Júma, 19 Shilde 2024
Talqy 1710 21 pikir 14 Mausym, 2024 saghat 18:36

Altyn Orda memleketine qazaqtyng qatysy bar ma?

Suret avtordyng jeke múraghatynan alyndy

Búl maqalany jazu josparymda joq edi. Preziydent Qasym-Jomart Toqaetyng atyna qazaq tarihyn zertteuding metodologiyalyq negizderin ózgertpeyinshe qazaq halqynyng tarihyn,  Altyn Orda tarihyn jazu mýmkin emestigi turaly jazylghan hatqa Altyn Orda tarihyn jazyp jatqan toptyng bas redaktory Aybolat Kóshkinbaevtyng Ghylym komiytetine jazghan jauaby meni jauap beruge mәjbýr etip otyr.

Endi sol Preziydent atyna jazylghan hattan qysqsha ýzindi keltire keteyin. «...Onyng sony Altyn Orda memleketining kýireuimen ayaqtalghany belgili. Sol kezende bastalghan ruhany biylik pen sayasy biylik  arasyndaghy arpalys keshegi Qazaq handyghynyng hany Tәuke hangha deyin jalghasyp keldi. Nәtiyjesinde týrki memlekettigi tarih sahnasynan ketip, basqalardyng tabanyna týsti. Ókinishke oray, búl tarihtyng eshbiri qazirgi qazaq tarihynda joq. Sebebi, búl tarih qazaq halqynyng tarihy jadynda ghana saqtalghan. Qazirgi qazaq tarihy ghylymynyng ústanyp otyrghan tarihty zertteu metodolgiyasynda, atap aitqanda evrosentristik dýniyetanym men markstik tarihty materialistik túrghydan tanu metodologiyasy qoldanysta túrghanda qazaq halqynyng dәstýrli tarihy jadyn qoldanu mýmkin emes. Sebebi, qazaqtyng tarihyn zertteu ýshin materialdyq dýniyeni emes, diniy-ruhany ýderisterdi algha shygharu kerek. Qazaq aitady: «Malym janymnyng sadaghasy, Janym arymnyng sadaghasy». Qazaq ýshin ar-imany bәrinen qymbat. Sondyqtan qazaq tarihyn zertteu ýshin, qazaqtyng tәuelsiz tarihyn jazu ýshin aldymen tarihty zertteu metodologiyasyn ózgertu qajet. Olay bolmayynsha qazaq halqynyng tarihy óli tarih bolyp qala bermek. Óziniz sol Qúryltayda aitqan jeti tomdyq, Altyn Orda tarihyna arnalghan ýshinshi tom da eshqanday janalyq әkelmeydi. Óitkeni, ol kitapta qazaqtyng dәstýrli tarihy jady (istoricheskaya pamyati) paydalanylghan joq. Qazaqtyng tarihy jady qoldanylmay jazylghan tarihta qazaqtyng ruhy boluy mýmkin be? Joq. Sondyqtan búl kitap Altyn Orda memleketining qazaq halqynyng qalyptasuyndaghy rolin kórsete almaydy. Demek, búl ýshinshi tomnyng da qazaq halqynyng tarihyna qatysy shamaly degendi bildiredi.» Mine, osy hatqa «Joshy úlysyn zerdeleu ghylymy instituty» atynan maghan bergen jauabynda Aybolat Kóshkinbaev myrza bylay dep jauap beripti: «Po nashey insiatiyve, v 2022 g., my priglasily ego v kachestve avtora-ispolniytelya v 3-y tom «Ulus Djuchy (Zolotaya Orda) ⅩⅢ-ⅩⅤ vv. y poprosily napisati dva paragrafa dlya 16 glavy «Religioznaya politika y islam v Zolotoy Orde»; «16.3 Sufizm v Zolotoy Orde». K bolishomu sojalenii, on predostavil prosto tekst kakoy-to svoey statii. My ego mnogokratno  prosily podgotoviti teksty dlya ukazannyh dlya ukazannyh paragrafov v sootvetstviy s trebovaniyamy napisaniya akademicheskih izdanii. Na chto on otvechal, chto my samy doljny obrabotati tekst «k statit eto edinstvenny sluchay  v nashey tekuchey praktiyke, kogda avtor otkazyvaetsya podgotoviti material v sootvetstviy s trebovaniyami) Sprashivaetsya kak redaktory toma mogut vmeshivatisya v avtorskoe izlojeniya teksta, kogda sam avtor doljen vnositi neobhodimye pravky v svoy tekst.»

