Dýisenbi, 5 Mausym 2023
Bilgenge marjan 2705 12 pikir 20 Qantar, 2023 saghat 11:45

Tatarlar – kóneden jetken bulgarlar!

«Tatargha,  tilmash kerek emes».

Halyq maqaly.

Osy sózimizdi, tatar elinin abroyly da kórnekti azamaty Talgat Tadjuddinovta maqúldaydy (muftiy y sheyh- uli – islam, glava Sentralinogo duhovnogo upravleniya musuliman Rossiy y evropeyskih stran SNG).  Naqtyraq bolu ýshin, búl kisining orys tilinde aitqanyn mysal retinde keltire keteyik. «Y tak uj nas tataramy obzyvayt, hotya na samom dele my bulgary... A bolgary – (Respublika Bolgariya) eto blijayshie rodstvenniky bulgar. Prosto odny ostalisi na Kame, a drugie ushly dalishe, na Dunay, y smeshalisi s ostalinymiy».

Eger biz dәlirek aitar bolsaq, tatarlar dep óz uaqytynda orystar (nemese slavyandar) Úly dalany mekendegen kóshpeli qypshaq taypalaryn, yaghny qazirgi qazaqtardy aitqan. Búl kýngi tatarlar – olar myndaghan jyldar boyy Kama Bolgarlary (nemese Bulgariya), - dep kóneden atalyp kelgen. Búlar Kama ózenining úlan-ghayyr dalasynda tirshilik etken, qala soghyp, bala oqytyp, qolónerin damytyp jәne egin sharuashylyghymen ainalysqan, erteden ózindik mәdeniyeti qalyptasqan qalalyq el-júrt. Bulgarlardyng (endi búdan әri olardy ózderi jazyp jәne aitatynday Bulgar, - dep jazamyz) irgesindegi slavyandardan, bergi jaghyndaghy qypshaqtardan sol kezenderde bilim qughan sauattylyghy men túrmystyq mәdeniyeti shynynda da әldeqayda joghary bolghan.

Al, endi tatarlar degenimiz sonda kimder?

Búl ataumen - slavyandar qanshama ghasyrlar ózderin talay ret tyghyryqqa tirep, qalalary men eldimekenderin tonap ketip otyrghan, adamdaryn qúldyqqa týsirgen kóshpeli ru-taypalaryn ataghan.

Kezinde kәri qytay ózine qanshama ghasyr maza bermegen qalmaq elin «Juun – gar» (qaraqshylar degen maghynada), (keybir ghalymdar búl sózge basqasha maghyna beredi), - dep atasa, kóship-qonyp jýretin ormannan shyqqan Qalqalyq buryattardy «Mon-goll» (malshylar nemese baqtashylar), - dep ataghan. (Degenmen, búghan da týrli joramaldar bar). Europa ghalymdarynyng (tipti, orys oqymystylary da) keyingi ghasyrlardaghy zertteulerining keybir qorytyndylary da osynday. Sol siyaqty slavyandarda bizding kóshpeli ata-babalarymyzdy «tatarlar» dep ýkilegen. Naqtyraghy, talqandaushy, kýizelis әkelushi dýley kýsh degen sóz.

Búl sózding shyghu tarihy – Altyn Orda imperiyasynyng túsynda payda bolghan. Qypshaq-qazaqtardyng úly sardary Batyldyng (orystar búl esimdi – Batyi, kәri qúrlyq eli – Batu dep jazghan) kóne Rusi pen Europagha jasaghan úly joryghynan bastau alghan.

Al, endi tatar atyn iyelenip jýrgen, qazirgi Kama ózeni ólkesin meken etken el kimder?

Búlar erteden osy aimaqta ósip-ónip, tirshilik etip kele jatqan kezindegi Úly Bolgariya memleketining túrghyndary. Eng alghash búl qaghanattyng negizin qalap, úzaq jyldar handyq qúrghan Qúbyrat (Kubrat) han bolatyn. Osy kýngi Tatarystan búl handy bizding memleketimizding alghashqy irgesin kóterushi, Kama jaghalauyn qonys etken bulgar júrtynyng (qazirgi tatarlardyn) úly túlghasy dep biledi. Sol Bolgariya óz uaqytynda qazirgi Ukraina men, Soltýstik Kavkazdyng da aumaghyn alyp jatqan. Keyin dýniyeden ótken song Úly hannyng eki úly taqqa talasyp, syiysa almay, ózderine tiyesili el-júrtty alyp, ekige aiyrylady. Irgesindegi tynymsyz Hazar taypalarynan (kaspiy qypshaqtary) әrdayym soqqy kórip jәne inisining jaulasuynan qúsa bolghan han Asparuh (ýlkeni) elin alyp alysqa jol tartady. Sóitip, Dunay jaghasynan biraq shyghady. Osy jana qonysqa toqtap, Bolgariya memleketining negizin salady (osy kýngi Bolgariya). Al inisi óz ata qonysynda qalyp, Kama Bolgariyasy memleketin qúrady. Yaghni, qazirgi tatar tarihshylarynyng jazatyn Bulgariyasy (olar «O-nyn» ornyna «U» әripin qoldanady). Búl handyqtyng astanasy qazirgi osy eldegi Bulgar qalasy bolghan.

