala túrghyndarynyng kópshiligin tas-talqan  etti.  Búl oqighalar 1220 jylghy qys pen kóktemde oryn aldy.

Joshy 1220 jyly Aral ónirindegi Jentte túrdy, al 1221 jyly Soltýstik Horezm aumaghyndaghy Amudariyagha baryp, auyr shayqaspen Ýrgenish qalasyn aldy.  Sosyn Aral tenizining soltýstik-shyghysyndaghy qazaq jazirasyna joryqqa attandy. Qalyng qolmen baryp, kypshaqtardy jendi.

Jebe-noyan men Sýbedey-noyan 1220 jyly Soltýstik Irannan shyghyp, Kavkazgha basyp kirdi.  Alandardy, orys jylnamalarynda polovester dep atalatyn qypshaqtardy jendi. Qalqa ózeninde orystardy tas-talqan etti. Odan orys jerining ontýstik aimaghyna oiran saldy. Sosyn shyghysqa oraldy. Aqyry, qazaq jeri arqyly Shynghyshannyng Ertistegi ordasyna 1224 jyly qaytyp keldi.

Sóitip, mongholdardyng bes jylgha sozylghan jihangerligi nәtiyjesinde atalghan zor aimaq, onyng ishinde úlan-baytaq qazaq jerleri Shynghyshan imperiyasynyng qúramyna kirdi. Osynau qúdiretti imperiya Ortalyq Aziyanyng týrki taypalary negizinde qúrylghan edi, múny san týrli tilde saqtalghan jazbasha derekkózder kuәlandyrady[64].

Búghan, sonday-aq, Shynghys handy qazaq retinde qarastyratyn shejireler, әsirese biz tilge kóbirek tiyek etip otyrghan Qazybek bek jazbalary da kuәlik etedi. Jogharyda aitqanymyzday, osynau Matay–Qazybek shejiresinde Shapyrashty Úran esimdi adamnyng jeke basynyng qasiyetteri arqasynda ejelgi zamandaghy atasynyng esimimen Mayqy atanyp, Shynghys hannyng uәzirlerining biri bolghany atalady[65].

Jetisu jerindegi  memlekettik qúrylymdardyng Shynghys han jasaqtaryn, ghylymy tarihta aitylatynday, quana qarsylaghanyn eske alghanda, sol shaqtaghy keybir jәitterding anyz týrinde shejirege qazaq ómirining kórinisi ispetti enip ketuine tanyrqaugha bolmas ta. Shynghys ómiri әlemdik tarihy әdebiyette jetkilikti týrde zerttelgeni belgili. Sondyqtan da Qazybek bek shejiresindegi derekter ghylymdy eleng etkizerliktey naqty aqiqatty bildire qoiy neghaybyl, әitse de, qarastyryp otyrghan taqyrybymyz ynghayynda ony shola ketu abzal.

Shejireshi Temuchindi qazaqy tilmen Temir dep atay otyryp: «Temir de Jalayyr (Merke) taypasynan shyqqan, – deydi. – Onyng atalary Jalayyrdan — Oraqty, onyng ishinde Andastan taraytyn. Jannyng balasy Merkening (Jalayyrdyng shyn aty) Shynghys han-Temir — jiyrma besinshi úrpaghy». Búl, әriyne, taza qazaqylandyrylghan, ghylymy derekterge juyspaytyn maghlúmat.  Temuchin mongholdyng qiyat-bordjigin (Shәkәrimshe – Borjyghyn Qiyat[66]) taypasynan shyqqan Esugey-bahadýr men qonyrat taypasynyng olqúnút  ruynan shyqqan Oelun-fudjinning (hatunnyn) shanyraghynda dýniyege kelgen[67].

Esugey bahadýrding Oelunge ýilenui jayynda Qazybek bek bylay deydi: «Shynghystyng (Temirdin) sheshesi Óleng (Oelun – B.Q.) ýiinde Esukeyden jýkti bolyp, әkesi qonyrat Asau han ony quyp jibergen. Ekiqabat Óleng qanghyp jýrip Esukeydi tapqan. Esukey asa batyr adam bolghan». Al býginde ghylym moyyndaghan mәlimet boyynsha, Esugey-bahadýr birde merkit hanzadasynyng qalyndyghyna kózi týsip, ghashyq bolady da, merkitter keruenin shabady. Kýime ishindegi aiday súlu Oelundy oljalap әketip, әieli etedi[68].

Qazybek bek odan song Shynghyshannyng atalaryn bylay taratady: «Merkening (Jalayyrdyn) balasy – Manaq, odan – Oraqty, odan – Andas, odan – Or, odan – Ontýr, odan – Bәkir, odan – Úzyq, odan – Tor, odan – Kók, odan – Bógde, odan – Qara, odan – Búryq, odan – Ker, odan – Qúnmyr, odan – Búryl, odan – Shamshy, odan – Tileuberdi, odan – Kashau, odan – Dosan, odan – Túrymtay (ataqty sheshen bolghan), odan – Túmaghúl, odan – Din, odan – Bayan, odan – Esukey». Shynghyshan shejiresine Shәkәrim de kónil bólgen. Ol búl rette Ábilghazy derekterine sýienedi. «Shynghys hannan búrynghy atalar kónilge asa senimdi bolmasa da, bizding músylman shejiresinde osy Ábilghazy sózinen anyqtysy bolmasa kerek, sebebi Ábilghazy han on jeti shejire kitabyn salystyryp, әbden anyqty degenin alyp jazghan», – deydi ol[69].