Búl jerde A.Kóshkinbaev myrza bir emes, birneshe mәselede ótirik aityp, jala jauyp otyr. Birinshiden, ol meni óz erkimen avtorlar qúramyna shaqyrghan joq. Mening ministrding atyna jazylyp jatqan Altyn Orda tarihynda qazaq halqynyng Altyn Ordagha qatysy turaly eshbir mәsele qozghalmaghany turaly  mәsele kóterip, sol hattyng nәtiyjesinde avtorlar qúramyna kirgen bolatynmyn. Oghan mening oilamaghan jerden Altyn Orda tarihynyng jazyluyna qatysty onlayn jiyngha qatysuym sebep boldy. Ol jiynda Altyn Orda tarihynyng qay baghytta jazylyp jatqandyghy belgili boldy. Olardyng jazyp jatqan tarihynda qazaq halqynyng Altyn Ordagha qatysy turaly bir auyz sóz joqtyghyn kórip, men shydamastan avtorlar kollektiyvin syngha aldym. Ol meni baylanystan ajyratyp tastady. Odan keyingi bolghan jinalystargha qatyspaq bolghanymmen qatysa almadym. Sonynda ózimning oi-pikirimdi aityp, ministrge jýginuge mәjbýr boldym. Mine, sol hattyng nәtiyjesinde meni A.Kóshkinbaev myrza Altyn Orda tarihyn jazyp jatqan avtorlar qúramyna kirgizuge mәjbýr boldy. Men A.Kóshkinbaev myrzagha kólemi qazaq halqynyng Altyn Ordagha qanshalyqty qatysy barlyghyn dәleldeytin 150 bettik material úsyndym. Ol odan shoshyp ketti. Odan keyin sol 150 bettik materialdyng qysqasha mazmúny bolyp tabylatyn «Islam dinining Joshy úlysyndaghy ýsh kezeni» atty maqalany úsyndym. Maqala qazaqsha bolatyn. Men oghan «maqalany ózdering orysshagha audaryp alarsyndar. Mening oghan qazir mýmkindigim joq»-dep aitqan bolatynmyn. Sebebi, men ol kezde YuNESKO tarapynan úiymdastyrylyp jatqan Halyqaralyq konferensiyagha jauapty maman bolghan song mening orys tiline audaryp otyrugha mýmkindigim bolghan joq. Biraq ol maghan maqalang «myna tomnyng talabyna say kelmeydi»-dep bir auyz sóz aitqan emes. Ekinshi,  «16,3. Sufizm v Zolotoy Orde» degen bólimge «Yasaviya y etnicheskaya istoriya naseleniya Dasht-y Kipchaka» atty maqalany bergenim ras. Búl maqala Moskvada 2003 jyly «Vost. Liyteratura» baspasynan shyqqan «Podvijniky islama» atty jinaqta jariyalanghan bolatyn. Ol maqalada sopylyq ilimning qazaq ru, taypalarynyn, jýzderining qalyptasuy turaly mәseleler qarastyrylghandy. Ol maqalada kóterilgen mәseleler 100 payyz taqyrypqa say keledi.  Sondyqtan Altyn Orda tarihynyng avtorlar qúramynyng mýshesi retinde ózime atqarylghan mindetti tolyq atqaryp shyqtym. Egerde ol mening jasaghan júmystaryma kónili tolmaytyn bolsa, A.Kóshkinbaev myrza nelikten maghan bir auyz jazbasha, ne auyzsha eskertu jasamady? Endi kelip, nelikten «aytqanymdy jasamady» dep baybalam salady? Mәselening týp-tórkini A.Kóshkinbaev myrzanyng qazaq halqynyng tarihyna degen әuelden qalyptasqan teris kózqarasy desem artyq aitqandyq emes. Olay deytinim A.Kóshkinbaevtyng qazaq halqyna teris kózqarasy әuel bastan barlyghyn, sol kózqarastan әli de ajyray almay kele jatqanyna osy Altyn Orda tarihynyng jazylu barysynda aiqyn kóz jetkizdim. Sóz jalang bolmas ýshin naqty mәlimetterge kezek bereyin.

