Sәrsenbi, 21 Aqpan 2024
Bilgenge marjan 1813 21 pikir 5 Jeltoqsan, 2023 saghat 14:10

Handyq degen - qazaq ýy

Suret әleumettik jeliden alyndy

«Dýniyede әdildik pen adaldyqty
 tu etken adamnan artyq eshkim joq», -
Shoqan Uәlihanov.

Jaqynda oqushy jastarmen jýzdesip, súhbattasudyng sәti týsken edi. Mektep újymy meni qazaq halqynan shyqqan túnghysh suretshi, ghalym, aghartushy, demokrat, gumanist Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng ómiri men ghylymy enbekteri turaly bayandap, súraqtargha jauap beruimdi súraghan bolatyn.

Óte әserli ótken kezdesu barysynda bir eresek synyp oqushysy maghan «Agha, qazaq handyghy degen sózding maghynasyn týsindirip berinizshi. Ol neni bildiredi, sayasy qúrylym ba? Qúramy, basqaru jýiesi qanday? Qazirgi memleket degen úghymmen salystyrugha bola ma?», - degen súraq qoydy.

Birden jauap bermey biraz oilanyp alugha tura keldi. Sol sәtte kózim kezdesu ótip jatqan zaldyng sahnasyna qoyylghan qazaq ýiding ishki kórinisine týsti. Jartylay bolsa da shanyraq, uyqtar, kerege, sandyq, jinalghan kórpe, dóngelek ýstel siyaqty kóshpendi qazaqqa tәn zattar kórinip túr. Keyin belgili bolghanday, búl dekorasiya Shoqan ómirinen shaghyn spektakli qoi ýshin aldyn ala qoyylghan eken.

Sol arada oqushylargha berer jauabymdy kóz aldymyzda túrghan qazaq ýiding keskinimen baylanystyra otyryp, berudi jón dep taptym da, tómendegi mazmúnda shaghyn sholu jasap, týsindirdim.

Qazaq halqy – osydan 6 myng jyl (Botay mәdeniyeti) búryn alghash ret jabayy jylqyny qolgha ýiretken, birtindep basyna jýgen, arqasyna ertoqym saludy, al ózderi ynghayly bolu ýshin teriden shalbar tigudi ýirenip, qolyna nayza, arqasyna sadaq, beline qylysh baylap, atqa mingen qaharly jauyngerge ainalghan Úly saqtardyn, ghúndardyn, týrkilerding úrpaghy.

Yqylym zamannan beri qiyr shyghystan batysqa deyingi kenistikte alyp imperiyalar qúryp, sheksiz biylik jýrgizgen bizding babalarymyz jartylay kóshpendi, jartylay otyryqshyl ómir sýrgen.

Kóshpendilerding negizgi baspanasy - kiyiz ýi. Kiyiz ýy - tek qazaq halqynyng ghana emes, býkil týrki, tipti oghan kórshiles elderding de túraq - mekeni. Solay bola túrsa da, ony qasterlep ústap, ghasyrdan ghasyrgha onyng mәn-manyzyn ózgertpey jetkizgen bizding qazaq halqy ekenin әrdayym maqtanyshpen aitamyz.
Sondyqtan,  ata-babalarymyz «Atamyz - Alash, keregemiz - aghash», «Kiyiz tuyrlyqty, aghash uyqty qazaqpyz» degen ataly sóz aityp qaldyrghan.

Al XII - XIII ghasyrlardaghy memleketterding Altyn orda, Aq orda, Kók orda dep ataluynyng ózi osy kiyiz ýige baylanysty ekenin kezinde Shoqan Uәlihanov jazyp ketken edi.

Altyn orda ydyray bastaghanda Kerey men Jәnibek han Jetisu jerine qazaqtardy jinap, 1465 jyly Qazaq handyghyn qúrghandary belgili.

Sodan bastap  Qazaq handyghynyng irgesi bekip, auqymy úlghaya týsti. Mysaly, eng órkendegen kezeninde,  Haqnazar han basqarghan jyldary jalpy aumaghy qazirgi Qazaqstandy, Edilden Jayyqqa deyin, Syrdariya men Ámudariya ózenderining aralyghyn, Horasan jerin qamtyghan.

XVII ghasyrda Qazaq handyghy Jonghar imperiyasymen jer ýshin jýz jyldan astam tynymsyz soghysyp, qatty әlsiredi. Búl jaghdaydy paydalanghan Resey patshalyghy  kelesi ghasyrdan bastap, birtindep Qazaq jerin  jaulap alugha kiristi.

Qazaq handyghynyng memlekettik qúrylymy dala demokratiyasyna negizdelgen monarhiyagha úqsas bolghan. Búl jýiede biylik Hannyng qolynda bolghanymen, janyndaghy uәzirler men biyler arqyly tepe-tendik qaghidasy qatang saqtaldy. Handar  Úly qaghan Shynghyshan úrpaqtary - tóre dep atalatyn rudan shyqqan súltandar arasyndaghy tandau negizinde saylanatyn. Nәtiyjesinde, ghasyrlar boyy eng jogharghy biylik tek Shynghyshan úrpaqtaryna ghana tiyesili boldy. Búl tәrtip el ishinde auyzbirshilik pen yntymaqtastyq jaghdayyn qalyptastyryp otyrdy. Súltandar arasynda han taghy ýshin siyrek bolsa da oryn alghan ózara tartystardy eseptemegende, qazaqtyng eshqanday ru, taypa kósemderi, kóshbasshylary nemese bi, batyrlary han taghyna talaspaghan, han bolugha úmtylmaghan. Kerek deseniz, ózderin basqaryp otyrghan han qaytys bolyp, ornyna otyratyn múrageri bolmaghan jaghdayda, sol elding iygi jaqsylary ózderine han saylau ýshin basqa ónirden nemese Bas ordadan jas tóre súrap, aldyryp otyrghan jaghdaylar tarihtan belgili.