Shәkәrimshe – Adam-ata men Haua-ana «balalary búzyqtyq qylyp, dinnen shyqqan son, Alla taghala qahar qylyp, topan su jibergen» de,  jer betindegi adamdar men jan-januardyng bәri qyrylyp ketken. Sol aqyrzamanda «Núh payghambar ýsh balasymenen, onyng qatyndary  Alla taghalanyng әmirimenen kemege kirip, aman qalypty. Osy kýngi barsha adam balalary sol Núhtyng ýsh balasy – Sam, Ham, Yafastyng nәsili». Yafastyng segiz balasy bolghan, ýlkeni – Týrik (Týrk, Týrki – B.Q.). Týrkiden – Elje han,  odan – Bakoy han, odan – Kiyik han, onyng balasy – Alanshy han. «Múnyng uaqtyna sheyin halyq músylman edi, sol kezde búzylyp, suretke tabyndy. Alanshynyng eki balasy – Tatar, Maghol. Alanshy qol astyndaghy elin eki balasyna bólip bergen son, Tatar qol astyndaghy el Tatar atanyp, Maghol qol astyndaghy el Maghol (Monghol – B.Q.) atandy...»[70]

Tatar men Maghol әuelde tatu bolghan, Tatar hannyng jetinshi úrpaghy Sýiinish hannyng túsynda olar «jaulasyp shabysty». Maghol hannyng әldeneshe ghasyrdan keyingi úrpaghy Týmen hannyng toghyz balasy bolghan eken. Ishinde Qajúl jәne Qabúl esimdi eki úl egiz bolypty. Solardyng biri «Qabul – Shynghys hannyng arghy atasy, Qajul – Ámir Temirding arghy atasy». Qabuldyng ýlken úly – Bartan han,  onyng ýlken úly Esukey batyr (Esugey bahadýr)[71]...

«Esukeyding әieli Óleng Qonyrat ishinde Kókting úly deytin atanyng qyzy edi, – deydi Qazybek bek. – Temirding (Shynghystyn) әkesi Esukey erte ólip, onyng sheshesi Óleng Qonyrattyng belgili bii Menlekege tiygen-di. Ólenning Menlekeden tughan on úly Temirdi bólektep shydatpaghan. Sonan song ol olardan bezip, qayta Jalayyr ishine qashyp ketti. Mine Shynghystyn, jalpy tórelerding taraq tamghaly (tanbaly – B.Q.) boluy da osydan edi»[72].

Búl jerde auyzeki shejirede aitylghandardyng ghylymy zertteulerge sýiengen enbekterde rastala bermeytinine eriksiz nazar audara ketuge tura keledi.

Esugey bahadýr Oelunnen Temuchinnen keyin ýsh úl (Hasar, Hachi-un, Temuge-Otchigiyn) jәne bir qyz (Temuliyn) kórgen, ekinshi әieli Sochihilden Bekter jәne Belghútay degen eki úly bolghan. Temuchin 9–10 jasqa kelgende, onyng әkesi Esugeydi Altaydan arghy dala tósinde qatar kóship-qonyp jýrgen tatar taypasy ishindegi  dúshpandary ulap óltiredi. Sonda onyng tuystary men baghynyshtylarynyng kópshiligi kópe-kórneu opasyzdyq jasap, kýni keshe qúzyryna bas shúlghyp túrghan bahadýrding otbasyna, ol opat bolghannan keyin,  qaramay ketedi. Aynalasynan sonday satqyndyq kórgen Temuchin anasy Oelunmen jәne  bauyrlarymen birge ózderimen ózderi, an-qús, balyq aulap kýn kóruge mәjbýr bolady[73].

Qazybek bekting shejiresine múnday jaghday ilikpegen, onda jogharyda aitylghan ahualdan keyin de Temuchin ómiri qazaqy týrde bylay órbitile beredi: «Ol kezde manghol, qazaq degen joq, úru-úrumen ghana atalsa kerek-ti. Sonymen, on jastan jana asqan Temir qonyrat tәrbiyesimen ósti de, ózi de alghashqy әieli Bórteni – Joshynyn, Shaghataydyn, Ýgedeydin, Tólening sheshesin – qonyrattan aldy. Shynghys, býgingi tauarih saraptaushy ghalymdar aitqanday, bir ynghay múnghol deu eshbir shyndyqqa kelmeydi. Onyng bar bitim-bolmysy qazaqy edi de, qazaqty jappay qyrdy degen haybar». – HIII ghasyrda týrki taypalary qazaq atymen әli de úiysa qoymaghandyqtan, múny da auyzsha aitylatyn shejirening kemistigine balaymyz. HI ghasyrdyng ortasyna taman Altaydyng arghy betindegi qazirgi Resey Federasiyasy men Mongholiyagha kiretin dalalyq aumaqta monghol jәne týrki (qiyat, qataghan, tatar, merkit, kereyit, nayman, qonyrat, olhunut, qyrghyz, t.b.) taypalary aralas-qúralas kóship qonyp jýretin. Olar týgil, sol shaqta qazaq jazirasynda túrghan taypalar da qazaq atyn ala qoymaghan.

Degenmen, Qazybek bekting jazbasyndaghy keybir derekteri eleng etkizedi, mәselen, shejireshi: «Onyng jaman dәrip aluy Búiryq hannyng qolyndaghy jeti tuly, dәlirek aitsaq, jeti myng qoldy basqarghan nayman qolbasy Kýshikti óltirui edi», – deydi. Búl jerdegi Kýshik – ghylymy tarihta aitylatyn, jogharyda keltirilgen Kýshlik-han bolugha kerek. Jetisu men Ortalyq Qazaqstannyng tolyq biyleushisi bolyp alghan Kýshlik basqarghan naymandardy 1218 jyly mongholdar talqandap, qashyp ketken Kýshlikti quyp jetip óltirdi[74].