1999 jyly Almatyda «Gosudarstvo y kochevoe obshestvo v stranah v stranah postsovetskogo Vostoka: istoriya, sovremennosti, perspektivy» atty Halyqaralyq konferensiya ótti. Sol konferensiya ayasynda alghash ret osy A.Kóshkinbaev myrzamen kezdesken edik. Ekeumiz S.G.Klyashtornyi, T.IY.Sultanov, J.O.Artyqbaev siyaqty ghalymdarmen bir seksiyada boldyq. Mine, osy seksiyada A.Kóshkinbaev myrzamen pikir talastyrugha mәjbýr boldym. Ol «K probleme gosudarstvennosty v kochevyh obshestvah» degen taqyrypta bayandama jasady. Bayandamasynda mynaday joldar bar: «Krupnye potestarno-politicheskie obrazovaniya (imperii) kochevnikov nosily sporadicheskiy harakter. Na istoricheskoy shkale, proydennoy nomadnymy sosiumami, mojno fiksirovati toliko». Búl kózqarastaghy ghalymnyng Joshy úlysynyng tarihyna da osy kózqaras ayasynda qaraytyndyghyna mening shýbәm joq. Ony kitaptyng mazmúnyn ashyp kórgen adam tolyghymen kóz jetkize alady. Sóz jalang bolmas ýshin sol jazylyp jatqan Altyn Orda tarihynyng mazmúnyn nazarlarynyzgha úsynyp kóreyin:

SODERJANIYE

VVEDENIYE

RAZDEL I. ISTOChNIKY Y ISTORIOGRAFIYa ZOLOTOY ORDY

Glava 1. Istochniky po istoriy Zolotoy Ordy

1.1. Arabskie sochiyneniya

1.2.Persoyazychnye sochiyneniya

1.3.Turkoyazychnye pisimennye sochiyneniya

1.4.Kitayskie y mongoliskie istochnikiy

1.5. Russkie istochnikiy

1.6. Zapadnye istochnikiy

1.7. Vizantiyskiye, bolgarskie y serbskie istochnikiy

1.8. Armyanskiye, gruzinskie y siriyskie istochnikiy

1.9. Djuchidskaya numizmatika kak istoricheskiy istochniyk

1.10 Kartograficheskie materialy (po kitayskim istochnikam)

1.11. Epigraficheskie istochnikiy

Glava 2. Istoriografiya izucheniya Zolotoy Ordy

RAZDEL II. SOZDANIE Y RASSVET ULUSA DJUChY (ZOLOTOY ORDY)

Glava 3. Obshie prinsipy politicheskoy organizasiy imperiy Chingiyz-hana.

3.1. IYdeologicheskaya osnova gosudarstva Chingiyz-hana y ee istoky v gosudarstvah kochevnikov

3.2. Instituty politicheskoy vlasty v gosudarstve Chingiyz-hana y mehanizmy upravleniya

3.3. Cherty imperskoy kulitury y gosudarstvennaya simvolika

Glava 4. Ulus Djuchy v sostave Mongoliskoy imperiy (1207-1269 gg.)

Glava 5. Rassvet Zolotoy Ordy (1266-1359 gg.)

5.3. Zolotaya Orda vo vremena Tuda-Mengu (1280/81-1287 gg.)

5.4. Tula-Buga y djuchidskaya tetrahiya (1287-1291 gg.)

5.5. Tokta (1291-1312 gg.)

5.6. Nogay y ego roli v istoriy Zolotoy Ordy

5.7. Konichiy(1269-1301 gg.)

5.8. Gosudarstvo Haydu

5.9. Han Uzbek (1313-1341 gg.)

5.10. Janiybek (1342-1357 gg.)

5.11.Berdybek (1357-1359 gg.)

5.12. «Chernaya smerti» v Zolotoy Orde

5.13. Levoe krylo v pervoy poloviyne 14 veka

Glava 6. Vneshnyaya politika Zolotoy Ordy XIII – pervoy poloviny XIV veka

RAZDEL III. POLITIChESKIY KRIZIS ULUSA DJUChY Y OBRAZOVANIE NOVYH GOSUDARSTV

Glava 7. «Velikaya zamyatnya» v Zolotoy Orde (1359-1380 gg.)

