Sәrsenbi, 1 Aqpan 2023
Alashorda 2942 1 pikir 22 Tamyz, 2022 saghat 10:59

Abaydyng әleumettik oilary

M. Áuezov Abay shygharmalarynyng halyqtyghy turaly aita kelip, eki qyrynan kórsetken. Ol sipattar mynalar: birinshiden, aqyn qarapayym enbek adamynyng atynan sóiley otyryp, qanaushy taptyng zúlymdyq әreketterin әshkereleydi. Ol kedeylerding auyr haline jany ashyp, arasha týsedi, qazaq әielderining tendikke jetuine tileules bolady, jastarynyng bolashaqqa qadam jasauyn arman etedi. Al, ekinshiden, aqyn osy tәrizdi shynayy halyqtyq mýddeni jyrlaryna ózek ete otyryp, halyqtyng sóz ónerin barynsha mol paydalanumen qatar, ony jana qyrlarymen, әrli de naqyshty boyaularymen bayyta týsedi. Osydan kelip Abay shygharmalaryndaghy halyqtyq qasiyetting ekinshi qyry kórinedi.

Abaydyng әdilettilikti sýng konsepsiyasy – onyng shygharmashylyghynda  adamdyq pen nadandyq, shyndyq pen ótirik, taghy basqanyng kýresinde jenip  shyghatyn aqiqat jolyn menzeydi.

Abay ne nәrsening aqyl men әdiletke jýgingenin qalaydy:

Ádilet pen aqylgha, 
Synatyp kórgen – bilgenin,
Bildirer alys, jaqyngha,
Solardyng sóile degenin – deydi.

Abaydyng ústanghan múraty – adamshylyqty búzbay, adamgershilik izgilik  qasiyetterin joghary kóterip, adam degen ardaqty atqa say bolu edi. Onyn  kóptegen shygharmalarynda osynday oy – maqsat jatyr. Aytalyq, «jigitter  oiyn arzan, kýlki qymbat»,  «Internatta oqyp  jýr», «Ghylym tappay  maqtanba» ólenderinde elining ertenine, jastardyng bolashaghyna  alandauynyng basym, ya bolmasa onyng qara sózderin alsanyz da adam, adam  múraty, adamsha ómir sýruding maqsaty haqynda da keng astarly filosofiyalyq oilar bar.

Abay ózining 7 qara sózinde: «Jas bala anadan tughanda eki týrli minezben  tuady. Bireui – ishsem, jesem, úiyqtasam dep túrady. Búlar – tәnnin  qúmary, búlar bolmasa, tәn jangha qonaq ýy bola almaydy. Hәm ózi óspeydi, quat tappaydy. Bireui – bilsem eken demekilik...  Múnyng bәri – jan qúmary, bilsem eken, kórsem eken, ýirensem eken» degen deydi.

Abay qazaq әdebiyetindegi nәzira ýlgisining tamyryn terennen tartqan qalypty dәstýrlerining ayasyn keneytti. «Eskendir» poemasy men «Evgeniy Onegiyn» jyryndaghy aqyn dýniyetanymyna negizdelgen iydealyq mazmún men Abaylyq әrbir naqyshtar osy uaqytqa deyin atalyp kórsetilip keledi. Abay basqa aqyndardyng jazghandaryn audaryp, ne bir sujet, sipat, saryn taqyryptardan paydalansyn, bolmasa tereng sezim, maghynaly kórkem sóz, jana shumaq, úiqas, yrghaq izdesin, pikir taratyp, óleng jazsyn, әdebiyetting isinde óz janalyghyn ýnemi aityp otyrady, kirgize otyrady, ózining úly aqyndyghyn kórsete otyrady. Ol bir nәrseden paydalansa, óz aqyndyghyna beyimdey paydalanady.

Abay ózining «Allanyng ózi de ras, sózi de ras» óleninde dinning shyn mәnin týsindirip, biraq ony qabyldaudyng kópshilik ýshin nege qiyn ekenin kórsetedi. Ol ózi tapqan dәn - ýsh sýidi imany gýl dep atay kele, әri qaray bylay dep jazady:

Ruza, namaz, zeket, haj — talassyz is,
Jaqsy bolsan, jaqsy tút bәrin tegis.
Bastapqy ýshti bekitpey, songhy tórtti
Qylghanmenen tatymdy bermes jemis.
Bas joghary jaralghan, moyyn tómen,
Qarashy, dene bitken retimenen.
Isting basy - retin tanymaqtyq,
Iman bilmes taghatty qabyl demen.
Imamdar ghibadattan sóz qozghaghan,
Hýsniyzәn men imandy bildi oilaghan.
Imannyng tazalyghyn jaqsy úqtyrmay,
Syrtyn qansha jusa da, ishi onbaghan.