«Kýshik – qazirgi on eki ata Jalayyrdyng bir atasynyng basy, – dep naqtylay týsedi shejireshi. – Onyng túqymy býginde Jalayyr Kýshik atalady. Qazaqtyng Temirdi (Shynghysty) bir jek kórgeni – osy óz tuysqany Jalayyr túqymyna qol salghandyghy». Alayda, Kýshlik – elin Shynghys shabatyn nayman hany Tayannyng úly[75]. Ghylymy tarihta derekkóz retinde qaralghan Djuveyni, Rashid ad-diyn, Bartolid enbekteri boyynsha, jogharyda aitqanymyzday, Jetisugha qyrghiday tiygen hristian-naymandardyng basshysy Kýshlikti mongholdar qashyp bara jatqan jerinen quyp jetip, Badahshanda, әlde Shyghys Týrkistandaghy Sarykólde basyn alghan[76]. Atalmysh shejire, biraq, sol oqighagha baylanysty: «Shynghysty – Temirdi – han kótergen Jalayyr, Arghyn, Nayman – bәri qarghap-silegen», – deydi. Qyzyghy, «aqyry Temir óz qatesin moyyndap, qazaqtyng aituly ýsh úruy – Arghyn, Nayman, Jalayyr jaqsylary aldynda qúldyq úrghan», – dep, qatygez әmirshining taqqa otyru tarihy men minez-qúlqyna qazaqy sipat bere týsedi...

«Sol biyler ýisin Úran-Mayqy bi, Bóribek sheshen qazaqtyng odan basqa da Qaldar, Orqash, Týmen, Temirqút, Tulaq biyleri ony (yaghni, Shynghyshandy – B.Q.) tirep túrdy», – degen jazba joldary da tarihy aqiqattan góri auyzsha ata shejiresi maqsatyna tәn әsireleuge búrylynqyrap ketetin tәrizdi. Degenmen, shejireshinin: «Úran-Mayqy – Bәidibek baydyng jiyrma ýshinshi úrpaghy», – degen joldan Bәidibek pen Mayqy by ómir sýrgen aralyqta bes-alty ghasyr ótkenin shamalaymyz. «Al Bóribek – Bәidibekpen birge tughan Jәnibek úrpaghy. Býginde olar býkil eli otyz-qyryq qana týtin» degen joldar sol alys zamandarda jekelegen ru-taypalardyng biri kóbeyip, biri azayyp, tipti óship jatqanyn týsinuge jәrdemdesedi.

Óz jazbalarynda Qazybek bektin: «Temirdi alghash aq kiyizge orap han kótergen de Nayman tau (keyin Shynghys atandy), Degeleng tóniregindegi Arghyn, Nayman, Jalayyrlar bolatyn. Ol 605-jyl edi», – degenining Shәkәrimmen ýndes[77] shyqqanyn anghara otyryp, degenmen, auyzeki shejire boyynsha aitylyp otyrghan uaqyttyng naqty mezgilden – Temirdi (Temuchindi) Shynghys atandyrghan Úly qúryltay ótken 1206 jyldan mýldem alshaqtyghyn da aita ketuge tiyispiz: shejirede «Temirdi alghash aq kiyizge orap han kótergen» uaqyt delinetin hijranyng 605-shi jyly  hristian jylsanaghynyng 1190-shy jylyna sәikes keledi. Búl shamamen – Temuchinning alghash ret monghol úlysynyng hany bolyp saylanghan (1182 j.[78] әlde 1189 j.[79]) uaqyty...

Qazybek bekting aituynsha, Shynghyshannyng «ýnemi qara qytaylarmen jany qas boldy. Al naymandy, kereydi shabuy da osyghan baylanysty bolatyn». Mongholdyng qúpiya shejiresi men ózge de tarihy jazbalaryn, ortaghasyrlyq shyghys avtorlaryn múqiyat zertteu nәtiyjesinde ortaq pikir qorytylghan, búl kýnde kópke mәlim maghlúmat boyynsha, Shynghyshannyng arghy atalarynyng biri Ambaghay handy qytaylar azaptap óltirgen-tin. Óler aldynda ol úrpaqtaryna ózin qytaylargha ústap bergen tatarlardan ósh aludy amanat etken edi. Shynghys qahan jauynan ata kegin qaytaru ýshin tynymsyz kýres jýrgizdi, sonday múqalmas erik-jigerining arqasynda, ózining 1223 jyly qytay ghúlamasy Su Chy Jiyge syr etip aitqanynday, iri jenisterge jetti[80].

Shynghys qahannyng jeke basynyng jýrekjútqan batyldyghy, batyrlyghy, erligi jәne úshqyr oiy men keng payym jasay biletin alghyrlyghy ony jas kezinen erekshe túlgha retinde tanytqan-dy. Shynghyshan sonymen birge ór minezdi edi, óte tabandy, airyqsha maqsatkerligimen tamsandyratyn ghalamat qayratker edi. Algha qoyghan maqsatyn oryndasymen, ol artynsha odan da biyik mejege úmtylatyn.  Sol qasiyetterining arqasynda Shynghyshan derbes taypalardyng basyn qosyp, birikken Mongholiyanyng úly hany – qahan bolghannan son, ózining әskery qolbasshylyq, әskeriy-úiymdastyrushylyq darynyn syrtqy dúshpandaryn jenuge, basqa elderdi baghyndyryp alugha  júmsady.

Ol әrbir jýrgizgen soghysyn sәtti ayaqtap, aibynyn asqaqtata týsti. 1211 jyldan Eke mongol ulus (Úly Monghol úlysy,  Úly Monghol memleketi) atanghan imperiyasy 1224 jylgha qaray Soltýstik Qytaydan bastap kýlli qazirgi Orta Aziya men Qazaqstandy alyp jatty. Shynghyshan qaytys bolghannan keyin de úly qahannyng jaugershilik jolyn úrpaqtary sәtimen jalghastyryp, 1260 jylgha qaray barsha әlemdik imperiyalar ishindegi eng iri, jeri úlan-baytaq jәne quaty bәrinen kýshti, shyghysynda – Sary tenizden, batysynda – Dunay men Evfratqa deyin  sozylghan, Qiyr Shyghys pen Shyghys Evropa, Aldynghy Aziya aumaqtaryn mekendeytin san halyqty, elder men memleketterdi biriktirgen alyp imperiya qúrdy[81].