Glava 8. Ulug Ulus pry Toktamyshe y ego preemnikah

Glava 9. Oslablenie Zolotoy Ordy y poyavlenie novyh gosudarstv (1420-e - 1502 gg.)

Glava 10. Mejdunarodnoe polojenie Zolotoy Ordy v konse XIV - XVvv.

10.1. Vzaimootnosheniya Ulug Ulusa s Timuridamiy Mogulistanom

10.2. Politicheskie svyazy Zolotoy Ordy y Osmanskoy imperiiy

10.3. Zolotaya Orda y evropeyskie strany v XV stoletiiy

RAZDEL IV. POLITIChESKAYa SISTEMA, EKONOMIKA Y MEJDUNARODNAYa TORGOVLYa ZOLOTOY ORDY 

Glava 11. Vnutrennee upravlenie Zolotoy Ordy

11.1. Politicheskaya vlasti y sosialinyy stroy Ulusa Djuchiy

11.2. Istoricheskaya geografiya Zolotoy Ordy

11.3. Administrativno-territorialinoe ustroystvo Ulusa Djuchiy

11.4. «Russkiy ulus» v sostave Zolotoy Ordy

11.5. Problema ponyatiy «Ak Orda», «Kok Orda», «Boz Orda»

11.6. Gosudarstvennye simvoly imperiy Djuchidov (tamgi, tron, flag)

Glava 12. Ekonomika y mejdunarodnaya torgovlya v Zolotoy Orde

12.1. Osobennosty ekonomicheskogo razvitiya y struktura hozyaystva Zolotoy Ordy

12.2. Goroda y gorodskoe stroiytelistvo v Zolotoy Orde

12.3. Roli y znachenie mejdunarodnoy y tranzitnoy torgovliy

12.4. Denejnaya sistema v Uluse Djuchiy

12.5. Nalogovaya sistema Zolotoy Ordy

RAZDEL V. PRAVO, VOENNOE DELO Y VNUTRENNIY MIR ZOLOTOY ORDY

Glava 13. Pravo y zakonodatelistvo Zolotoy Ordy

13.1. Pravovaya sistema Ulusa Djuchiy

13.2. Sud y prosess v Zolotoy Orde

13.3. Gosudarstvennaya kanselyariya y ofisialinoe deloproizvodstvo v Zolotoy Orde

Glava 14. Voennoe delo Zolotoy Ordy

14.1. Voennaya organizasiya djuchidskoy armiiy

14.2. Kompleks voorujeniya Zolotoy Ordy

14.3. Voennoe iskusstvo: strategiya y taktika

Glava 15. Etnicheskie prosessy na territoriy Ulusa Djuchy XIII –XV vv.

15.1. Etno-plemennoy sostav(kypchaki, kangly, oguzy y drugiye) na territoriy Kazahstana pered mongoliskim nashestviyem v XIII veke

