Beysenbi, 18 Tamyz 2022
Alashorda 4910 0 pikir 18 Qarasha, 2021 saghat 17:24

Qostanayda jazylghan qoljazba (jalghasy)

Basy: Ahmet Baytúrsynúlynyng Qostanayda jazylghan qoljazbasy tabyldy

BASPASÓZ TANYSTYRGhAN TAMYRLYQ

...Álqissa, halyq múghalimi A.Baytúrsynúly Ombygha A.Alektorovtyng shaqyruymen attanady. Olar Ombyda biri - halyq mektepterining diyrektory, ekinshisi - diyrektordyng isjýrgizushisi bolyp qyzmet etedi. Búlardyng tanystyghy alghashqyda merzimdi baspa betindegi maqalalar arqyly bastalsa kerek. A. Alektorov kóp jyldar boyy «Orenburgskiy listok», «Astrahanskiy vestniyk», «Moskovskie vedomostiy», «Turgayskaya gazeta» t.b. merzimdi baspalarda qazaq foliklory men etnografiyasy, tarihy turaly maqalalaryn jii jariyalap túrdy. Búghan qosa, ol qazaq shәkirtterine arnalghan «Danalyqqa baspaldaq. Orys-qazaq bastauysh mektepterining oqushylaryna arnalghan әlipbi» (1891), «Qyrghyz-orys sózdigi» (1897), «Qyrghyz hrestomatiyasy» (1898) syndy  birneshe oqulyqtar men sózdikter jazady.

1895 jyly Aqtóbe uezi Bestamaq bolysyndaghy Arynghaziyev mektebinde ústazdyq qyzmet atqarghan jýrgen A.Baytúrsynúlynyng «Turgayskaya gazetanyn» № 39 sanynda «Kirgizskie priymety y poslovisy» atty tyrnaqaldy tuyndysy jaryq kóredi. Etnografiyalyq tuyndynyng sony ayaqtalatyn betke A.Alektorovtyng «Qúrmanbay» atty maqalasy jariyalanady (1suret).

1 suret. A.Alektorovtyng 1895 jyly «Turgayskaya gazetanyn» №39 sanynda jariyalaghan «Qúrmanbay» atty maqalasy.

Maqalada A.Alektorov Qostanay uezi Kenaral bolysynyng Qaraghayly ormanyn qystaytyn Qúrmanbay atty әnshi-aqynnyng talanty turaly tebirine jazady. Ásirese, onyng «Ógiz» atty әndi januargha tәn týrli dybystardy salyp oryndauyn tandana әri tamsana jazady. Sózding reti kelgende aita ketuimiz kerek, býgingi tanda Qúrmanbay әnshi turaly Qostanay ónirinde mardymdy mәlimet joq. Bәlkim, bizding osy keltirgen deregimizden keyin әldebir mәlimetter payda bolady ma dep ýmittenemiz. «Ýmitsiz tek shaytan» demeytin be edi halqymyz?!

1896 jyly A.Baytúrsynúly «Turgayskaya gazetada» Bestamaq bolysyndaghy sheshekke qarsy ekpe egu júmysyna qatysty maqala jazyp, qazaq arasyndaghy sharlatan baqsy-balgerlerding nadandyqtan tuyndaghan emdik isterin syngha alady (Marhabbat: https://egemen.kz/article/251902-bestamaqta-dgazylghan-beymalim-maqala-akhmet-baytursynulynynh-taghy-bir-maqalasy).

A.Alektorov te baqsylyq turaly enbek jazghan. Onyng baqsy emshiligi turaly jazylghan etnografiyalyq enbegi 1899 jyly ol Qazan uniyversiytetining baspahanasynan jariyalanady. Ol enbek «Qyrghyz yrymdary әleminen. Baqsy» dep atalady. Múnda ol Torghay uezi Qaratoghay bolysynyng №1 aulynda sol ónirge belgili Sýiembay baqsymen kezdeskeni turaly jazady. Avtor baqsylyq oiynnyng qyr-syryn bayanday kele, Sýiembaygha baqsylyq qasiyetting qalay qonghanyn jәne onyng nauqasty emdegen oqighasyn tәpishtep jazady.

Qazaq foliklory men etnografiyasyna qatysty zertteushilik, tanymdyq maqalalar jariyalap, oqu-aghartushylyq baghytty ústanghan qos túlgha baspasóz arqyly birin-biri syrttay tanyp, sonyng negizinde qúrmet pen syilastyq shenberin qúra bilgen dep oilaymyz.