Shynghyshan bólek-bólek kóshpendi taypalardy bir úlysqa biriktirudi әuelde kereyitke sýienip, «magholdy az-azdap jinap, tatar hәm merkitpen jaulasyp», shynynda, eng aldymen naymandy aludan bastady[82]. «Onyng ataghy kereyitter hanynyng naymandarmen, merkittermen jәne tatarlarmen soghystarynda arta týsti, búl soghystarda bolashaq Shynghyshan kereyit hanynyng vassaly retinde әreket ete kele, erekshe jigermen qatysuyn tanytqany sonday, oghan tipti qúrmetti mәrtebe de berildi»[83]. Ayryqsha erlikterimen kózge týsken jas batyr Temuchinge «shekaradaghy ókiletti dala komissary» maghynasyndaghy «Chja ohuri» ataghy berilgen bolatyn[84]. Sodan bastap onyng quaty arta bastady da, kereyit hanyna baghynyshtylyq ahualy dogharyldy. Ol 1203 jyly kereyitterdi shapty, kelesi jyly qyryq bes myndyq qolmen naymandar men merkitterge qarsy joryq jasady. Ertis jaghasynda olargha 1208 jyly ekinshi ret soqqy berip, tas-talqan etti. Nayman men merkitting oghan baghynghysy kelmegen bóligi Ertisten ótip, qazirgi qazaq dalasyna qashty...[85]

Qazybek bek «Nayman hany Tamtyq» dep, ynghayy, Tayan handy ataghan sekildi. Nayman hany «qara qytaygha qarsy soghysqa, Jetisudy bosatugha qatysqysy kelmedi», – deydi shejireshi. Naqty ahualgha sәikes kelmeytin payymyn ol odan әri: «Qoldan biylikti Temirge berudi ózine ar sanady, namystandy. Pendeshilik túrghydan kelgende, Tamtyqgiki de dúrys deu shamagha keledi, óitkeni ózi bi, ózi qoja bolyp otyryp, endi júrt solay úigharghan eken dep, irgeli el Naymandy nege Jalayyrdyng jetimine ústata salmaq», – dep sabaqtaydy. Shejireshining oiynsha, búl dúrys emes: nelikten «qazaq qauymy – Arghyn, Alshyn, Ýisin bolyp Temirdi tóbesine kóteredi» de, irgeli el Naymannyng hany «Tamtyqty nege shettetedi?» osynday qate kózqarastyng saldarynan, «mine, Shynghys júrt úigharymyna qarsy bolghan Tamtyqtyng aqyry týbine jetti». – Búl joldar da jogharyda kórsetilgen kemshilikting jalghasynday. Auyzsha әngimeleushining naqty tarihy jaghdaydy tym qaradýrsin, búrmalanqy, tipti qate әdipteui saldarynan osylay tújyrymdalghan syqyldy.  Atalghan búrmalaular jazba jýrgizgen shejireshining el auzyndaghy sózdi, ynghayy, syny payymgha salmay, sol qalpy qaghazgha týsirgeninen tughan bolar.

Tap sonday, anyz ispetti sózder kereyitterge qatysty da aitylghan. «Al Kereydi shapqany da osy sebep edi, – deydi shejireshi, – onyng ýstine Kereyding Abaq-Kereyinen taraytyn Merkitte búrynnan ketip jýrgen óshi de bar edi. Búrynghy bir soghysynda Bórteni Merkitter qolgha týsirip, ony qúrsaqtandyryp qaytarghan. Sondyqgan Merkitti de shapty». Onyng bayandauynsha, Merkitter osy kezde atasynyng Ýisin ekeni esine týsip, qabyrghaly el, qalyng Ýisinning iygi jaqsylaryna hat jazghan kórinedi. Onyn:  «Men Merkit – Shapyrashty balasymyn, Ýisin – Kerey ekeuining talasymyn. Sarsaqaldan qorghaghyn, qonys bergin, Qalaymyn taudyng ýstin Qarqarany, Labas, Arqas ekeui arasynyn», – degen bir auyz óleni atalmysh shejireshi ómir sýrgen dәuirge deyin el auzynda jýrgen kórinedi. Avtor: «Shynynda da, Merkitter sol shaqta Múzart pen Torayghyr ekeuining arasynan Qarqara jaylauynan qonys alghan. Merkitter Jetisugha kelgen son, islam dinine kirip, әlhamgha tilin keltirip, kәlimagha kelgen», – dep jazady.

Búdan búryn da aitqanymyzday, 2006 jyly Temuchin Onon ózeni jaghasynda ótken Úly Qúryltayda Shynghys esimdi qahan bolyp saylanghannan keyin, 2008 jyly, Ertis jaghalauynda naymandar men merkitterdi ekinshi ret talqandady. Odan, birigip qimyl jasamaq bolghandarynda, olardy úighyr biyleushisi (idiyqúty) tas-talqan etti. Sodan son, tarih ghylymy tújyrymdaghanday, naymandardy Kýshlik han Jetisugha әketti. Al merkitter Arqagha qashty. Ortalyq Qazaqstan dalalaryndaghy qypshaqtar arasyna ketti...[86]

Shejireshinin: «Temir Nayman tauda býkil qazaq Aq, Jan, Bal, Bol – tórteuining túqymy tegis han kótergen son, ózining ordasyn, qarshysyn týgendedi. Bas uәzirge elge ataq-danqy dәriptelgen Túranbay balasy Úrandy aldy. Erkin uәzirlikke Arghyn Quandyq Toqy biydi qoydy. Jalayyr Qorym balasy Múqali әmir boldy», – degeni, ókinishke qaray, kóne derekkózderge ilikpegen mәlimetter tәrizdi. Jarty milliondyq әskerdi bastaghandardyng kóbi «bizding týrkiler – qazaqtar» edi deydi ol. Ras, Shynghys qolynda mongholdar da bolghanyn moyyndaydy, tek olardy bary-joghy tórt jarym myng ghana adam dep biledi. «Odan basqa otyz eki myng tatarlar bar-dy. Tatarlar da týrikshe sóileytin júrt bolatyn. Shynghystyng jarty million soghys qoly tegis týrikshe sóileytin, 450 myndayy Arystyng bes balasynyng ýrim-bútaghy bolatyn».