15.2. Rodoplemennoy sostav Ulusa Djuchy v XIII -XV vekah. 92 plemeny ilatiya

15.3. Terminy «kazak»,  «tatar», «uzbek», «nogay», «shiban», «kalmak» v XIV-XVvekah.

Glava 16. Religioznaya politika y islam v Zolotoy Orde

16.1 Religiya y religioznaya politika v Zolotoy Orde

16.2. Islam v politicheskih prosessah Zolotoy Ordy

16.3. Sufizm v Zolotoy Orde

16.4. Musulimanskoe pravo v Zolotoy Orde

Glava 17. Kulitura, iskusstvo y liyteratura Zolotoy Ordy

17.1. Materialinaya kulitura gorodov zolotoordynskogo vremeny na territoriy Kazahstana

17.2. Tradisiya gradostroiytelistva, arhiytektura, pogrebalino-pominalinye soorujeniya (mavzolei) y pamyatnikiy

17.3. Arheologiya Stepy zolotoordynskogo vremeniy

17.4. Kostum y moda Zolotoy Ordy

17.5. Yazyk y pisimennaya kulitura, nauka, poeziya y liyteratura Zolotoy Ordy

17.6. Ustno-epicheskaya tradisiya. «Qyrymnyng qyryq batyry». Jyr «Er Ediyge» y ego istoricheskoe znacheniye

Zaklucheniye

Mine, kórip otyrghandarynyzday qazirgi jazylyp, halyq nazaryna úsynghaly jatqan jeti tomdyq Qazaqstan tarihynyng ýshinshi tomy-Altyn Orda tarihynda qazaqqa qatysty jartymdy eshtene joq dep aitugha bolady. Alayda, búl kitap taraularyndaghy bayandalghan tarihty nashar dep kemsite almaymyz. Jaqsy. Qazaq turaly kitaptyng songhy taraularynda ghana az ghana sóz bolady. Biraq maqalalarda bayandalghan derekter qazaq halqynyng Altyn Orda tarihyndaghy ornyn kórsete almaydy, jetkliksiz. Anyghyn aitar bolsaq, qazaq halqynyng Altyn Orda siyaqty  memleketti dýniyege keltirgen úly halyq ekendigi turaly bir auyz sóz joq. A.Kóshkinbaev myrzanyng ««vspyshky gosudarstvennostiy», definiruishiyesya, prejde vsegeo, hronologicheskoy diskretnostiu, t.e. vremennye obediyneniya s ih posleduishem raspadom y vozvrasheniyem pervonachalinoe, «obshinno-kochevoe sostoyanii» degen ústanymyna say jazylghan búl tarihtyng qazaqqa berer ziyany bolmasa, paydasy joq. Tarihy tanymy óz halqynyng tarihy jadymen susyndamaghan,  óz halqynyng tarihyndaghy jenister men jenilisterding syryn úqpaghan halyq eshqashan ózining kim ekenin tanymaydy. Ata-babasynyng jenisimen maqtanyp, jenilisinen sabaq ala almaydy. Onday tarih qazaqqa kerek pe? Meninshe joq! Al men úsynghan 150 bettik materialda osy ýshinshi tomda qarastyrluy tiyis, biraq nazardan tys qalghan Altyn Orda tarihyndaghy qazaq halqynyng roli turaly tarihy derekting barlyghy derlik bar. Endi sol materialdardyng taqyryptaryn nazarlarynyzgha úsynyp kóreyin:

II. XI-XII ghasyrlarda Týrkistanda qalyptasqan ruhany ahual

2.1. Qoja Ahmet Yasauy ilimining tarih sahnasyna shyghuynyng alghysharttary jәne sol dәuirding tarihy shyndyghy

2.2.  Qoja Ahmet Yasauy ilimining dýniyege kelui

2.3. Shynghys han jәne Týrki memlekettigining qaytadan qalpyna keltirilui

III. Yasauiya tariqaty Joshy Úlysynda

3.1. Joshy Úlysyn islamdandyrudaghy yasauiya tariqatynyng orny

3.2. Han biyligi kiyeliligining qalyptastyryluy

3.3. Biyler instituty jәne rulyq, taypalyq jýie                                           1

3.4. Qazaq jýzderining qalyptasuy jәne onyng yasauiya tariqatynyng tarmaqtarymen baylanysy

3.5. Ózbek han jýrgizgen sayasy reforma nәtiyjeleri

IV. Altyn Orda memleketining ydyrau sebepteri

4.1. Jәnibek hannyng dini-iydeologiyalyq sayasaty jәne onyng Altyn Orda memleketining ydyrauyna yqpaly

4.2. Alash pen Alasha han jәne qazaq halqynyng qalyptasuynyng alghashqy kezeni

4.3. Aq Orda men Kók Orda

4.4. Jәnibek han reformasynyng nәtiyjeleri

4.5. Altyn Orda men Mauarannahrdaghy diniy-sayasy ahual jәne onyng týrki halyqtarynyng tarihy taghdyryndaghy orny (XIV gh. sony – XV gh. birinshi shiyregi)

Qazaq dalasy men Mauarannahrdaghy dini-iydeologiyalyq ahual jәne onyng týrki halyqtarynyn    tarihy taghdyryndaghy roli