QOSTANAY – JANA ÁKIMShILIK ORTALYQ

Tarihtan belgili, 1868 jyly patsha ýkimeti Orynbor men Ombydan basqarylatyn Qazaq dalasyn 4 oblysqa bóledi. Orynborgha qaraytyn ólke Oral jәne Torghay oblysy bolyp bólinse, Ombygha qaraytyn aimaqtan Aqmola, Semey oblystary jasaqtalady. Torghay oblysy 4 uezden qúraldy (2 suret):

2 suret. Torghay oblysynyng uezderi men ortalyqtary.

1883-84 jyldary Torghay oblysynyng Elek pen Nikolaevsk uezderinde eleuli ózgerister bolady. Ken oryndaryna bay, shúrayly Elek uezining taghdyry mýldem basqasha sipat alady. Ol qazaq jeri degen mәrtebeden aiyrylady. Patsha әkimshiligi orys júrty tyghyz qonystanghan atalmysh uezding jerin, halyq sanyn syltau etip, Orynbor guberniyasyna qosady. Uezd ortalyghy Aqtóbe auystyrylyp, atauy da ózgeredi. Elek uezinde Y.Altynsarinnyng inspektorlyq qyzmeti túsynda ashylghan Bórte orys-qazaq mektebi jana ortalyq - Aqtóbege qonys audarady.

Al Nikolaevsk uezinening ortalyghy kezinde «Aziyamen sauda-sattyq ortalyghy» dep tanylghan Troiskiden Novonikolaevskige kóshiriledi. Uezge tiyisti memlekettik mekemeler jana әkimshilik ortalyqqa auystyrylady. 1861 jyly Shekaralyq komissiyanyng tóraghasy V.Grigorievting tikeley qoldauymen ashylghan Troisk orys-qazaq mektebi de Qostanaygha kóshirilip, Y.Altynsarinnyng qadaghalauymen әldeyilep salynghan jana ghimaratqa ornalasady (Marhabbat: https://abai.kz/post/138848 ).

Sol jyldary Torghay oblysy halyq mektepterining túnghysh inspektory Y.Altynsarin Torghaydan tughan jeri Tobylgha kóship, Qostanay qalasynyng irgesinen 3 verst qashyqtyqta ornalasqan shúrayly týbekke ýi-jay, qora-qopsy salyp qonystanady (Marhabbat: https://www.abai.kz/post/137404 )

Torghay oblysyndaghy oqu inspektory lauazymynyng әkimshilik qyzmet ornynyng Qostanay qalasynda oryn tebui osy kezennen bastap ornyghady. Y.Altynsarinnen keyin inspektor bolghan A.Vasiliev te, ony 1894 jyly auystyrghan A.Alektorov te inspektorlyq qyzmet túsynda Qostanaydy túraqty meken etkeni bayqalady.

Oblys mektepteri inspektorlaryn Qostanayda túraqtandyru sheshimining ózindik obiektivti negizi bar bolatyn. Óitkeni uezge aghylghan perselenderding nópiri orys poseleniyeleri men men selolaryn tez kóbeytip, mektepke degen súranysty artyrady. Onyng ýstine 1892 jyldan bastap qazaq auyldarynda bastauysh mektep ashu isi qarqyn alady. Tez kóbeyip jatqan mektepterge múghalim dayyndau maqsatynda 1897 jyly Qostanayda Pedagogikalyq klass ashylady. Osy isterding tikeley basy-qasynda bolu ýshin oqu inspektory lauazymyn atqarghan kisilerge Qostanay qolayly boldy. Búghan qosa, patsha әkimshiligi Torghay oblysynyng ortalyghy etip Qostanay qalasyn bekitpek bolady. Sol ýshin oblystyng basshy lauazymyna, yaghny әskeriy-gubernatoryna arnalghan әkimshilik ghimarat dayyndau turaly núsqau da shyghady. Biraq patsha ýkimeti búl sheshimdi jýzege asyrudan tez bas tartady. Sebebi Qostanaydy Torghay oblysynyng jana ortalyghy etip bekitse, ony bolashaqta Orynbor guberniyasynyng territoriyasyna qosyp alu mәselesi kýrdelene týsetini anyq edi. Shamasy, әkimshilik Qostanay uezindegi pereselenderding kóbeye týsuin kýtken syndy. Osylaysha, Torghay oblysynyng ortalyghyn Qostanaygha qaray jyljytu iydeyasy ózektiliginen aiyrylyp, oblystyng ortalyghy Orynborda qalady.