Al ghylymy tarih boyynsha, 1219 jyly Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan aumaghyn alu ýshin Ertisten bastalghan onyng joryghyna qatysqan әskerding jalpy sany, jetisulyq qarlúq Arslan-han men shyghystýrkistandyq úighyr idiyqúty Barshúq jasaqtaryn qosqanda, 120–150 mynday adamnan túratyn[87].

Moyyndau lәzim, jogharyda keltirilgen payymdarymen qatar, shejireshinin: «Eger tauarihtyng jýzine tura qarar bolsaq, Shynghys qazaq jerindegi biylikke talasqandargha ghana qatty keldi. Ol Arghynnyn, Ýisinnin, Qypshaqgyng qylshyghyn qisaytqan joq. Qayta olardyng jauyngerligine qúldyq asyp otyrdy», – degeni, sonday-aq: «Shynghys әlipti tayaq dep bilmeytin, sauaty joq adam bolatyn. Onyng barlyq sheshimi, ókili Úran-Mayqy men Toqy biyding qúptauynsyz jýzege aspady», – dep tújyrylghan sózderi de birjaqtylau, әlemdi titiretken úly әmirshi dәrejesin retsizdeu әri qisynsyz tómendetuge tyrysu jәne qazaqy arghy atalardyng keybireulerin tym artyghyraq dәripteu bolyp shyqqan[88].

Kózi qaraqty oqyrman angharghan bolar, Qazybek bek shejiresinde Shynghyshannyng shyqqan tegi jalayyr bolyp kórsetilgen. Búl jazbada, sonday-aq, anyzgha ainaldyrylghan ózge de qazaqy bayandaular jetkilikti. Auyzeki shejire sonysymen  erekshelenetin bolsa kerek. Jogharyda  keltirilgen jәne tómende de retine qaray әngimelenetin jazba tarih pen auyzsha shejire aiyrmashylyghyn oqyrmannyng ózi angharuy ýshin, myna ýzikke kóz salayyq:  «Shynghys han Abaq Kereymen jaulasyp jýrgende, Bórte bәibishe Abaqtyng túqymy Merkitterding qolyna týsip, Joshygha Merkitting Beren degen jigitinen jýkti bolyp qaytypty. Sondyqtan Shynghys ómir baqy Joshyny únatpay, kónilinde kýptilik túryp alypty. Joshy Jetisudy, Qazaqstannyng týstigin qansha jalynyp súrasa da, bermey qoyypty. Ondaghysy Shynghys Merkitting týbining Aqsaqaldan (Saqaldyng Aghynan) ekenin bilgendikten, bú jaqqa jolatpapty. Joshy týbin tauyp, ol ósekke jol ashady, al ósek shyn-qúz bolyp túrghan hannyng bedeline núqsan keltiredi-mis. Bәribir Joshy múnday tómennen tughanyna qysyla qoymapty. Ghúmyrynyng bәrin bir qazaq qalay ótkizse, solay ótkizgen. Tipti balasy Batyigha da múny jasyrmay aityp otyrady eken degen sóz qalghan. Shynghys jylylyq tanytpaghanda, Joshy әkesine bylay depti degen bir auyz óleng bizge jetken. Ony maghan jetkizushi elimizding ýsh serkesining biri Bógenbay qart. «– Sening týbing – Jalayyr, Mening tegim – Abaq-ty, Ekeui de bir tughan Bersey jyly qabaqty?» Shynghys sap-sary saqalyn syipap kýlip jiberip, jauap bermey, ornynan túryp ketipti»[89].

Joshy han – Shynghys qahannyng qúrghan imperiyasynyng tórt negizgi tireui bolghan, qahannyng «tórt kýligi» atanghan tórt úlynyng ýlkeni, sol kezgi sayasy sana túrghysynan – «altyn úryqtyn» («altyn rudyn», «asyl túqymnyn») basynda túrghan shynghystúqymdy shynayy tórt atanyng (Joshy, Shaghatay, Ýgedey, Tóley) biri.

1219–1224 jyldary Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan aumaghyndaghy elderdi baghyndyrudy ayaqtaghannan keyin, Shynghyshan «tórt kýliktin» әrqaysysyna bir-bir úlys bólip berdi. Úlystardyng qahan ordasynan qashyqtyghy «kýlikterdin» jasyna sәikes belgilendi.

«Tórt kýliktin» eng kishisi – tórtinshi úly Tuluy (Tóley) ózining «Otchigiyn», yaghny «Ýidegi oshaqtyn, ottyng iyesi, Qara shanyraqty ústaytyn úl» degen qúrmetti mәrtebesine say, Shynghyshannyng týpkilikti júrty – Ortalyq Mongholiyany iyelenuge taghayyndaldy. Tóleyden ýlkeni – ýshinshi úly Ýgedeyge Batys Mongholiyany Tarbaghataygha deyin, ekinshi úly Shaghataygha Shyghys Týrkistan, Jetisudyng kóp bóligi jәne Maverannahr berildi.

Al birinshi «kýlik» – ýlken úly Joshy Ertisten Edilding tómengi aghysyna deyingi jazirany, Jetisudyng bir bóligi men Soltýstik Horezm shegine sheyingi alqapty biyleuge taghayyndaldy.

Joshynyng tegine kýdik keltiretin ósekke baylanysty, Bórte-hatundy jaqtap sóilegen imperiyadaghy yqpaldy adamdardyng biri Koko-Sos: «Bizding qasiyetti hanshanyng jany taza – qúddy kókte kóz úyalta jarqyraghan kýn dersin, oiy ken-shalqar – qúddy kól dersin», – dey otyryp, qahannyng «kýlikterinin» – úldarynyng óz anasyna kýdik keltirui jaqsy emestigin aitqan-dy. Sonda Shynghyshan da «kýlikterinin» ýlkeni Joshy ekenin balalarynyng esterine salyp, onday әngimenin  búdan әri qaytalanuyna qatang tyiym salghan bolatyn[90].