5.1. Naqshbandiya tariqatynyng tarih sahnasyna shyghuy

5.2. Ózbek úlysy

5.3. Qazaq handyghy

Qorytyndy

Mine, osy materialdar A.Kóshkinbaev myrzagha úsynylghan edi. Múnda Qoja Ahmet Yasauy negizin salghan yasauiya tariqatynyng ókilderining Joshy úlysy qúramyndaghy týrkilerding diniy-ruhany bolmysy men týrki halyqtarynyng ruhaniy-mәdeny tútastyghyn qalyptastyrudaghy roli jan-jaqty taldanyp kórsetilgen bolatyn. Ózderin Jaratushynyng ókili sanaytyn jәne adamzat tarihynda eng әdiletti qoghamdy ornatudy maqsat etken Yasauy joly ókilderi qazaq halqynda osy kýnge deyin kiyeli sanalyp kele jatqan rulyq, taypalyq jýieler men jýzdik qúrylymdardyng qalyptasuyna jәne olar týrki memlekettigining irgetasy retinde tarih sahnasyna shyghuyna yqpal etti. Búl Joshy úlysynda adamzat tarihyndaghy eng әdiletti qoghamdy qúrugha mýmkindik berdi. Eng bastysy rulyq, taypalyq jýieler qandyq prinsipke emes, ruhany birlikke negizdeldi. Qara halyq – kerege, ruhany jetekshiler-biyler – uyqtyng qyzmetin, handyq biylik shanyraqtyng qyzmetin atqardy. Memleketti basqarudyng búl jýiesi Oghyz qaghan qalyptastyrghan memleketti basqarudyng kóne týrkilik basqaru jýiesimen sәikes bolatyn. Memleketting múnday jýiesinde qoghamda әdiletsizdik pen aramdyqtyng boluy mýmkin emes edi. Absoluttik biylik handa da, biyde de, qarada da bolghan joq. Absoluttik biylik tek, zangha-sharighatqa berildi. Hannyng ózi esigining aldyndaghy qúlyn jazalaugha qúqy bolghan joq. Barlyghy sharighat shenberinde qaralyp, sheshim shygharylatyn. Búl memleketting atynyng ózgerip, Altyn Orda atanuyna mýmkindik berdi. Memlekettik jýie tolyghymen ruhany biylike negizdelip, basqaru jýiesi tolyghymen qarashy biylerding qolyna berildi. Búl keshegi sayasy biylikten shettetilgen Joshy úrpaqtaryna únaghan joq. Sony Ózbek han qaytys bolghan song sayasy tónkerispen ayaqtaldy. Memlekette ruhany biylik pen sayasy biylik arasyndaghy bitispes arpalys bastaldy. Múnyng sony týrki memlekettigining tolyghymen kýirep, ózge halyqtardyng otaryna ainaluymen ayaqtaldy. Osy tarih A.Kókshinbaev myrzanyng tarihy tanym men kózqarasyna say kelmedi. Alayda, búl jazylghan materialdar osy jyldyng sәuir aiynda Almatydaghy «Orhon» baspasynan «Yasauy jolynyng Altyn Orda tarihyndaghy roli» degen atpen jeke monografiyalyq enbek retinde jaryqqa shyqty. Kitaptyng kólemi 20 baspa tabaq. Búl kitapta jazylghan tarih qazaq halqynyng shynayy tarihy dep aitsa bolady. Olay deytinim búl tarih qazaq halqynyng tarihy jady negizinde jazylyp, halyq nazaryna úsynylyp otyr. Oqyp, tanysqan jan ókinbes degen ýmittemin.