1905 jyldan bastap patsha aghzamnyng baq-taghy «shayqala» bastaydy. 1917 jyldan keyingi alasapyran, azamat soghysy tútanghan aumaly-tókpeli kezende Qostanay óniri Chelyabi uezine qosylady. 1920 jyly Qazaq avtonomiyasy qúrylghan kezde Á.Bókeyhan, A.Baytúrsynúly bastaghan Alash azamattary Qostanay uezin Qazaqstangha qaytaryp alady.

1897 jyldan bastap Aqtóbe uezining Bestamaq bolysynan Qostanay uezindegi Áuliyekól, Mendiqara bolystaryndaghy auyldyq mektepterde ústazdyq etken A.Baytúrsynúly keyinirek Qostanay qalasyndaghy Pedagogikalyq klasta oqytushylyq qyzmetti qatar atqarady (Marhabbat: https://abai.kz/post/141284).

A. Alektorovtyng Qostanaydy meken etken túsy, Baytúrsynúlynyng Qostanaygha kelui - әu bastan bir-birin baspasóz arqyly syrttay tanityn - eki túlghanyng bir-birimen kenirek әri terenirek tanysuyna keng jol ashyp, ol qarym-qatynas tamyrlyqqa úlasady. Qazaq tili men túrmys-tirshiligi, tarihymen, mentalidik erekshelikterimen jaqsy tanys ghalym túlgha A.Alektorov Torghay oblysy halyq mektepterining inspektory qyzmetine taghayyndalghangha deyin Astrahani guberniyasynyng jәne Bókey Ordasynyng oqu inspektory qyzmetterinde bolyp qazaq balalaryna arnalghan oqu isterin úiymdastyruda kóp tәjiriybe jinaqtaghan edi. Búl túrghyda olardyng pikir-tanymdary bir-birine jaqyn bolady.

HIH ghasyrdyng songhy shiyregi HH ghasyrdyng bas kezindegi otarlau sayasatyn jýzege asyrudan tuyndaghan migrasiyalyq jәne әleumettik kýrdeli ýrdister jýrgen Qostanay qalasy qos túlghagha bolashaqta tize qosyp qyzmet atqaratyn jana kezenge jol ashady.

QOSTANAYDAN OMBYGhA

1868 jyly qúrylghan tórt oblystyng ishinde Torghay oblysynyng oqu-aghartu isi qarqyndy damidy. Ásirese, 1892 jyldan bastap kóshpeli túrmysqa qolayly auyldyq mektepterdi kóptep ashu tәjiriybesi Qazaq dalasynyng ózge aimaqtarynyng da nazaryn audaryp, qyzyghushylyghyn tudyra bastaydy. Auyl mektepterining júmys tәjiriybesi merzimdi baspa betinde de talqylanady. Oblysqa tiyisti «Turgayskie oblastnye vedomosti» men onyng jeksenbilik qosymshasy «Turgayskaya gazetany» bylay qoyghanda, Ombydan shyghatyn Aqmola oblystyq «Dala ualayaty gazetasy» Torghay ónirinde oqu-aghartu isinde atqarylyp jatqan iygi isti ýlgi etip jazady. Aytalyq, «Dala ualayaty gazetasynyn» 1896 jylghy №20 sanynda kóshpeli auyl mektepterining qazaqy túrmys-tirshilikke qolayly ekendigi erekshe yqylaspen atalyp ótedi. «Búrynghy uaqytta, - deydi basylym, - qazaq balalary auyldan, tuysqanynan ketip, otyryqshy eldi mekenderdegi internatta oqushy edi. Baratyn jerleri ýsheu-aq (shamasy, Torghay, Yrghyz, Qostanay qalalary bolsa kerek - avtor), al oblys kólemine bes Fransiya siyady. Qazaqtar mektepke ýrke qarady. Olardy «Qasynda tuysqany joq jas balalar orys ishinde ósip shoqynyp ketedi ghoy» dep moldalar da qorqytatyn. Qazaqtardyng ótinishi boyynsha, bes jyl búryn kóshpeli mektepter ashylyp edi, Torghay oblysy oqu isinde algha ozyp ketti. Qazaq qauymy medrese ústap túruyna, saluyna aqsha shygharyp, qaysy bir kisiler de kóp-kóp qylyp óz janynan qarajat berip jatyr. Búl kýnde kóshpeli medrese joq auyl siyrek kezdesedi».