Taghy bir eskeretin jәit – jogharyda keltirilgen shejire ýziginde Joshy hannyng balasy Batyy dep atalady, alayda, ol orystardyng qoyghan aty[91], qazaqtar ony óz atymen – Batu han, nemese laqap atymen – Sayyn han dese kerek edi...

Qazybek bekting jazbalarynda: «Al endeshe Shynghys qazaq qalalaryn nege qiratty degen saual keledi», – degen súraq qoyylyp, «Shynghystyng jermen jeksen etken qalalary kóbine qara qytaylar biylep otyrghan Ýsh, Aqtóbe, Taraz, Otyrar, Baqyn siyaqty qalalar bolatyn», – degen anyqtama keltiriledi. Onyng aituynsha, atalghan qalalardyng iyeleri «Shynghystyng kýshine, ony kóp qoldap otyrghanyna sengisi kelmedi».  Sol sebepti «olar elshilik rәuayatyna jatpaytyn oghash is istedi».  Atap aitqanda, Shynghys hannyng «jýz alpys týiemen jibergen keruenin týgel tonap» aldy. Keruen «basy Toghyshardy, Toqy biyding ýlken úly Erendi alpys bes adam dýbirimen týgel qyryp tastady». Sol alpys besting biri bolar, «Asandy eki kózin oiyp, eki qúlaghyn kesip shúntityp, qúiqasyn ýsh jerden tilip, ózin qara esekke teris mingizip, eki qolyn artyna, eki ayaghyn esekting bauyrynan baylap bir týnde Shynghys shatyryna jetkizip tastady».

Osy jerde auyzeki әngimege tәn әsireleushilik oryn alyp otyrghanyna taghy bir nazar audara ketken jón tәrizdi. Shynghys qahan Ertisten bastalghan joryghyna qatysushy әskerin Otyrargha taqalghanda tórtke bólgen-di. Birneshe týmenin Shaghatay men Ýgedeyding qaramaghyna, Otyrardy alu ýshin qaldyrdy. Joshy bastaghan qosyndardy Syrdariyamen tómen qaray, Jent pen Yangiykentti  shabuyldaugha júmsady. Syrdyng jogharghy aghysy boyyndaghy qalalardy baghyndyrugha taghy bir jasaghyn jiberdi. Shynghyshannyng ózi «tórt kýliginin» kishisi Tóleymen birge әskerining negizgi kýshterin bastap, Búharagha attandy. 1220 jyly jaghytúrym oghan kýlli Maverannahr (Ámu men Syrdyng arasy) baghyndy. 1220–1221 jyldary Horasannyng qalalaryn, Horezmdi jaulap alyp, Orta Aziyany jaulap alu jolyndaghy soghys qimyldaryn ayaqtady[92].

Al onyng 1219 jyly joryqqa shyghuyna syltau bolghan arandatushylyq – Otyrar biyleushisining sauda keruenin tonap, kópesterdi qyryp tastauy – 1218 jyly oryn alghan-dy. Qazybek bek jazbasyndaghy jәit kópke mәlim tarihy әdebiyetke ilikpegen oqigha bolu kerek, әitse de, shejirede atalghan qalalardyng qay-qaysysynan da Shynghyshannyng keruenbasyn «esekke teris mingizip, eki qolyn artyna, eki ayaghyn esekting bauyrynan baylap bir týnde Shynghys shatyryna jetkizip tastady» deu, jogharyda bayandalghan  soghys qimyldary geografiyasy túrghysynan qaraghanda, oryndaluy ekitalay әreket ekeni kýmәnsiz. Alayda auyzeki әngimening uaqyt óte kele, әngimeleushiler tarapynan ózgeriske úshyray beretini – tabighy nәrse.

Shejireshining jazuynsha, «Qonyrat Toghyshar – Shynghystyng kýieu balasy», sony óltiru saldarynan «590–95 jyldar arasynda birtalay el bosqa qan tókti».   Búl jerde de kózge úryp túrghan sәikessizdikti kórsetuge mәjbýrmiz: músylman jylsanaghymen keltirilgen «590–95 jyldar» Yuliy, Grigoriy kýntizbelerimen 1179–1184  jyldardy bildiredi, búl – Temuchinning Altaydyng arghy jaghynda, Baykal kóli manynda kóshpendi taypalardy biriktiru ýshin kýresip jýrgen shaghy...

Shejireshining bayan etuinshe, saudagerlerdi qyrghan da, keyin Qor Asan atanghan bireuin qorlap, Shynghyshangha týndeletip jetkizip tastaghan da qonyrattar eken. Sondyqtan, múnday jaulyq jasaghan «qonyrattardy qyrugha Shynghystyng qyzy Moqyn súlu qatty qaharlanyp, soghysty ózi basqardy. Býkil bir balyqgy – Mýsәpirdi jermen jeksen etti»[93].

Shynghyshannyng tek Bórteden әigili «tórt kýliginen» basqa bes qyzy boldy[94]. Biraq olardyng әldebireui soghys qimyldaryna qandayda bir mәrtebemen qatysqany turaly derek bizge úshyraspady, shamasy, «Shynghystyng qyzy Moqyn súlu» jayy óz zertteushisin  tosyp túrghan bolar...

Shynghystyng múnday qatygezdigi әldeneshe mәrte qaytalandy deydi Qazybek bek. Osydan keyin «búryn Shynghys dese jan alyp, jan beretin qonyrattar» ishinde renish kóbeygen kórinedi. «Qonyrattar búryn senimdi bolghandyqtan, tórt jarym myng mangholdyng ishine de kóp jiberilgen-di». Joshy men Shaghatay minezderinen múnday qatygezdik pighyl bayqaldy degen búl elde estilmegen eken. Keyinirek qonyrattar qayta bas kóterip, әsirese Aqsaq Temir zamanynda el biyleuge molyraq qatysypty. Mәselen, «keyin Qyrymgha, hijranyng 739-jyly Haydar myrza shabuyl jasap, ony basyp aldy. Haydar myrzamen Edil boyyna ketken sol qonyrattyng bәri Qyrymgha sinip ketti».