1396 jyly Bulgar qalasy men osy attas memleket Altyn Orda imperiyasynyng soqqysynan tastalqany shyghyp, qiraydy jәne imperiya qúramyna kiredi. Keyin birneshe ghasyr ótken song Bulgar handyghy әzer qalpyna kelip (ordanyng qúramynda bolsada), astanasy bolyp Qazan qalasy belgilenedi. Degenmen, búl qala úzaq uaqyt «Bolgar – ali – Djadiyl» dep atalady. Naqtyraghy «Jana Bulgar» .

Sonymen, búl Bulgar eli, tatarlar dep qalay ataldy?

Osy arada biz azyraq sheginis jasap, qypshaq elin, yaghny aitqanda, Altyn Orda imperiyasyn qúrushy әri biylik jýrgizushi qypshaq júrtyn aita keteyik.

Óz zamanynda irgesindegi «Tatar» dep jalpy týrde atalatyn kóshpeli qypshaq taypalarynan qanshama ghasyr tepki kórip kelgen orta ghasyrdaghy orys elining knyazdyqtary uaqyt óte kele birtindep jinaqtalyp, birige bastady. Búlay etpeyinshe qypshaqtargha bodan júrt bolyp qala beretinin anyq sezdi. Altyn Orda imperiyasyna ýsh jarym ghasyrday baghynyshty bolyp kelgen slavyandar ordanyng ishki tartysyn әrdayym paydalanyp, aqyryndap túrghyndarynyng sanyng ósirip, kýshin jinap, aumaghyn keneytip bodandyqtan eptep bolsada aryla bastady. Orystardyng serpilip, tolyq azattyq alyp ketui, әsirese Samarqan biyleushisi Ámir Temirding túsynan bastalady. Temirding Altyn Ordagha ýsh ret soqqy berip, jeniske jetuinen keyin ordalyqtar búrynghy kýsh – quatynan aiyrylyp, tyghyryqqa tirelgen edi. Sonday-aq, ishki taqqa talasta búlardy mýlde әlsiretip jibergen bolatyn. Aqyry orystar bostandyqqa shyghyp, derbes el boldy. Endi birtindep ózderi kýsheyip, jana ólkelerdi jaulap ala bastady. Dýnie qashanda dóngelek degen osy ghoy. Kezinde ózderi «tatarlar» dep ataytyn (orystardyng týsiniginde qara kýsh) qypshaqtardy yghystyru jәne búlargha qarsy joryqtar úiymdastyru jiyiledi. Kele-kele, kezindegi úlan baytaq  Altyn Orda aumaghynan asyp, tipti, tútas qypshaq taypalarynyng basty tiregi bolyp sanalatyng Oral taulary men Sibir aimaqtaryn tartyp ala bastady. Qypshaq júrtynyng ata qonysy bolyp kelgen Edil men Jayyq aralyghy, Sibirding suly, nuly ólkeleri, ashyghyn aitar bolsaq, Qajy-Tarhan (Astrahani) , Sary tau (Saratov) , Orynbor, Silәm by (Chelyabi, Chelyabinsk), Qorghan, Týmen, Ýrkit (Irkutsk), Bay kól (Baykal), Tong (Tomsk) jәne Omby aimaqtary 16 – 18 ghasyrlar aralyghynda qypshaq- týrkilerden tartyp alyndy. Oisyray útylyp, keri shegingen qypshaq – qazaq taypalarynyng qolynda Tobyl óniri, Qyzyljar atyraby, Kókshetau aimaghy, Torghay dalasy, Saryarqa jazyghy (Jeltaya rovnina)jәne Kaspiyding bergi aumaghy , sonymen hqatar, Altay jәne Jetisu ólkeleri,  Qaratau manayy, Syrdariya, sonday-aq,   Áulie ata ónirleri ghana qaldy. Óz uaqytynda, býkil Euraziya qúrlyghyn ózining iyeliginde ústaghan qalyng qypshaq eli, erteden ata-qonysy bolyp kelgen, kóptegen shúrayly aumaqtardan aiyrylyp qaldy. Búl, әriyne,  syrtqy jaudan góri, kóbinese ishki auyz-birligi joq qyrqystan, baqtalastyqtan edi.

Endi ózimiz sóz etken basty taqyrypqa keleyik.

...Uaqyt óte kele qos qúrlyqqa qanat jayghan Resey imperiyasy ózining qúramyndaghy, kezinde ózine ýstemdigin jýrgizgen aziyalyq kóshpeli taypalardy jalpy ataumen «tatarlar» dep ataghanyn bilemiz. «Tatar», - degen sózding orys úghymynda qanday maghyna beretindigin jogharyda aityp óttik. On toghyzynshy ghasyrdyng basynan bastap Úly dala elin qyrghyzdar dep atady (qazaq ghalymy Sh.Uәlihanovtyng túsynda). Osy ataumen býkil Alash eli bir jarym ghasyr jýrdi. Sol kezdegi orys geografiyalyq qoghamynyng qújattary qyrghyz ataumen jazylyp, Resey biyligining is jýrgizushileri Úly dalamen baylanysyn osy ataumen jýrgizdi. Tek, ótken 20-synshy ghasyrdyng otyzynshy jyldarynyng orta túsynan, últ ziyalylarynyng aralasuymen qazaq atauy halqymyzgha qaytyp oraldy.