Kórip otyrmyz, Abay dinning shyn mәni búrmalanyp, onyng týpki maqsatynan auytquynyng sebebin aitqan. Aqyn dinning rәsimderin oryndau kerek, biraq búlardyng barlyghy dinning týpki maghynasy bolyp tabylatyn bastapqy ýsh sýngdi, yaghny Alla taghala men adamdy baylanystyratyn sýylerdi, “imany gýldi’’ bekitpey, qúr diny rәsimderdi oryndau tatymdy jemis bermeydi dep dittegen. Ár iste de әueli onyng neden bastalatynyn bilu manyzdy, dindi ústanu ýshin de әueli onyng neden bastalatynyn bilu kerek. Abay sózi boyynsha din imannan bastalyp, әri qaray oraza, namaz, zeket, hajylyq bolyp jalghasa beredi. Al dinning basy, yaghny iman bolmasa, onda isting bәri bos. Imandy úqtyru, uaghyzdap kópshilikke ýiretu imamdar paryzy edi. Óitkeni, dindi imannan bastamasan, imandy bilmesen, onday taghat (qúlshylyq) ta qabyldanbaydy, yaghny bos әure. Kópshilik arasyndaghy diny týsinikting osynday qúldyrauy imamdardyng ghibadattan (qúlshylyq jolynan) sóz qozghap, Hýsniyzәn (jaqsy oi) men imandy bildirudi oilasa da imannyng tazalyghyn jaqsy úqtyra almaydy, sebebi olardyng ózderinde imannyng tazalyghy joq. Búl dinning qúldyrau sebepterining biri. Osynyng barlyghy adamnyng óz nәpsisin tyimauynyng kesirinen ekenin aityp keledi de, әri qaray aqyn sózin bylay dep jalghastyrady:

Mýmin bolsan, әueli imandy bol,
Bendege iman ózi ashady jol,
Shyn ilan da, taza oila bir imandy,
Mýnafiq namaz qylmap pa, maghlúm ghoy ol.
Alla ishindi aitqyzbay biledi oila,
Pendesine qastyqpen kinә qoyma.
Raspenen talaspa mýmin bolsan,
Oyla, aittym, adamdyq atyn joyma!

Abay kýndelikti tirshilikte kórip jýrgen mýnafiyqtardyng (eki jýzdi, ishi kópir, syrty músylmandardyn) sonyna erme, imanyndy taza oila dep eskertedi. Sonymen birge, eki jýzdi shala músylmandar birigip dinge naghyz berilgenderge qarulasyp qarsy shyghuy da mýmkin. Kezinde Shәkәrimdi "kәpir" atap, L. N. Tolstoydy shirkeuden alastatqan osynday dindi tayaz týsinetin, ne bolmasa sayasattyng yqpalynan shygha almaghan din qyzmetkerleri edi. Sonyng aldyn alghanday aqyn Allany alday almaysyn, sondyqtan músylman bolsang pendesine kinә qoyyp, raspenen talasyp adamdyq atyn joyma deydi. Búl arada aqynnyng adam dep imandylardy ghana ataytyny kórinip túr. Ol ózining otyz segizinshi sózinde imansyzdardy “jarym adam’’ dep ataydy.

Abaydyng aituynsha adam aqyldy nemese aqymaq, qayyrymdy nemese jauyz bolyp tumaydy, ol jaghdaygha, tәrbie men enbek qyzmetine qaray qalyptasady. Aqynnyng búl oilary Chernyshevskiyding adamnyng aqyl-oyy onyng sayasy jәne basqa da damuy siyaqty ekonomikalyq ómir jaghdaylary men materialdyq ómir sýru qúraldaryna baylanysty degen tújyrymymen ýilesip jatyr. Biraq, Abay tanymnyng sezimdik-naqty jәne týsinikti den-geylerin tiyisti ghylymy ataularmen tolyq atap kórsete almady. Soghan qaramastan onyng negizgi oilary dúrys baghytta óristeydi, sensualizm men rasionalizmning shekterinen asyp, tanymnyng sezimdik jәne rasionaldyq jaqtaryn bólinbeytin qatynasta dep qaraugha úmtylysty tanytady. Abay tanym barysynda iygergen bilim mazmúny turaly aitqanda olardyng shynayy boluyna basa kónil bóledi. «Shyndyq pen ótirikti anyqtau» joly - tanym joly bolyp tabylady. Ol adam tanym arqyly shyndyqqa jetedi degenge sendi. Aqyn «haqiqat... Hәmmany biletúghyn ghylymgha yntyqtyqtan» tuyndaydy degen tamasha tújyrym jasaydy. Búl tújyrym Abaydyng gnoseologiyalyq pikirining syryn ashyp, onyng topshylauynsha shyndyq beyne men obektini týsinuge kómektesedi, óz týpnúsqasyna say, yaghni, shyndyqtyng bizding sanamyzda beyneleuine sәikes qalyptasady, tek rasionaldyq  tanym men senimning tútastyghy ghana tanym nәtiyjesining basty sharty bola alady.