«Úran (Mayqy) zamanyn onyng túrghylasy Shynghysty Jamal baba Qarshy balasy qalpynsha tauariyhqa týsirgendikten, men oghan asa kóp toqtalmadym, – dep sabaqtaydy shejiresin Qazybek bek. – Men ózimnen búryn jasaghan adamdardyng aitqanyna әldeqanday bir auytqushylyq jasaghym kelmeydi. Úran babamyzdan keyin maghan deyin mәmlәkәt әspetinde, yaghny han tónireginde qyzmet qylghan adam joq. Ishinen babalarymyzdyng batyr shyqqany bar bolar, kóbi-aq sharua baqqan adam edi. Ony mening bala kezimde Matay atam: «Bizden qazaqty biylegen bir adam shyqpay-aq qoydy, biylikting hәmmesin atam Úran әketken be?» – dep otyratyn. Biraq atam mening de han janynda onqal bolghanymdy kóre almay ketti, әkem de kórmedi. Atam sudyratyp oqyp, jyldam qaghaz týzetin úrpaghyn da armandady»[95].

HVIII ghasyr avtorynyng ata-baba shejiresin tarqatu barysynda ózine deyin auyzsha jetken anyz-әngimelerdi qaghazgha týsirui, sonyng ishinde, HIII ghasyrda ómir sýrgen atalarynyng ómir sýrgen ortasy men Shynghyshan memleketi jayynda el ishinde aitylatyn jәitterdi keltirui qyzyqty ekeni dausyz. Olar ghylymy tarih maghlúmattarymen dәlme-dәl ýilese bermeytindigine qaramastan, tanymdy ertegiler sipatty, derbes ómir sýre beruge tolyq qúqyly bolar.

Atalmysh shejirening HIII ghasyrdaghy tarihy túlgha, memleket qayratkeri, әskery qolbasshy Shynghyshandy týbi týrki tekti syndy qarastyruy tegin emes. Shynghyshan imperiyasynyng edәuir dәrejede týrkilik ru-taypalardan kúrylghanyn HH–HHI ghasyrlardaghy ghylymy zertteuler  dәleldegen.   Týrki qaghanaty dәuirinde qalyptasqan, odan bergi memlekettik qúrylymdarda da búzylmay saqtalghan dәstýr monghol memlekettiligining úiysuyna eleuli yqpalyn tiygizgeni moyyndalghan shyndyq. Osy orayda, týrkilik әdet-ghúryptyng Shynghyshan imperiyasynda keng qoldanysta bolghandyghyna dәlel retinde, V.V.Bartolid enbekterinen birer mysal keltireyik.

Ghalym arnayy baryp tanysqan Aqyrtas kóne eskertkishinen ontýstik-batysqa qaray 15 shaqyrymday qashyqtyqta, taugha taqau  Ýkitas qazaq qystauyndaghy ýilerding birining qúrylysyna balbal tas qoldanylypty. Tastyng bet jaghy syrtqa qaratyp qalanghan eken. Bartolid ony «Orys Týrkistanyndaghy balbal tas tabylghan eng batys shet» dep esepteydi. Múnday tastar osyghan deyin Syrdariya oblysynyng shyghys bóligi  men Jetisuda óte jii kezdesetin.

Molalargha osynday tas figuralar ornatu әdeti Qytayda b.z.b. III ghasyrda bolghan degen habardy Bartolidqa Qúlja konsuly V. M. Uspenskiy jetkizedi. Ghalymnyng oiynsha, «ony qytaylyqtardan kóshpendiler óz ghúrpyna sinirip alsa kerek». Al Orhan ekspedisiyasy kezinde tabylghan oljalardy zertteu nәtiyjesinde  qolyna semser men tostaghan ústaghan figuralardyng balbal dep atalatyny, ony týrkiler b.z. VII jәne VIII ghasyrlarynda ornatqany belgili boldy. Balbal ólgenderding ózderin emes, jerleu rәsimine erekshe ýlesimen qatysqan túlghalardy beyneleuge tiyis bolatyn.

Beyitter basyna balbal tas qoy әdeti VI–VIII ghasyrlar týrkilerinde ghana emes, olardan keyin de birneshe jýzjyldyq boyy saqtalghan. Múnday figuralardy IX jәne X ghasyrlarda Jetisu men Syrdariya oblysynyng shyghys bóligine iyelik etken qarlúqtar da túrghyzyp jýripti. H ghasyr sayahatshysy Ábu Dulef olardyng otqa janbaytyn aghashtan salynghan hramy bolghanyna, onyng qabyrghalarynda ótken patshalarynyng suretteri beynelengenine kuәlik etedi.

Osy kóne týrkilik әdet Shynghyshan dәuirinde de saqtalghan bolyp shyqty. Tipti, búl dәstýr әlemdi dirildetushi úly әmirshi dýnie salghannan keyin de búzylmaghan eken: «Balbaldar Shynghyshan, onyng úly Tóley men Tóleyding Qúbylay men Hulagudan ózge balalary jerlengen ziratta da túrghan; Rashid ad-dinning kuәlik etuine qaraghanda, osy orynda «olardyng (handardyn) beynelerin jasap alyp, júpar iyis shygharatyn zattardy túraqty týrde jaghyp túrghan»[96].