Al, qazirgi tatar atalyp otyrghan el, ózining ejelgi memleketining úly atauy Bulgariyany qaytaryp alu ýshin qanshama ghasyr kýres jýrgizdi. 1862 jyly «Kamalyq bulgar músylmandary kenesi» qúrylyp, úzaq jyldar osy ataudy qaytaryp alu ýshin qajymay-talmay әreket etti. 1917 jyldyng mausym aiynda Qazanda tatardyng kórnekti qayratkeri Sadry Maksudy bastaghan osy elding ziyaly qauym ókilderi, jalpy últtyq sezd ótkizip, ózderining búrynghy bulgar atauyn qaytaryp alghan edi. Biraq, Mәskeu biyligi búl ataudy moyyndamay, sezde qabyldanghan qújattargha qol qoymay, keri qaytardy. Tútas bir últqa kýshpen tanylghan bógde atau ózgertusiz sol kýiinde qaldy. Kama jaghalauynyng júrty maqtanyshpen eske alatyn Úly Bulgariya esimi qaytyp oralmady.

Osy arada bizding Álihan Bókeyhanov, Ahmet Baytursynov jәne Sәken Seyfulin bastaghan qazaqtyng auyz toltyryp aitar basqada aqiyq azamattarynyng Kremlidi moyyndatyp, qazaq atauyn elimizge qaytaryp bergenine mynda bir rahmet aituymyz kerek- au.

Qazirgi Tatarlar ózining ata-babasynan kele jatqan qasiyetti Bulgar nemese Bolgar esimin qaytaryp alu ýshin qanshama kóteriliske shyqty. Búl arada bizding aitarymyz, osynau qúdyretti de qasiyetti ataudy qaytaryp alu ýshin olar kóptegen qúrbandyqtargha baryp, tar jol, tayghaq keshti. Ásirese, 1753 jәne 1755 jyldary býkil Kama boyynda, ózining últtyq atauyn qaytaryp alu jóninde orys imperiyasynan tabandy týrde talap etken, qandy kóterilister úiymdastyryldy. Biraq, eshqanday nәtiyje shyqpady. Kezinde Úly daladan bastauyn alghan Batyldyng Rusi pen Europagha jasaghan danqty joryghynan keyin, ózderine masqara bolyp jabysqan «Tatar» atynan Bulgar júrty qútyla almady. 1922 jyly M.Hudyakovtyng «Musulimanskaya kulitura v Srednem Povoljie» atty kitabynda « - Massa sovremennyh kazanskih musuliman y v nastoyashee vremya ne schitaet sebya tatarami, a zavet sebya bolgaramiy»,- dep jazypty. Sonday-aq, 1926 jyly býkil odaqtyq sanaq kezinde, sol kezderde bir jarym millionday bolatyn osy kýngi tatarlar ózderin bolgarlarmyz dep kórsetken eken. Degenmen, tong moyyn Kenes Odaghy olardyng talap-tilegin, ótinishi men súranysyn qanaghattandyrmady.

Tipti, shiyrek ghasyr búranghy M.S.Gorbachevtyng qayta qúru reformasy túsynda da , dәlirek aitqanda 1989 jyly Tatarystan biyligi men tatar júrty qaytadan ózining tól atauy Bulgariyany qaytaryp alu ýshin, sol kezdegi Kenes Odaghynyng Ortalyq komiytetine (SK KPSS) myndaghan adamnyng qolyn qoyyp, Bolgar nemese Bulgar esimin qaytaryp beruge hat joldaydy. Degenmen, búl jolyda ortalyq biylik últ súranysyn eskerusiz qaldyrdy.

Tútas el-júrttyng qanshama ghasyr ókinishine ainalghan «Tatar» atauyn alyp tastau sózbúidagha salynyp әli keledi. Olar Bulgar esimin moynyndaghy túmarynday qadyr-qúdyret tútady.

Óz uaqytynda, Altyn Orda imperiyasyn qúrghan qypshaq-qazaqtardyng úly sardary Batyldyng joryghynan keyin, ózderine pәle bolyp jabysqan osy ataumen úzaq ghasyrlar boyy atalyp kele jatsada, búl el ózining tili men dәstýrin, dini men (ótken jyly búl tatar eli ózderining músylman dinin qabyldaghanyna 1100 jyl tolghandyghyn dýrkiretip  atap ótti ) salt-sanasyn jәne әdebin  men әdetin joghaltpay, últ retinde saqtalyp keledi.

Beysenghazy Úlyqbek,

Qazaqstan Jurnalister Odaghynyng mýshesi.

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