Endigi kezekte A.Kóshkinbaev myrzanyng maghan artqan kinәsining biri – Qoja Ahmet Yasauy negizin salghan sopylyq joldy men shekten tys dәripteuim bolypty. Yasauy joly-yasauiya tariqatynyng Ózbek han túsynda memlekettik iydeologiya dengeyine kóterilgeni tarihy shyndyq. Ony jogharyda atalghan kitapty oqyp shyqqan kisi qiyndyqsyz týsinedi. Týrkistannyng kiyeli, qasiyetti sanaluy, týrki júrtynyng ruhany ortalyghy retinde moyyndaluy tegin emes. Osy Yasauy ilimining qúdireti. Yasauy ilimi negizinde Altyn Orda memleketi, Osmanlylar imperiyasy, Ámir Temir memleketi dýniyege keldi. Ámir Temir Altyn Ordany talqandasa, oghan Toqtamys han kinәli. Ol 1389 jyly litvalyqtar men orystardan әsker jiyp kelip, Qoja Ahmet Yasauy basyna túrghyzylghan keseneni qiratuy, tonauy boldy. Ámir Temir qiraghan kesenening ornyna qazirgi bәrimizge belgili alyp keseneni túrghyzdy. Ámir Temirdi taqqa otyrghyzghan yasauiya tariqaty ókilderi Ámir Temirge Shynghys han imperiyasyn qayta qalpyna keltirudi tapsyrghan bolatyn. Biraq ómirining songhy kezinde Ámir Temirding absoluttik biylikke qaray bet búruy, onyng qúrghan memleketining úzaq, ghúmyrly boluyna mýmkindik bermedi. Mine, osylardyng barlyghyn bile otyryp, men qalaysha Qoja Ahmet Yasauiyding tarihtaghy rolin aitpauym kerek. Egerde halqymyzdyng sanasynda, ruhaniy-mәdeny bolmysynda Yasauiyding ilimi saqtalghan bolsa, biz, qazaqtar qazirgi kýni týrli diny aghymdar jeteginde ketip, ózara alakóz bolar ma edik? Joq! Búl Yasauy ilimine ortaghasyrlar týgil qazirgi bizding zamandastarymyz, otandastarymyz múhtaj ekendigin kórsetedi. Sebebi, materialdyq bolmys jeteginde ketip, biorobotqa ainalghan halyqty qaytadan Ruhany әlemmen baylanystyru tek Yasauy ilimning ghana shamasy keledi. Egerde osyny eskermey búrynghy baghytpen kete beretin bolsaq, onda múnyng sony qúrdym bolmaq. Ol kezde adam balasyna eshqanday tehnologiya, tehnika jәrdem bere almaydy. Álemdegi qazirgi týrli apattardyng jiylep ketui adam ruhynyng Ruhany әlemnen qol ýzui desem artyq aitqandyq emes. Sondyqtan A.Kóshkinbaev myrzanyng meni Yasauy ilimin orynsyz tyqpalay beredi degen tújyrymy shyndyqqa say kelmeydi.

A.Kóshkinbaev myrzanyng maghan taqqan aiybynyng biri – tarihty zertteu metodologiyasyna qatysty mәsele. Múny ghalymdardyng talqysyna salu kerek edi degen pikirdi aitypty. Mening tarihty zertteu metodologiyasyna qatysty mәseleni 2008 jyly, 2009 jyly Astanada «Memleket tarihy» institutynda bolghan «Tәuelsiz Qazaqstan tarihyn zertteuding ózekti mәseleleri» atty ghylymy konferensiyalarda ghalymdar nazaryna úsynghan bolatynmyn. 2008 jylyghy konferensiyada «Qazaq auyz әdebiyeti ýlgililerindegi tarihy derekterdi paydalanu joldary» atty taqyrypta, al 2009 jylghy konferensiyada «Qazaq tarihy jәne Tәuelsiz Qazaqstan memleketining qauipsizdik mәseleleri» atty taqyrypta bayandama jasaghan bolatynmyn. Ókinishke oray, pikir bildirgen jan bolmady. Búl maqalalar keyinnen «Aqiqat» jurnalynda taghy basqa basylymdarda jariyalandy. Búl keltirilgen materialdar A.Kóshkinbaev myrzanyng maghan artqan búl aiybynyng da negizsiz ekenin dәleldeydi. Sondyqtan ózimning qazaq tarihyn zertteuding jana konsepsiyasy men metodologiyasyn úsynyp, sol negizde qazaq tarihynyng alternativti núsqasyn jasaghan bolsam, onda men kinәli emespin. Eng bastysy sol men jasaghan metodologiya negizinde jazylghan tarih qazaq halqynyng ghasyrlar boyyna jinaqtalghan tarihy jadynyng qazirgi qazaqtyng sanasyna ylayyqtalyp berilgen núsqasy bolyp tabylady. Búl mening ata-baba әruaghynyng aldyndaghy, olardyng ruhany bolmysyn janghytugha baghyttalghan әreketim dep týsinemin.

A.Kóshkinbaev myrzanyng Ghylym komiytetine jauabyna, maghan artqan kinәsyna jauap bermesem, onda bir mening emes, qazaq halqynyng mýddesine núsqan kelgen bolar edi. Sondyqtan búl hatty jauapsyz qaldyru mýmkin emestigin týsindim. Artyq ketsem, qazaq týsiner degen ýmittemin.

Zikiriya Jandarbek, t.gh.k.

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