Týrkilerding alghashqy memlekettiliginde tuyp, bertinde, naymandar men kereyitterding úlystarynda damytylghan әskeriy-әkimshilik jýie Shynghyshan imperiyasynyn negizine ainaldy. Imperiya halqy soghys mýddesine qaray shúghyl týrde qajetti әskery jasaqtar (týmen,  myndyq, jýzdik, ondyq) shygharyp bere alatynday dәrejege sәikestendirilip, jogharyda aitqanymyzday, 95 әkimshilik birlikke úiystyryldy. Sonday qúrylym, Shynghyshannyng búljymastay etip ornatqan temirdey qatang tәrtibi men birynghay basqaru әdisi arqasynda, imperiyadaghy býkil kóshpendi bodan boyynda әskery ómirdi túrmys saltyna ainaldyrghan jinaqylyq pen shapshang әzir bolushylyq qabiletterdi qamtamasyz etti.

Shynghyshannyng atty qosyndary әrqashanda joghary jauyngerlik sapasymen jәne orasan zor shapshandyghymen erekshelenetin, sondyqtan da onyng әskeri tau suynday ekpindi әri tasqyndy, qaharly da joyqyn kýshke ainaldy.

Jahandy titiretken aibarly Shynghyshannyng soghystarda әrdayym jeniske jetu sebepterining biri – onyng monghol taypalaryn ghana emes, týrki taypalaryn (Ortalyq Aziya men qazaq jazirasyndaghy kóshpendi halyqtardyng jauyngerlik kýshterin) týrkilerding qaghanattary tarih sahnasynan ketkennen keyin kóp uaqyt ótkende túnghysh ret eleuli týrde, jana satyda, janasha biriktiruinde  bolatyn.

Mongholdardyng óz bayyrghy júrty sanalatyn Mongholiyanyng ózine tiyesili sheginen tysqary jerlerdi jaulap aluy, Sibirdin, Kazaqstannyn, Shyghys Týrkistannyng týrki halyqtaryn ózderine qosyp aluy – kýlli Ortalyq Aziya kóshpendilerining birligin bildiretin simvol ispetti «kiyiz tuyrlyqty pana etip túratyn halyqtardy» biriktiru úranymen jýzege asyryldy.  Shynghyshannyng kóshpendi halyqtardy birtútas imperiyagha toptastyru qajettigin uaghyzdauy, týrkilerdi monghol bodandaryna ainaldyru maqsatymen qily mәmilegerlik amaldar jasauy, Trepavlovtyng aituynsha, Jetisu jәne Ferghana knyazidikterin basqarushy karlúqtarmen, úighyr Túrpan knyazidiginin, onghyt úlysynyng biyleushilerimen  әulettik qúdandaly bolugha úlasyp jatqan «odaqtyq qarym-qatynastar» jasaugha alyp keldi[97].

Monghol jihangerleri shapqynshylyq jasau, jaulap alu joryqtary barysynda basqa elderdi baghyndyrudy kózdeytin qúraldardyng auqymdy amal-әdisterin qoldandy. Olar әskery jәne mәmilegerlik tәsilderdi de, jansyzdar  júmsaudy, tynshylyqty týrli jolmen úiymdastyrudy, psihologiyalyq soghys qúraldary retinde qarsylastary ishine ýrey taratudy, olardy әldebir shalys qadamgha qasaqana arandatushylyqty, aralarynan kepil alu әdisterin, taghysyn-taghy qulyq-súmdyqtar qataryn  týgeldey derlik paydalandy, – búlargha  qily jylnamalardan neshe-aluan dәlelder kóruge bolady.

Shynghyshan әskerining shapqynshylyghy barysynda bir bóligi Mongholiyadan quyp jiberilgen, býgingi Qazaqstannyng sol kezgi aumaghynda túrghan naymandar men kereyitter, sonday-aq basqa aimaqtardy – Orta Aziyadaghy horezmshahtar memleketin, Irandy, Aughanstandy, soltýstik Kavkaz ben ontýstik orys dalalaryn mekendegen qypshaqtar men qanlylar óte auyr soqqygha úshyrady. Olar monghol jaulap alushylaryna qarsy Horezmmen, Rusipen, Soltýstik Kavkaz túrghyndarymen odaqtasa otyryp, taban tirese qarsylyq kórsetti. Jetisuda túratyn qarlúqtar, sonday-aq qypshaqtardyn, qanlylardyn, naymandardyn, kereyitterding Shynghyshangha qarsylaspay, birden baghynghan bólikteri de mongholdardyng basqa elderdi jaulap alu soghystaryna qatysulary saldarynan eleuli shyghyn shekti.

Tarih ghylymy monghol shapqynshylyghynyng Qazaqstangha da, jaulap alynghan ózge elderge de asqan zor apat әkelgenin aitady. Jergilikti halyqtardyng qarsylyq әreketterin basu ýshin Shynghyshan jappay terror jasady. Ol zorlyq-zombylyqty әdettegi is-әreket daghdysyna ainaldyrdy, sóitip, túlparynyng túyaghy tiygen tútas audandardy oirandap otyrdy.

Ontýstik Qazaqstan aumaghyna kiretin Syrdariya boyyndaghy qalalar men qonystar sonday soyqandardyng alghashqy qúrbanyna ainaldy. Otyrar, Syghanaq, Ashnas qalalarynyng túrghyndaryn mongholdar týgeldey joyyp jibergen edi. Olar elderdi shabu barysynda adamdardy jappay qyryp-joyyp, óndirgish kýshterdi qausatty, materialdyq jәne mәdeny qúndylyqtardy qiratyp joq qyldy. Shihab ad-din an-Nisavy jazghanday, «adamdar artta qalghan ghasyrlarda – kelmeske ketken memleketter zamandarynda – estilmegen apattargha kuә boldy». Ortaghasyrlyq derekter kózderine jәne kóptegen irgeli zertteulerge sýiene kele, ghylymy tarih Shynghyshan mongholdarynyng shapqynshylyghyn orta ghasyrlardaghy asqan zor alapat tragediya retinde baghalaydy[98].

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Beybit Qoyshybaev

(«Ruh-Saray», 5-tom, «QazAqparat» baspasy, 2012 j.)

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