Júrttyng yqylas-peyilin audarghan iske Dala gubernatory da kónil audaryp, Halyq aghartu minisistrligine Aqmola, Semey oblystaryndaghy auyl mektepterining júmystaryn úiymdastyryp, ony jolgha qoyatyn lauazymdyq shtat ashudy súraydy. Gubernatordyng ótinishi ministrlik tarapynan qoldau tauyp, Halyq aghartu ministrligining Bastauysh mektepter júmystary jónindegi departamenti 1901 jyldyng 16 qarashasynda Batys Sibir oqu okrugining basshysyna (popechiyteline) arnayy hat joldaydy. Onda Aqmola jәne Semey oblystary auyl mektepterining júmysyn úiymdastyru ýshin halyq mektepteri diyrektory lauazymy shtatyn ashu mәselesi qarastyrylatynyn jәne oghan Bókey Ordasy men Torghay oblysy halyq mektepterining inspektory bolghan Stas kenesshi A.Alektorovtyng kandidaturasy layyq ekendigin jazady (3 suret):

3 suret. Halyq aghartu ministrligining Batys Sibir oqu okrugining basshysyna jazghan hatynan ýzindi.

1902 jyldyng qantar aiynda Óndiris, ghylym, sauda departamenti Memlekettik kenesining (kenes óndiris pen sauda, aghartu salasyna qatysty zang jobalary men budjetten bólinetin qarjyny, aksionerlik qoghamdardyng jarghysy men temirjol mәselelerin talqylaytyn baqylau organy - avtor) jalpy jinalysynda Halyq aghartu ministrligining Omby gimnaziyasy diyrektoryn Aqmola men Semey oblystarynyng auyl mektepterin baqylau mindetinen bosatyp, Aqmola jәne Semey oblystary halyq mektepteri diyrektory men onyng janyna isjýrgizushi lauazymyn belgileu turaly úsynysyn bekitedi (4 suret):

4 suret. Halyq aghartu ministrligining Aqmola jәne Semey oblystarynyng halyq mektepteri diyrektory men isjýrgizushi lauazymyn bekitu turaly hatynan ýzindi.

Halyq mektepteri diyrektorynyng lauazymyna jyl sayyn qazynadan 3400 rub. qarjy bekitu kózdelse, isjýrgizushilikke 1900 jyldyng 24 mamyrynda bekitilgen jarlyq boyynsha jalaqy tóleu úsynyladyi. 1902 jyldyng 7 qantarynda Imperator Memlekettik kenesting sheshimin bekitedi. A.Alektorov pen A.Baytúrsynúlynyng bolashaqtaghy qyzmet oryndary ortalyq organdardyng isjýrgizu ainalymynda osylaysha aiqyndalady.

1902 jyldyng 23 qantarynda Halyq aghartu ministrligi aghartu departamentining viyse-diyrektory Deboliskiy Batys Sibir oqu okrugining basshysy Lavrentievke Alektorovtyng kandidaturasyn qúptaytynyn bilu maqsatynda jedel hat joldaydy (5 suret):

5 suret. Halyq aghartu ministrligining aghartu departamentining viyse-diyrektory Deboliskiyding Batys Sibir oqu okrugining basshysyna joldaghan jedelhaty.

Oghan Laverentiev sol kýni-aq Alektorovty bekitu óte qajet dep jauap joldaydy (6 suret):

6 suret. Batys Sibir oqu okrugi basshysynyn  Halyq aghartu ministrligi aghartu departamentining viyse-diyrektory Deboliskiyge jazghan jauaby.

1902 jyldyng 4 nauryzynda A.Alektorov jana lauazymgha bekitiledi. Búl Batys Sibir okrugining ókimderi tirkeletin jurnaldyng 22 sәuir kýnindegi jazbasyna týsken (7 suret):

7 suret. Batys Sibir oqu okrugining ókimderi tirkelgen  jurnaldyng jazbasynan ýzindi.

1902 jyldyng 17 sәuirinde A.Alektorov Qostanay qalasynan Batys Sibir oqu okrugining basshysyna jedelhat joldaydy. Onda ol Dala general gubernatorynan jana qyzmetke bekitilgeni turaly telegramma arqyly hat alghanyn, biraq óz qolyna әli búiryqtyng jetpegenin habarlaydy (8 suret):

8 suret. A.Alektorovtyng Qostanay qalasynan Batys Sibir oqu okrugining basshysyna  joldaghan jedelhaty.

Búl jedelhatqa Lavrentiev sol kýni búiryqtyng shyqqany turaly jәne onyng qyzmetke jedel týrde kelui tiyis ekenin jazyp jauap joldaydy (9 suret):

9 suret. Batys Sibir oqu okrugining basshysy Lavrentievting Alektorovqa jauap jazghan jedelhaty.

A.Alektorov jedelhatty alysymen Batys Sibir oqu okrugining basshysyna atqaryp jýrgen qyzmetining isqaghazdaryn tapsyryp, jana qyzmetke kelu ýshin 10 kýn uaqyt beruin súrap hat joldaydy. Hattyng jazu mәneri A.Baytúrsynúlynyng kalligrafiyasyna dәlme-dәl úqsaytynyn bayqaymyz (10 suret):

10 suret. A.Alektorovtyn  Batys Sibir oqu okrugining basshysyna jazghan haty.