Qazaq handyghynyng túnghysh hany -  Kerey, songhy hany -  Kenesary Qasymúly.

Sonymen, handyq degenimiz óz dәuirinde órkendegen derbes, tәuelsiz, sayasi-ekonomikalyq odaq, yaghny memleket ekenin bildik. Endi onyng qúrylymyna keletin bolsaq, dana halqymyz ata-baba saltyn berik ústanyp, ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan basqaru jýiesin qoldanghan. Búl jýiening basynda el basqarushy han túratyn bolsa, negizin uәzir, bi, batyr, aqyn, sheshen siyaqty halyq syilaytyn dana-danyshpandary qúraghan.

Handyq jýie qazaqtyng qara shanyraghy – qazaq ýidin  qúrylymyna úqsas bolyp keluinde. Búl teginnen tegin emes. Búl úqsastyqty beyneli týrde, kelesi salystyrudan bayqaugha bolady.

Mysaly, qazaq ýiding shanyraghyn hangha teneuge bolady. Al oghan shanshylghan uyqtar jogharyda atalghanday, súltan, bi, batyr, aqyn, jyrshy siyaqty el birligin saqtaghan abyz aqsaqaldar men danagóiler dep aitugha bolady. Qazaq ýiding keregeleri – ol qalyng qazaq eli, olardy bir - birimen berik baylanystyryratyn tanghysh, bas arqan, shalma, bel-bau siyaqty bau-qúraldar – ol әr rudyn, eldin, taypanyng kóshbasshy azamattary. Qazaq ýiding sәnin keltiretin basqúr, jelbau, ýzik baulary bolsa, olar elding kórki qyz – kelinshekterdi elestetedi. Sonday, aq qazaq ýiding syrtqy kiyizi, tuyrlyghy, týndigi, týrli-týsti kilemder men kórpe-jastyqtary, jabdyqtary siyaqty zattar halqymyzdyng salt-dәstýri, zandary, mәdeniyeti dep beyneleuge bolady.

Eng qyzyghy, qazaq ýiding qúrylymyna negizdelgen basqaru jýiesin qazaq handyghynan bastap, qazaqtyng kez kelgen ruy, eli, taypasyna deyin, tipti әrbir otbasyna da salystyrmaly týrde qoldanugha bolady. Mysaly, otaghasy - ol qara shanyraq iyesi, yaghny otasynyng bas adamy, onyng әiel, bala-shaghasy – uyqtar, aghayyn-tuys, jekjattary – keregeler dep jalghasa beredi.

Sonymen, týsinikti bolu ýshin qaytalap aitatyn bolsaq, handyq jýie men qazaq ýiding qúrylymynda beyneli týrde tómendegidey úqsastyq bar:

  • shanyraq – Han;
  • uyqtar – súltan, bi, batyr, aqyn, jyrshy siyaqty el birligin saqtaghan abyz aqsaqaldar men danagóiler;
  • keregeler – qalyng qazaq eli;
  • bau-qúraldar – әr elding kóshbasshy azamattary;
  • basqúr, jelbau, ýzik baular, ong-órnekteri siyaqty sәndik zattar – óskeleng úrpaq, qyz-kelinshek, apa-әjeler;
  • kiyiz, tuyrlyq, týndik, týrli-týsti kilemder men kórpe-jastyqtar men jabdyqtar siyaqty zattar – halqymyzdyng salt-dәstýri, zandary men mәdeniyeti.

Áriyne, búl salystyrmaly týrde, abstrakty oilanu ýshin beynelengen kózqaras. Ony әrkim óz betinshe tolyqtyryp, damyta alady. Múndaghy en  basty mәsele – óskeleng úrpaqtyng Qazaq handyghynyng tamyry óte terende ekenin, ata-babalarymyzdyng yqylym zamannan beri temirdey tәrtipke negizdelgen basqaru jýiesin iygergendigin, sonyng arqasynda alyp imperiyalar qúrghandaryn bilip, este saqtap, maqtanysh tútyp, ata-baba saltyn joghaltpay, soghan layyqty azamat bolyp qalyptasuynda.

Qazaqtyng «myng ólip, myng tirilui», tek songhy eki jýz jyldyng ishinde basyna týsken otarshyldyq, asharshylyq, genosiyd, sayasy qughyn-sýrgin, eki dýniyejýzilik soghys,  atom bombasynyng qasireti siyaqty basqa eshbir elder kórmegen zobalannan últ retinde aman qaluy da osy qazaq ýimen baylanysty ekeni sózsiz. Sebebi, qanday da bolmasyn tastan, kirpishten salynghan ghimarattar bir jer silkinisinen qirap qalady, al qazaq ýidi jer silkinisi de, nóser jauyn da, qarly boran da qúlata almaydy. Mine, qazaqtyng týp-tamyry osynda, mәngilik el boludyng bir syry da osynda. Bizding mindet ata-babalarymyzdyng osynday amanatyn saqtap, bolashaq úrpaqqa aman-esen tabystau.

Baghdat Baqtybayúly Aqylbekov,

Jetisu oblysy, Kerbúlaq audanynyng tumasy, memlekettik qyzmetshi, Tezek Tóre jәne Shoqantanushy, bos uaqytynda shygharmashylyq-zertteu júmysymen de ainalysady.

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