Abay shyndyqqa jetu, tanym jolyndaghy oilaudyn  qyzmeti mәselelerine erekshe mәn berdi. «Adaspay tura izdegen hakimder bolmasa, dýnie oiran bolar edi. Fighyl pәndening (adamnyn) qazyghy – osy jaqsy  hakimder, әrnәrse dýniyede solardyng istihrajy (isteu, oilau) birlәn rauaj tabady. Hakimderding ghaqliyaty birlәn jetse, iman yakiny (shyn iman) bolady. Búl hakimder... adam balasynyng aqyl-pikirin ústartyp, haq penen batyldyqty aiyrmaqty ýiretkendigi — barshasy nәfiyghlyq (payda berushi) bolghan son, bizding olargha mindetkerligimizge daua joq».

Ghalym alghan bilimining kólemimen, kóp oqyghandyghymen ghana ardaqty emes, ol óz bilimin ýzdiksiz tolyqtyryp, jattyghyp, logikalyq erejelerdi erkin mengerip, sheberligi men ónerin shynday týsuge tiyisti.. Oishyl-aqyn әl-Farabiydin, sol arqyly Aristoteliding logikanyng mәni ghylym retinde bayandalatyn filosofiyalyq enbekterimen jaqsy tanys boldy. Onyng logikalyq týiindeu sheberligin erkin mengergendigin qara sózben jazylghan «Ghaqliyalary», sonday-aq, ózine jasalghan oqighadan song 1898 jyly Senatqa jazghan haty aiqyn dәleldeydi. Abaydyng búl qújattaghy sóz jýieleui, tújyrymdarynyng dәleldiligi, oiynyng aiqyndyghy onyng logika salasyndaghy alymynyng kendigin tanytady. Ol jaulasqan eki jaqtyn  kuәlarynyng sózderindegi faktiler men mysaldardy tiyimdi paydalanyp, olardan birden qorytyndy jasaydy. «Eger kuәlar ózderi bir mezgilde kórgen bir oqigha jayynda úqsas pikir aitsa, onda múnday jaghday әlgindey oqighanyng bolmaghandyghyna dәlel bola alady...». Abay neghúrlym negizdelgen logikalyq zandylyqqa sýiene otyryp shyndyqtyng jekelegen ýzdik-ýzdik mysaldar arqyly ghana ashylmay, derekterdi tútas, ózara baylanystyra otyryp kýdiksiz dәleldenuin, sóitip onyng dúrys tújyrym jasap, tanymnyn  shynayy nәtiyjelerine jetuge qyzmet kórsetuin talap etedi. Ol logikalyq dәleldilik әdisterin basshylyqqa ala otyryp: «Men bylay dep oilaymyn: eger bir oqigha jayly birdi-ekili emes, kóp adam týsinik berse jәne ol jayynda mýlde úqsas pikir aitsa, onda múnyng ózi oqighanyng oidan shygharylmaghandyghyn, shyn  bolghandyghyn dәleldeydi. Álbette, sol adamnyng da әldebir mýddeler kózdep mýldem bolmaghan, yaky bolghan oqighalar jayly naq bolghandaghyday aitpauy da mýmkin jay, onday jaghdayda múny joqqa shygharu әngimeler úqsas eken degen birer tújyrymmen týiindelmey, әlgi әngimelerdi isting basqasha jaghdaylarynda jәne basqa adamdardyng kuәlikterimen tekseruden ótkizumen týiindeluge tiyis dep jazdy.

Mine, hәkim Abaydyng sondaylyq sony da ótkir oilarynyng qaynary qayda jatyr degen túnyq-túnghiyq saualdargha óz әlimizshe oy jýgirttik dep oilaymyn. Abayday aqyl-oy alybynyng múzart-shyndy oy әlemi – kýlli әlemge ortaq, әm ghasyrlar altyn paraghynda jazylary bek kәmil...

Paydalanylghan әdebiyetter tizimi:

1. Omarov D. «Abaydyng ruhany múrasy» Almaty, 1997 j.

2. Myrzahmetov M. «Abaytanu tarihy» Almaty, 1998 j.

3. Álimjan E. «Abaytanudyng býgingi bir tiregi» Egemen Qazaqstan, 2005 j, - 20 qantar 4 - b.

4. Espenbetov A. «Ústaz úlaghaty» Semey tany, 2005 j.

5. Itbaytegi Á. M. «M.Áuezov jәne Abaytanudyng keybir mәseleleri» Almaty, 1993 j.

6. Qaliyeva J. «Asyl oidyng órnegi» QazMU habarshysy, filologiya seriyasy, 2000 j, 130-133 b.

7. Auypbaev J. «Ghúmyr-dariya» Almaty,1997 j.

Erik Omarghaliy,

Semey qalasynyng oblystyq tarihiy-ólketanu muzeyining ghylymy qyzmetkeri

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