Osy aralyqta, yaghny Lavrentievten habar jetken son, A.Alektorov A.Baytúrsynúlyn Aqmola jәne Semey oblysy halyq mektepteri diyrektorynyng isjýrgizushisi qyzmetine alu turaly Batys Sibir oqu okrugynyng basshysyna ótinish jazady. Ol ótinishti biz maqalamyzdyng alghashqy bóliginde taldaghan bolatynbyz (Marhabbat: https://abai.kz/post/141284)

Torghay oblysy halyq mektepterining inspektory júmysyn tapsyrghan A.Alektorov 1902 jyldyng 1 mamyr kýni Ombygha keledi. Ol jana qyzmetke jalghyz kelmeydi, qasynda tamyr-dosy, isjýrgizushi A.Baytúrsynúly bolady. Búl oqighanyng shyn bolghanyna A.Baytúrsynúlynyng 1904 jyly Omby qalasynan Ishki ister ministrligine Torghay oblysy túrghyny retindegi salyqtan bosatu turaly jazghan ótinishinde «1902 jyldyng 1 mamyrynan bastap memlekettik qyzmetke kiristim» (Marhabbat: https://abai.kz/post/132530) dep jazuy – sózimizding dәleli (11 suret):

11 suret. A.Baytúrsynúlynyng 1904 jyly Omby qalasynan  Ishki ister ministrine jazghan ótinishinen ýzindi.

Osylaysha A.Baytúrsynúlynyng ghúmyrnamasyndaghy jana kezeng - Omby-Qarqaraly kezeni bastalady. Ombyda A.Baytúrsynúly Alash kósemi Álihan Bókeyhanmen tyghyz baylanysyp, onyng qolyndaghy hәkim Abaydyng qoljazba ólenderimen tanysady. Búl turaly ol ózining 1913 jyly «Qazaq» gazetinde jariyalaghan «Qazaqtyng bas aqyny» dep atalatyn maqalasynda bylaysha eske alady: «1903-shi jyly qolyma Abay sózderi jazylghan dәpter týsti. Oqyp qarasam, basqa aqyndardyng sózindey emes...».

Á.Bókeyhan Baytúrsynúlynyng aqyndyq talantyna tәnti bolyp, onyng IY.Krylovtan audarghan mysal ólenderin baspa betinen jariyalaugha kómektesedi. Búl tústa ol N.Potaninnen kómek súraydy jәne oghan A.Baytúrsynúlynyng boyynda aqyndyqpen qosa suretshilik talant bar ekendigin, biraq ony әri qaray kәsiby túrghydan úshtau joqshylyq әserinen jýzege aspay qalghanyna qynjylady (Marhabbat: Súltan Han Aqqúly. «Qyryq mysal» jinaghy. «Tar jol tayghaq keshken» tariyh: https://abai.kz/post/132972 ).

1909 jyly aqynnyng audarmalary «Qyryq mysal» atty ataumen Peterborda jariyalanady. Sol jyly Abaydyn, M.Dulatúlynyng ólender jinaghy da jaryqqa shyghady. Búl iygi isterge janashyr bolghan, ony úiymdastyrghan, tikeley qolghabys tiygizgen Á.Bókeyhan ekendigi búl kýnde bizge anyq.

Omby qalasynda negizi qalanghan qos túlghasynyng dostyghy búdan arghy ghúmyrnamalyq bel-belesterde kezdesken kýrdeli, qiyn-qystau kezenderde shyndalyp, tamyryn terenge jayyp, jayqalyp ósip, Alash azamattarynyng qazaq júrtyn otarshyldyq qamytynan azat etu jolyndaghy kýreskerlik is-әreketterining ón boyynda jelbiregen bayraqty jalaudyng rәmizindey mazmúngha ie boldy...

Almasbek Ábsadyq,

filologiya ghylymdarynyng doktory, A.Baytúrsynúly atyndaghy ónirlik uniyversiytetting professsory.

Maqala QR BGhM Ghylym komiytetining 2020-2022 jyldargha arnalghan granttyq qarjylandyruyna ie bolghan «A. Baytúrsynúlynyng auyldyq mektepterdegi aghartushylyq jәne qoghamdyq qyzmeti (jana arhivtik derekter men ólketanushylyq maghlúmattar, túlghanyng tynnan tabylghan shygharmalary negizinde)» atty Joba negizinde dayyndaldy.

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